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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180391

RESUMO

Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with atomic thickness are promising materials for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report uniform growth of triangular-shaped (∼40 µm) monolayer WS2 using the atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique in a hydrogen-free environment. We have studied the optical and electrical behaviors of as-grown WS2 samples. The absorption spectrum of monolayer WS2 shows two intense excitonic absorption peaks, namely, A (∼630 nm) and B (∼530 nm), due to the direct gap transitions at the K point. Photoluminescence (PL) and fluorescence studies reveal that under the exposure of green light, monolayer WS2 gives very strong red emission at ∼663 nm. This corresponds to the direct band gap and strong excitonic effect in monolayer WS2. Furthermore, the efficacy of the synthesized WS2 crystals for electronic devices is also checked by fabricating field-effect transistors (FETs). FET devices exhibit an electron mobility of µ ∼ 6 cm2 V-1 s-1, current ON/OFF ratio of ∼106, and subthreshold swing (SS) of ∼641 mV decade-1, which are comparable to those of the exfoliated monolayer WS2 FETs. These findings suggest that our APCVD-grown WS2 has the potential to be used for next-generation nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14593, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601877

RESUMO

This paper proposes a generalized Phase Space Reconstruction (PSR) based Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) classification methodology by exploiting the localized features of the ECG. The proposed methodology first extracts the ECG localized features including PR interval, QRS complex, and QT interval from the continuous ECG waveform using features extraction logic, then the PSR technique is applied to get the phase portraits of all the localized features. Based on the cleanliness and contour of the phase portraits CVD classification will be done. This is first of its kind approach where the localized features of ECG are being taken into considerations unlike the state-of-art approaches, where the entire ECG beats have been considered. The proposed methodology is generic and can be extended to most of the CVD cases. It is verified on the PTBDB and IAFDB databases by taking the CVD including Atrial Fibrillation, Myocardial Infarction, Bundle Branch Block, Cardiomyopathy, Dysrhythmia, and Hypertrophy. The methodology has been tested on 65 patients' data for the classification of abnormalities in PR interval, QRS complex, and QT interval. Based on the obtained statistical results, to detect the abnormality in PR interval, QRS complex and QT interval the Coefficient Variation (CV) should be greater than or equal to 0.1012, 0.083, 0.082 respectively with individual accuracy levels of 95.3%, 96.9%, and 98.5% respectively. To justify the clinical significance of the proposed methodology, the Confidence Interval (CI), the p-value using ANOVA have been computed. The p-value obtained is less than 0.05, and greater F-statistic values reveal the robust classification of CVD using localized features.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4199, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519885

RESUMO

The recent decline in energy, size and complexity scaling of traditional von Neumann architecture has resurrected considerable interest in brain-inspired computing. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on emerging devices, such as memristors, achieve brain-like computing but lack energy-efficiency. Furthermore, slow learning, incremental adaptation, and false convergence are unresolved challenges for ANNs. In this article we, therefore, introduce Gaussian synapses based on heterostructures of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, namely molybdenum disulfide and black phosphorus field effect transistors (FETs), as a class of analog and probabilistic computational primitives for hardware implementation of statistical neural networks. We also demonstrate complete tunability of amplitude, mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian synapse via threshold engineering in dual gated molybdenum disulfide and black phosphorus FETs. Finally, we show simulation results for classification of brainwaves using Gaussian synapse based probabilistic neural networks.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Dissulfetos/química , Molibdênio/química , Nanotecnologia , Distribuição Normal , Transistores Eletrônicos
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3450, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371722

RESUMO

In this article, we introduce a biomimetic audiomorphic device that captures the neurobiological architecture and computational map inside the auditory cortex of barn owl known for its exceptional hunting ability in complete darkness using auditory cues. The device consists of multiple split-gates with nanogaps on a semiconducting MoS2 channel connected to the source/drain contacts for imitating the spatial map of coincidence detector neurons and tunable RC circuits for imitating the interaural time delay neurons following the Jeffress model of sound localization. Furthermore, we use global back-gating capability to demonstrate neuroplasticity to capture behavioral and/or adaptation related changes in the barn owl. Finally, the virtual source model for current transport is combined with finite element COMSOL multiphysics simulations to explain and project the performance of the biomimetic audiomorphic device. We find that the precision of the biomimetic device can supersede the barn owl by orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Biomimética/instrumentação , Biomimética/métodos , Computação Matemática , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transistores Eletrônicos , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Córtex Auditivo , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Modelos Animais , Neurobiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Semicondutores , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estrigiformes
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346589

RESUMO

In Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC), a user is permitted or denied access to an object based on a set of rules (together called an ABAC Policy) specified in terms of the values of attributes of various types of entities, namely, user, object and environment. Efficient evaluation of these rules is therefore essential for ensuring decision making at on-line speed when an access request comes. Sequentially evaluating all the rules in a policy is inherently time consuming and does not scale with the size of the ABAC system or the frequency of access requests. This problem, which is quite pertinent for practical deployment of ABAC, surprisingly has not so far been addressed in the literature. In this paper, we introduce two variants of a tree data structure for representing ABAC policies, which we name as PolTree. In the binary version (B-PolTree), at each node, a decision is taken based on whether a particular attribute-value pair is satisfied or not. The n-ary version (N-PolTree), on the other hand, grows as many branches out of a given node as the total number of possible values for the attribute being checked at that node. An extensive experimental evaluation with diverse data sets shows the scalability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav5003, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139746

RESUMO

Chemical doping constitutes an effective route to alter the electronic, chemical, and optical properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs). We used a plasma-assisted method to introduce carbon-hydrogen (CH) units into WS2 monolayers. We found CH-groups to be the most stable dopant to introduce carbon into WS2, which led to a reduction of the optical bandgap from 1.98 to 1.83 eV, as revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Aberration corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-HRSTEM) observations in conjunction with first-principle calculations confirm that CH-groups incorporate into S vacancies within WS2. According to our electronic transport measurements, undoped WS2 exhibits a unipolar n-type conduction. Nevertheless, the CH-WS2 monolayers show the emergence of a p-branch and gradually become entirely p-type, as the carbon doping level increases. Therefore, CH-groups embedded into the WS2 lattice tailor its electronic and optical characteristics. This route could be used to dope other 2D-TMDs for more efficient electronic devices.

7.
ACS Nano ; 13(3): 3341-3352, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758945

RESUMO

A defect-controlled approach for the nucleation and epitaxial growth of WSe2 on hBN is demonstrated. The WSe2 domains exhibit a preferred orientation of over 95%, leading to a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) upon coalescence. First-principles calculations and experimental studies as a function of growth conditions and substrate pretreatment confirm that WSe2 nucleation density and orientation are controlled by the hBN surface defect density rather than thermodynamic factors. Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis provides support for the role of single-atom vacancies on the hBN surface that trap W atoms and break surface symmetry leading to a reduced formation energy for one orientation of WSe2 domains. Through careful control of nucleation and extended lateral growth time, fully coalesced WSe2 monolayer films on hBN were achieved. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements and transport measurements of back-gated field-effect transistor devices fabricated on WSe2/hBN films show improved optical and electrical properties compared to films grown on sapphire under similar conditions. Our results reveal an important nucleation mechanism for the epitaxial growth of van der Waals heterostructures and demonstrate hBN as a superior substrate for single-crystal transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) films, resulting in a reduced density of IDBs and improved properties. The results motivate further efforts focused on the development of single crystal hBN substrates and epilayers for synthesis of wafer-scale single crystal TMD films.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(8): 8391-8399, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715831

RESUMO

We demonstrate that atomically thin layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are promising candidates for space electronics owing to their inherent and extraordinary resilience to radiation damage from energetic heavy charged particles. In particular, we found that ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets can easily withstand proton and helium irradiation with fluences as high as ∼1016 and ∼1015 ions/cm2, respectively, corresponding to hundreds or thousands of years of unshielded exposure to radiation in space. While radiation effects on 2D material-based field effect transistors have been reported in the recent past, none of these studies could isolate the impact of irradiation on standalone ultrathin 2D layers. By adopting a unique experimental approach that exploits the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials, we were able to differentiate the effects of radiation on the 2D semiconducting channel from that of the underlying dielectric substrate, semiconductor/substrate interface, and metal/semiconductor contact interface, revealing the ultimate potential of these 2D materials. Furthermore, we used a statistical approach to evaluate the effect of radiation damage on critical device and material parameters, including threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, and carrier mobility. The statistical approach lends additional credence to the general conclusions drawn from this study, overcoming a common drawback of methods applied in this area of research. Our findings do not only offer exciting prospects for the operation of modern electronics in space, but may also benefit electronics applications in high-altitude flights, military aircraft, satellites, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, and other high-radiation environments. Additionally, they highlight the importance of evaluating the impact of damage to the substrate and surrounding materials on electrical characteristics during future radiation studies of 2D materials.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(1): 78-86, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485063

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials demonstrate their exquisite properties such as high temperature superconductivity, superlubricity, charge density wave, piezotronics, flextronics, straintronics, spintronics, valleytronics, and optoelectronics, mostly, at the monolayer limit. Following initial breakthroughs based on micromechanically exfoliated 2D monolayers, significant progress has been made in recent years toward the bottom-up synthesis of large-area monolayer 2D materials such as MoS2 and WS2 using physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition techniques in order to facilitate their transition into commercial technologies. However, the nucleation and subsequent growth of the secondary, tertiary, and greater numbers of vertical layers poses a significant challenge not only toward the realization of uniform monolayers but also toward maintaining their consistent electronic and optoelectronic properties which change abruptly when transitioning from the monolayer to multilayer form. Chemical or physical techniques which can remove the unwanted top layers without compromising the material quality will have tremendous consequences toward the development of atomically flat, large-area, uniform monolayers of 2D materials. Here, we report a simple, elegant, and self-limiting electrochemical polishing technique that can thin down any arbitrary thickness of 2D material, irrespective of whether these are obtained using powder vapor transport or mechanical exfoliation, into their corresponding monolayer form at room temperature within a few seconds without compromising their atomistic integrity. The effectiveness of this electrochemical polishing technique is inherent to 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides owing to the stability of their basal planes, enhanced edge reactivity, and stronger than van der Waals interaction with the substrate. Our study also reveals that 2D monolayers are chemically more robust and corrosion resistant compared to their bulk counterparts in similar oxidative environments, which enables electrochemical polishing of such materials down to a monolayer.

10.
Adv Mater ; 31(2): e1806020, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430660

RESUMO

Mobility is a critical parameter that is routinely used for benchmarking the performance of field-effect transistors (FETs) based on novel nanomaterials. In fact, mobility values are often used to champion nanomaterials since high-performance devices necessitate high mobility values. The current belief is that the contacts can only limit the FET performance and hence the extracted mobility is an underestimation of the true channel mobility. However, here, such misconception is challenged through rigorous experimental effort, backed by numerical simulations, to demonstrate that overestimation of mobility occurs in commonly used geometries and in nanomaterials for which the contact interface, contact doping, and contact geometry play a pivotal role. In particular, dual-gated FETs based on multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 are used as case studies in order to elucidate and differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic contact effects manifesting in the mobility extraction. The choice of 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) as the semiconducting channel is motivated by their potential to replace and/or coexist with Si-based aging FET technologies. However, the results are equally applicable to nanotube- and nanowire-based FETs, oxide semiconductors, and organic-material-based thin-film FETs.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(47): 40773-40780, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387342

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a unique class of 2D materials possessing unique optoelectronic properties when exfoliated into mono- and few-layer sheets. Recently, electroablation (EA) has become of interest as a promising synthesis method for single-layer sheets of TMDs. Here, we introduce spectroelectrochemical micro-extinction spectroscopy (SE-MExS) as a high-throughput technique to study electrochemical thinning of TMDs as it occurs. This approach enables the parallel use of spectroscopy and imaging to nondestructively characterize 2D materials in situ. We unravel optoelectronics of the TMDs by observing changes in optical properties during EA. We find that the EA process for MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 occurs edge first, generating high density of edge sites. Our results show that stable monolayers of MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 can be synthesized from bulk precursors by the EA process, while conversely, no WSe2 remains postablation.

12.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 8006-8016, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074765

RESUMO

Structural defects govern various physical, chemical, and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). A fundamental understanding of the spatial distribution and dynamics of defects in these low-dimensional systems is critical for advances in nanotechnology. However, such understanding has remained elusive primarily due to the inaccessibility of (a) necessary time scales via standard atomistic simulations and (b) required spatiotemporal resolution in experiments. Here, we take advantage of supervised machine learning, in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to overcome these limitations. We combine genetic algorithms (GA) with MD to investigate the extended structure of point defects, their dynamical evolution, and their role in inducing the phase transition between the semiconducting (2H) and metallic (1T) phase in monolayer MoS2. GA-based structural optimization is used to identify the long-range structure of randomly distributed point defects (sulfur vacancies) for various defect densities. Regardless of the density, we find that organization of sulfur vacancies into extended lines is the most energetically favorable. HRTEM validates these findings and suggests a phase transformation from the 2H-to-1T phase that is localized near these extended defects when exposed to high electron beam doses. MD simulations elucidate the molecular mechanism driving the onset of the 2H to 1T transformation and indicate that finite amounts of 1T phase can be retained by increasing the defect concentration and temperature. This work significantly advances the current understanding of defect structure/evolution and structural transitions in 2D TMDs, which is crucial for designing nanoscale devices with desired functionality.

13.
Chem Soc Rev ; 47(9): 3037-3058, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498729

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the field of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has surged, promising a new platform for studying diverse physical phenomena that are scientifically intriguing and technologically relevant. Contacts are the communication links between these 2D materials and the three-dimensional world for probing and harnessing their exquisite electronic properties. However, fundamental challenges related to contacts often limit the ultimate performance and potential of 2D materials and devices. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the basic understanding and importance of contacts to 2D materials and various strategies for engineering and improving them. In particular, we elucidate the phenomenon of Fermi level pinning at the metal/2D contact interface, the Schottky versus Ohmic nature of the contacts and various contact engineering approaches including interlayer contacts, phase engineered contacts, and basal versus edge plane contacts, among others. Finally, we also discuss some of the relatively under-addressed and unresolved issues, such as contact scaling, and conclude with a future outlook.

14.
J Chem Phys ; 148(10): 104701, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544322

RESUMO

We study a thermal gradient induced current Ith flow in potassium-doped two-dimensional anisotropic black phosphorus (BP) with semi-Dirac dispersion. The prototype device is a BP channel clamped between two contacts maintained at unequal temperatures. The choice of BP lies in the predicted efficient thermoelectric behaviour. A temperature-induced difference in the Fermi levels of the two contacts drives the current (typified by the electro-thermal conductance) which we calculate using the Landauer transport equation. The current shows an initial rise when the device is operated at lower temperatures. The rise stalls at progressively higher temperatures and Ith acquires a plateau-like flat profile indicating a competing effect between a larger number of transmission modes and a corresponding drop in the Fermi level difference between the contacts. The current is computed for both n- and p-type BP, and the difference thereof is attributed to the particle-hole asymmetry. The utility of such calculations lie in conversion of the heat produced in a miniaturized chip to useful thermopower via a prototypical Seebeck power generator. Unlike the flow of Ith that purportedly utilizes the additional removable heat in a nanoscale device heat, the ability of a material to maintain a steady temperature is reflected in its heat capacity through effective absorption of thermal energy. The heat capacity is formulated in this work for BP via a Sommerfeld expansion. In the concluding part, we draw a microscopic connection between the two seemingly disparate processes of heat removal and absorption by pinning down their origin to the underlying density of states. Finally, a qualitative analysis of a Carnot-like efficiency of the considered thermoelectric engine is performed drawing upon the previous results on thermal current and heat capacity.

15.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1993-2000, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451799

RESUMO

Emerging two-dimensional (2-D) materials such as transition-metal dichalcogenides show great promise as viable alternatives for semiconductor and optoelectronic devices that progress beyond silicon. Performance variability, reliability, and stochasticity in the measured transport properties represent some of the major challenges in such devices. Native strain arising from interfacial effects due to the presence of a substrate is believed to be a major contributing factor. A full three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of such native nanoscopic strain over micron length scales is highly desirable for gaining a fundamental understanding of interfacial effects but has largely remained elusive. Here, we employ coherent X-ray diffraction imaging to directly image and visualize in 3-D the native strain along the (002) direction in a typical multilayered (∼100-350 layers) 2-D dichalcogenide material (WSe2) on silicon substrate. We observe significant localized strains of ∼0.2% along the out-of-plane direction. Experimentally informed continuum models built from X-ray reconstructions trace the origin of these strains to localized nonuniform contact with the substrate (accentuated by nanometer scale asperities, i.e., surface roughness or contaminants); the mechanically exfoliated stresses and strains are localized to the contact region with the maximum strain near surface asperities being more or less independent of the number of layers. Machine-learned multimillion atomistic models show that the strain effects gain in prominence as we approach a few- to single-monolayer limit. First-principles calculations show a significant band gap shift of up to 125 meV per percent of strain. Finally, we measure the performance of multiple WSe2 transistors fabricated on the same flake; a significant variability in threshold voltage and the "off" current setting is observed among the various devices, which is attributed in part to substrate-induced localized strain. Our integrated approach has broad implications for the direct imaging and quantification of interfacial effects in devices based on layered materials or heterostructures.

16.
IEEE Lett Comput Soc ; 1(2): 25-29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906923

RESUMO

Successful deployment of attribute-based access control requires the process of policy engineering which involves constructing a set of appropriate rules, known as a policy. Policy engineering is performed either by a top-down approach that may ignore some of the existing accesses in the organization or a bottom-up approach that may form rules which are not relevant to the organizational processes. In this work, we propose a hybrid approach toward policy engineering that addresses the limitations of the top-down and the bottom-up approaches while preserving their individual advantages.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687851

RESUMO

In Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC) systems, utilizing environment attributes along with the subject and object attributes introduces a dynamic nature to the access decisions. The inclusion of environment attributes helps in achieving a more fine-grained access control. In this paper, we present an ABAC policy mining algorithm that considers the environment attributes and their associated values while forming the rules. Furthermore, we use gini impurity to form the rules. This helps to minimize the number of rules in the generated policy. The experimental evaluation shows that our approach is quite effective in practice.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(4): 4285-4294, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278319

RESUMO

Physics of monolayer and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and chemistry of few-layer TMDs have been well studied in recent years in the context of future electronic, optoelectronic, and energy harvesting applications. However, what has escaped the attention of the scientific community is the unique chemistry of monolayer TMDs. It has been demonstrated that the basal plane of multilayer TMDs is chemically inert, whereas edge sites are chemically active. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the edge reactivity of the TMDs can be significantly impeded at the monolayer limit through monolayer/substrate interaction, thus making the monolayers highly resistant to electrooxidation and corrosion. In particular, we found that few-layer flakes of MoS2 and WS2 exfoliated on conductive TiN substrates are readily corroded beyond a certain positive electrode potential, while monolayer remnants are left behind unscathed. The electrooxidation resistance of monolayers was confirmed using a plethora of characterization techniques including atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) mapping, scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) imaging, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). It is believed that strong substrate monolayer interaction compared to the relatively weak interlayer van der Waals interaction is responsible for the superior monolayers chemical stability in highly corrosive oxidizing environments. Our findings could pave the way for the implementation of monolayer transition metal disulfides as superior anticorrosion coating which can have a significant socioeconomic impact.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(51): 44617-44624, 2017 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210272

RESUMO

In this paper, we report high-performance monolayer thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on a variety of two-dimensional layered semiconductors such as MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 which were obtained from their corresponding bulk counterparts via an anomalous but high-yield and low-cost electrochemical corrosion process, also referred to as electro-ablation (EA), at room temperature. These monolayer TFTs demonstrated current ON-OFF ratios in excess of 107 along with ON currents of 120 µA/µm for MoS2, 40 µA/µm for WS2, and 40 µA/µm for MoSe2 which clearly outperform the existing TFT technologies. We found that these monolayers have larger Schottky barriers for electron injection compared to their multilayer counterparts, which is partially compensated by their superior electrostatics and ultra-thin tunnel barriers. We observed an Anderson type semiconductor-to-metal transition in these monolayers and also discussed possible scattering mechanisms that manifest in the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Finally, our study suggests superior chemical stability and electronic integrity of monolayers even after being exposed to extreme electro-oxidation and corrosion processes which is promising for the implementation of such TFTs in harsh environment sensing. Overall, the EA process proves to be a facile synthesis route offering higher monolayer yields than mechanical exfoliation and lower cost and complexity than chemical vapor deposition methods.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(44): 39059-39068, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028313

RESUMO

In this paper we provide insight into an anomalous corrosion process, referred to as electroablation (EA), which converts multilayer flakes of transition metal diselenides like MoSe2 into their corresponding monolayers when micromechanically exfoliated on a conductive electrode and subsequently subjected to a high anodic potential inside a conventional electrochemical cell. Photoluminescence intensity maps and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirmed the single crystalline nature and 2H-hexagonal lattice structure of the remnant monolayer MoSe2 flakes, indicating the superior corrosion stability of the monolayers compared to that of the bulk counterpart. It is noted that the EA technique is a low-cost alternative for high-yield synthesis of single crystalline monolayer MoSe2 at room temperature. We also found that the dynamics of such an electro-oxidation-mediated and self-limiting corrosion process differs significantly for MoSe2 and WSe2. While we were able to engineer the corrosion conditions for the EA process to obtain monolayers of MoSe2, our attempts to obtain monolayers of WSe2 were largely unsuccessful. Finally, we constructed a phenomenological physical chemistry framework to explain such anomalous corrosion processes in transition metal diselenides.

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