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2.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108225, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352667

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits after an index admission have been become a quality measure due to associations with poor outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Readmissions and ED encounters have been studied in a variety of conditions including epilepsy but have not been examined exclusively in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). In this study we examined the rate of readmissions and ED visits after a discharge from an Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) in a safety net hospital. We also determined patient phenotypes that are associated with readmissions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review study with index admission being a discharge from an EMU between January 1 and December 31 2016 with follow-up until August 31 2020. We obtained data regarding demographics, medical and psychiatric history, and social history and treatment interventions. Our outcome variables were both all-cause and seizure-related hospital readmissions and ED visits 30 days following the index discharge and readmissions and ED visits 30 days thereafter. RESULTS: Eleven of 122 patients (9%) had a non-seizure-related ED visit and/or hospitalization within 30 days of index discharge while 45 (37%) had re-contact with the health system thereafter for non-seizure-related issues. Seven of 122 patients (6%) had a seizure-related ED visit or hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. Twenty-eight (23%) had a seizure-related readmission or ED visit after 30 days. Of these 28, 4 patients had been to an ER within 7 days of EMU discharge. The majority of subsequent encounters with the healthcare system were through the ED (n = 38) as compared to hospital (n = 10) and EMU readmissions (n = 9). On bivariate statistical analysis, charity or self-pay insurance status (p < 0.01), homelessness (p < 0.01), emergent EMU admission on index admission (p < 0.01), history of a psychiatric diagnosis (p < 0.02), and ED encounters 12 months prior to admission (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with readmission; however, on multivariate analysis only charity insurance status was a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of readmissions and ED visits after discharge with a diagnosis of PNES at a safety net hospital, we found a seizure-related readmission rate of approximately 6% in 30 days and 23% thereafter with the majority of re-contact with the hospital being in the ED. On multi-variate analysis insurance status was a significant factor associated with readmission and ED visits. Our future research directions include examining referrals and treatment completion at the hospital's PNES clinic as well as creating a risk score to better identify patients with PNES at risk of readmission.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Readmissão do Paciente , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/terapia
4.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106673, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082393

RESUMO

The Intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT), also called Wada test, is considered the "gold standard" for lateralizing language dominance in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. In addition, it has been further modified to assess the postoperative risk of amnesia in patients undergoing temporal lobectomy. Since then it has been utilized to lateralize language and assess pre-surgical memory function. Over the years, its popularity has declined due to several limitations and availability of alternative procedures like fMRI and MEG. A survey of its use in the pre-surgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery has not been performed since the 2008 international survey by Baxendale et al. and it was heavily skewed due to data from European and North American countries. Only approximately 12% of the epilepsy centers indicated that they used the Wada test in every patient to assess preoperative memory function and language lateralization before temporal lobectomy. Nowadays, we have many functional mapping tools at our disposal. It has become somewhat unsuitable to have epilepsy patients undergo an invasive test such as the Wada test for the risks associated with it outweigh the benefits. Our objective is to review the Wada Test and alternative methods of assessing language and memory dominance, as it is past its prime and should only be used in specific circumstances.

5.
Neurodiagn J ; 61(2): 95-103, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110971

RESUMO

Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the state of Texas-limited elective procedures to conserve beds and personal protective equipment (PPE); therefore, between March 22 and May 18, 2020, admission to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was limited only to urgent and emergent cases. We evaluated clinical characteristics and outcomes of these patients who were admitted to the EMU. Nineteen patients were admitted (one patient twice) with average age of 36.26 years (11 female) and average length of stay 3 days (range: 2-9 days). At least one event was captured on continuous EEG (cEEG) and video monitoring in all 20 admissions (atypical in one). One patient had both epileptic (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) while 10 had PNES and 9 had ES. In 8 of 9 patients with ES, medications were changed, while in 5 patients with PNES, anti-epileptic drugs (AED) were stopped; the remaining 5 were not on medications. Of the 14 patients who had seen an epileptologist pre-admission, 13 (or 93%) had their diagnosis confirmed by EMU stay; a statistically significant finding. While typically an elective admission, in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, urgent and emergent EMU admissions were required for increased seizure or event frequency. In the vast majority of patients (13 of 19), admission lead to medication changes to either better control seizures or to change therapeutics as appropriate when PNES was identified.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Epilepsia , Hospitalização/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.

7.
Epilepsy Behav Rep ; 15: 100441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898964

RESUMO

Purpose: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) usually responds well to surgical treatment, although in non-lesional cases up to 50% of patients experience seizure relapse. The possibility of bilateral independent seizure onset should be considered as a reason for epilepsy surgery failure. Methods: In a cohort of 177 patients who underwent invasive presurgical evaluation with stereo-tactically placed electrodes in two level four epilepsy centers, 29 had non-lesional MTLE. Invasive evaluation results are described. Results: Among 29 patients with non-lesional MRI and mesial temporal lobe seizure onset recorded during stereo-EEG (SEEG) evaluation, four patients with unilateral preimplantation hypothesis had independent bilateral mesial temporal seizures on SEEG despite of unilateral non-invasive evaluation data. Three of these patients were treated with bitemporal responsive neurostimulator system (RNS). Independent bilateral mesial temporal seizures have been confirmed on RNS ECoG (electrocorticography). The fourth patient underwent right anterior temporal lobectomy. Conclusion: We propose that patients with non-lesional mesial temporal lobe epilepsy would benefit from bilateral invasive evaluation of mesial temporal structures to predict those patients who would be at most risk for surgical failure. Neurostimulaiton could be an initial treatment option for patients with independent bitemporal seizure onset.

10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2438-2446, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523364

RESUMO

AIMS: National studies have demonstrated disparities in the treatment and survival of pancreatic cancer patients based on socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to identify specific differences in perioperative management and outcomes based on patient SES and to study the role of a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) in mitigating any variations. METHODS: The study analyzed patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a large hospital system. The patients were categorized into groups of high and low SES and whether they were managed by the authors' pancreatic cancer MDC or not. The study compared differences in disease characteristics, receipt of multimodality therapy, perioperative outcomes, and recurrence-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 162 low-SES patients and 119 high-SES patients, 54% were managed in the MDC. Outside the MDC, low-SES patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had less minimally invasive surgery, a longer OR time, less enhanced recovery participation, and more major complications (p < 0.05). No SES disparities were observed among the MDC patients. Despite similar tumor characteristics, the low-SES patients had inferior median overall survival (21 vs 32 months; p = 0.005), but the MDC appeared to eliminate this disparity. Low SES correlated with inferior survival for the non-MDC patients (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001), but not for the MDC patients (24 vs 25 months; p = 0.33). These findings persisted in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: A pancreatic cancer MDC standardizes treatment decisions, eliminates disparities in surgical outcomes, and improves survival for low-SES patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Classe Social
11.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of pancreaticobiliary pathology following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) poses significant technical challenges. Laparoscopic-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (LA-ERCP) can overcome those anatomical hurdles, allowing access to the papilla. Our aims were to analyze our 12-year institutional outcomes and determine the learning curve for LA-ERCP. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases between 2007 and 2019 at a high-volume pancreatobiliary unit was performed. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of specific outcomes. To identify the learning curve, CUSUM analyses and innovative methods for standardizing the surgeon's timelines were performed. RESULTS: 131 patients underwent LA-ERCP (median age 60, 81% females) by 17 surgeons and 10 gastroenterologists. Cannulation of the papilla was achieved in all cases. Indications were choledocholithiasis (78%), Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction/Papillary stenosis (18%), management of bile leak (2%) and stenting/biopsy of malignant strictures (2%). Median total, surgical and ERCP times were 180, 128 and 48 min, respectively, and 47% underwent concomitant cholecystectomy. Surgical site infection developed in 9.2% and post-ERCP pancreatitis in 3.8%. Logistic regression revealed multiple abdominal operations and magnitude of BMI decrease (between RYGB and LA-ERCP) to be predictive of conversion to open approach. CUSUM analysis of operative time demonstrated a learning curve at case 27 for the surgical team and case 9 for the gastroenterology team. On binary cut analysis, 3-5 cases per surgeon were needed to optimize operative metrics. CONCLUSION: LA-ERCP is associated with high success rates and low adverse events. We identify outcome benchmarks and a learning curve for new adopters of this increasingly performed procedure.

14.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 94(1): 160-168.e3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) use was required while performing aerosol-generating procedures. We studied the physiologic effects of N95 FFR use in a cohort of gastroenterologists performing simulated colonoscopies. METHODS: Data collection and comparisons included (1) symptoms and change in vital signs in 12 gastroenterologists performing simulated colonoscopy for 60 minutes while wearing a surgical mask (SM) and faceshield (FS); N95 FFR, SM, and FS; and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) and (2) respiratory belt plethysmography and continuous electrocardiographic frequency-based heart rate (HR) variability indices including very low frequency power (measures intracardiac sympathetic tone) and low frequency to high frequency ratios (intracardiac sympathetic to vagal ratio) in 11 gastroenterologists performing simulated colonoscopy while wearing an SM (15 minutes), N95 FFR and SM (60 minutes), and SM (15 minutes) in rapid sequence. RESULTS: Ten of 12 gastroenterologists (83%) reported symptoms with N95 FFR use, most commonly breathing difficulty, frustration, fatigue, and headache. Nine of these gastroenterologists (75%) had associated significant HR elevation. Respiratory peak to trough measurement showed a significant increase (F(2) = 7.543, P = .004) during the N95 FFR stage, which resolved after removal of the N95 FFR. Although not statistically different, all gastroenterologists showed a decrease in sympathetic to vagal ratios and an increase in intracardiac sympathetic effects in the N95 FFR stage. PAPR use was better tolerated but was associated with headache and elevated HR in 4 gastroenterologists (33%). CONCLUSIONS: N95 FFR use by gastroenterologists is associated with development of acute physiologic changes and symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenterologistas , Respiradores N95 , Exposição Ocupacional , Colonoscopia , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been an ongoing challenge. Several limitations have been encountered when employing current grading systems for residual tumor. Considering endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) represents a sensitive imaging technique for PDAC, differences in tumor size between preoperative EUS and postoperative pathology after neoadjuvant therapy were hypothesized to represent an improved marker of treatment response. METHODS: For 340 treatment-naïve and 365 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs, EUS and pathologic findings were analyzed and correlated with patient overall survival (OS). A separate group of 200 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs served as a validation cohort for further analysis. RESULTS: Among treatment-naïve PDACs, there was a moderate concordance between EUS imaging and postoperative pathology for tumor size (r = 0.726, P < .001) and AJCC 8th edition T-stage (r = 0.586, P < .001). In the setting of neoadjuvant therapy, a decrease in T-stage correlated with improved 3-year OS rates (50% vs 31%, P < .001). Through recursive partitioning, a cutoff of ≥47% tumor size reduction was also found to be associated with improved OS (67% vs 32%, P < .001). Improved OS using a ≥47% threshold was validated using a separate cohort of neoadjuvant-treated PDACs (72% vs 36%, P < .001). By multivariate analysis, a reduction in tumor size by ≥47% was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The difference in tumor size between preoperative EUS imaging and postoperative pathology among neoadjuvant-treated PDAC patients is an important prognostic indicator and may guide subsequent chemotherapeutic management.

17.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of UDD in IPMNs. BACKGROUND: The uncinate process of the pancreas has an independent ductal drainage system. International consensus guidelines of IPMNs still consider it as a branch-duct, even though it is the main drainage system for the uncinate process. METHODS: A retrospective review of all surgically treated IPMNs at our institution after 2008 was performed. Preoperative radiological studies were reviewed by an abdominal radiologist who was blinded to the pathological results. In addition to the Fukuoka criteria, presence of UDD was recorded. Using multivariate analysis, the pathological significance of UDD in predicting advanced neoplasia [high grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma (HGD/IC)] was determined. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty patients were identified (mean age at diagnosis was 68 years and 49% were females): 122 (47%) had HGD/IC. UDD was noted in 59 (23%), of which 36 (61%) had HGD/IC (P < 0.003). On multivariate analysis, UDD was an independent predictor of HGD/IC (odds ratio = 2.99, P < 0.04). Subgroup analysis on patients with IPMNs confined to the dorsal portion of the gland (n = 161), also demonstrated UDD to be a significant predictor of HGD/IC in those remote lesions (odds ratio: 4.41, P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to evaluate the significance of UDD in IPMNs and shows it to be a high-risk feature. This association persisted for remote IPMNs limited to the dorsal pancreas, suggesting UDD may be associated with an aggressive phenotype even in remote IPMN lesions.

18.
Clin Pract ; 10(3): 1242, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072247

RESUMO

Cell therapy, along with intensive rehabilitation has been shown to significantly improve outcomes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), in addition to standard therapy. We present a 40-years-old male ALS patient, suffering for the past four years, who underwent multiple doses of cell therapy at our institution. Along with riluzole treatment and lithium co-administration, his treatment involved multiple intrathecal transplants of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, followed by multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation. The outcome measures of ALSFunctional Rating Scale Revised score remained stable, and importantly, Six Minute Walk Test distance improved from 475.2 m to 580.8 m, over a span of 16 months. Improved outcomes are indicative of slowing down of disease progression. Multiple doses of intrathecal autologous cell therapy along with rehabilitation and lithium, in addition to standard riluzole treatment is a novel approach for decelerating disease progression and qualitatively improving living conditions for ALS patients and their caregivers.

20.
Epilepsy Curr ; 20(5): 316-324, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942901

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the delivery of care to people with epilepsy (PWE) in multiple ways including limitations on in-person contact and restrictions on neurophysiological procedures. To better study the effect of the pandemic on PWE, members of the American Epilepsy Society were surveyed between April 30 and June 14, 2020. There were 366 initial responses (9% response rate) and 337 respondents remained for analysis after screening out noncompleters and those not directly involved with clinical care; the majority were physicians from the United States. About a third (30%) of respondents stated that they had patients with COVID-19 and reported no significant change in seizure frequency. Conversely, one-third of respondents reported new onset seizures in patients with COVID-19 who had no prior history of seizures. The majority of respondents felt that there were at least some barriers for PWE in receiving appropriate clinical care, neurophysiologic procedures, and elective surgery. Medication shortages were noted by approximately 30% of respondents, with no clear pattern in types of medication involved. Telehealth was overwhelmingly found to have value. Among the limitation of the survey was that it was administered at a single point in time in a rapidly changing pandemic. The survey showed that almost all respondents were affected by the pandemic in a variety of ways.

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