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1.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 99(3): 328-332, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28681163

RESUMO

Multiple sizes of Sea bream were collected from Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, to assess steady state bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a tropical fish. Sea beam fork lengths ranged from 7.3 to 21.5 cm (n = 36 fish) and tissue lipids decreased with body length. Larger fish had lower δ13C isotopes compared to smaller fish, suggesting a change in diet. Linear regressions showed no differences in lipid equivalent sum PCB concentrations with size. However, differences in individual congener bioaccumulation trajectories occurred. Less hydrophobic PCBs decreased with increasing body length, intermediate PCBs showed no trend, whereas highly hydrophobic (above log KOW of 6.5) PCBs increased. The different congener patterns were interpreted to be a result of decreases in overall diet PCB concentrations with increased fish length coupled with differences in PCB toxicokinetics as a function of hydrophobicity yielding dilution, pseudo-steady state and non-steady state bioaccumulation patterns.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados/farmacocinética , Dourada , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Exposição Ambiental , Jamaica , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Biophys Chem ; 141(2-3): 198-202, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19243875

RESUMO

The kinetics of interaction of Co(III)TSPcNO (TSPc = 4,4',4'',4'''-tetrasulfophthalocyanine) with various thiols of biological relevance, e.g., reduced glutathione (GSH), captopril (CapSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), and L-cysteine ethyl ester (LCEE) have been investigated spectrophotometrically. The observed rate constants for transnitrosation are all first-order with respect to the respective thiols. The second-order rate constants which were determined at physiological temperature, 37 degrees C are 258+/-8, 159+/-3, 66.7+/-1.3 and 37.4+/-0.6 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The second-order rate constants decreased according to the sequence LCEE > CapSH > GSH > NALC. The activation parameters (DeltaH(not equal) and DeltaS(not equal)) were derived from the Eyring's equation. The experimental activation parameters were then correlated by an isokinetic plot, for the reduction of [Co(III)TSPc(NO(-))](4-) by the thiols, making use of the expression: DeltaH(double dagger) = DeltaG(0)(double dagger) + beta(0)DeltaS(double dagger) where DeltaG(o)(double dagger) is the intrinsic free energy of activation, and beta(o) the isokinetic temperature. The plot which showed very good linearity (R(2) = 0.997), gave values of DeltaG(o)(double dagger) (61+/-1 J K(-1) mol(-1)) from the intercept, and beta(o) (260+/-11 K) from the slope. It is concluded that a common mechanism is adhered to in the reduction of Co(III)TSPcNO, irrespective of the type of thiol being used, to give the corresponding S-nitrosothiol, which is further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector.


Assuntos
Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Água/química , Captopril/análogos & derivados , Captopril/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Nitrosação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 335(3): 730-3, 2005 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16095564

RESUMO

Two distinct stages, which can be monitored spectrophotometrically, have been observed for the first time in multiple reactions between thiol, such as l-cysteine and some well-known nitrovasodilators, namely S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and S-nitrosocaptopril (SNOCap) in aqueous solution (in the presence of EDTA). The first part of the reaction occurs at stopped-flow time scale ( approximately 10(-2)s(-1)) in one single step and has been found to be transnitrosation; followed by a slow decomposition of the products of the transnitrosation reaction with the formation of a variety of nitrogen products. Reactivity with regard to the first stage occurs in the order GSNO>SNAP>SNOCap. The second stage shows first-order rate constants of the order 10(-4)s(-1), although some degree of complexity exists in elucidating an accurate rate equation with which a comparative study could be done.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Vasodilatadores/química
4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 3(9): 1640-6, 2005 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15858644

RESUMO

Kinetic studies involving the use of both stopped-flow and diode array spectrophotometers, show that the reaction between SNAP and captopril in the presence of the metal ion sequestering agent, EDTA, occurs in two well-defined stages. The first stage is a fast reaction while the second stage is slow. The first stage has been postulated to be transnitrosation, and the second stage involves the decay of the newly formed RSNO to effect nitric oxide (NO) release. Both stages are found to be dependent on captopril and H+ concentration. The rates of the transnitrosation increased drastically with increasing pH in the first stage, signifying that the deprotonated form of captopril is the more reactive species. In the case of the second stage the variation in pH showed an increase in rate up to pH 8 after which the rate remained unchanged. Both stages were clearly distinguishable and easily monitored separately. Transnitrosation is a reversible reaction with the tendency for the equilibrium to break down at high thiol concentration. Second-order rate constants were calculated based on the following derived expressions: -d[SNAP]/dt=k(f)((K(SHCapSH)[CapSH](t))/(K(SHCapSH)+[H+]))[SNAP]. k(f) is the second-order rate constant for the forward reaction of the reversible transnitrosation process. At 37 degrees C, k(f)= 785 +/- 14 M(-1) s(-1), activation parameters [Delta]H(f)++= 49 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), (Delta)S(f)++=-32 +/- 2 J K(-1) mol(-1). The activation parameters demonstrate the associative nature of the transnitrosation mechanism. The second stage has been found to be very complex, as a variety of nitrogen products form as predicted before. However, the following expression was derived from the initial kinetic data: rate =k1K[SNOCap][CapS-]/(K[CapS-]+ 1) to give k1= 13.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(-4) s(-1) and K= 5.59 +/- 0.53 x 10(4) M(-1), at 37 degrees C, where k1 is the first-order rate constant for the decay of the intermediate formed during the reaction between SNOCap and the remaining excess CapSH present at the end of the first stage reaction. Activation parameters are (Delta)H1++= 37 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1), (Delta)S1++=-181 +/- 44 J K(-1) mol(-1).


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Captopril/química , S-Nitroso-N-Acetilpenicilamina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrosação , Análise Espectral/métodos
5.
Biophys Chem ; 107(2): 117-31, 2004 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14962594

RESUMO

The reductive decomposition of both SNAP and SNOCap by ascorbate in aqueous solution (in the presence of EDTA) was thoroughly investigated. Nitric oxide (NO) release from the reaction occurs in an ascorbate concentration and pH dependent manner. Rates and hence NO release increased drastically with increasing pH, signifying that the most highly ionized form of ascorbate is the more reactive species. The experiments were monitored spectrophotometrically, and second-order rate constants calculated at 37 degrees C for the reduction of SNAP are k(b)=9.81+/-1.39 x 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1) and k(c)=662+/-38 M(-1) s(-1) and for SNOCap are k(b)=2.57+/-1.29 x 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) and k(c)=49.7+/-1.3 M(-1) s(-1). k(b) and k(c) are the second-order rate constants via the ascorbate monoanion (HA-) and dianion (A2-) pathways, respectively. Activation parameters were also calculated and are DeltaHb++ =93+/-7 kJ mol(-1), DeltaSb++ =15+/-2 J K(-1) mol(-1) and DeltaHc++ =51+/-5 kJ mol(-1), DeltaSc++ =-28+/-3 J K(-1) mol(-1) with respect to the reactions involving SNAP. Those for the reaction between SNOCap and ascorbate were calculated to be DeltaHb++ =63+/-11 kJ mol(-1), DeltaSb++ =-71+/-20 J K(-1) mol(-1) and DeltaHc++ =103+/-7 kJ mol(-1), DeltaSc++ =118+/-8 J K(-1) mol(-1). The effect of Cu2+/Cu+ ions on the reductive decompositions of these S-nitrosothiols was also investigated in absence of EDTA. SNOCap exhibits relatively high stability at near physiological conditions (37 degrees C and pH 7.55) even in the presence of micromolar concentrations of Cu2+, with decomposition rate constant being 0.011 M(-1) s(-1) in comparison to SNAP which is known to be more susceptible to catalytic decomposition by Cu2+ (second-order rate constant of 20 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C). It was also observed that the reductive decomposition of SNAP is not catalyzed by alkali metal ions, however, there was an increase in rate as the ionic strength increases from 0.2 to 0.5 mol dm(-3) NaCl.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Captopril/análogos & derivados , Captopril/metabolismo , Penicilamina/análogos & derivados , Penicilamina/metabolismo , Captopril/química , Catálise , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Ácido Edético , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Penicilamina/química , S-Nitrosotióis/química , S-Nitrosotióis/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Soluções , Vasodilatadores/química , Vasodilatadores/metabolismo
7.
West Indian med. j ; 50(suppl. 1): 55, Mar. 1-4, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-420

RESUMO

The nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has been used to prevent platelet activation in patients with severe pre-eclampsia. The study assesses the chronic administration of GSNO on glucose metabolism in the dog animal model. GSNO (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously for 14 days and the blood glucose concentration was determined by the glucose oxidase method. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed an impaired glucose tolerance in the GSNO-treated dogs as reflected by elevated postprandial blood glucose concentrations at the 1.0 hour to 2.5 hour time interval (p < 0.05). The elevated blood glucose concentration was associated with a statistically significant decrease in plasma insulin concentration. The plasma insulin concentration at 1.0 hour in captopril-treated controls was 41.00 uIU/ml compared with 27.33 uIU/ml in GSNO-treated dogs (p < 0.05). In contrast, the plasma glucagon concentration was enhanced by the chronic adminstration of GSNO, as confirmed by a concentration of 75.00 ñ 6.06 pg/ml in GSNO-treated dogs compared with 49.50 ñ 4.64 pg/ml in captopril-treated controls at the 1.0 hour time interval. Linear regression analysis of the data revealed a highly significant and positive correlation between the blood glucose concentration and the plasma glucagon concentration (r = 0.739, p < 0.01). Similarly, a positive correlation existed between the blood glucose concentration and the plasma insulin concentration (r = 0.513, p = 0.307). We conclude that chronic in vivo adminstration of GSNO impairs the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism. Patients who are on protracted treatment with GSNO could be risk for the development of diabetes mellitus.(Au)


Assuntos
Cães , 21003 , Técnicas In Vitro , Ativação Plaquetária , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Cães/metabolismo , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Carboidratos/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 237-238: 373-8, Sept. 30, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-745

RESUMO

The hydrolytic half lives of ethoprophos in distilled, river, brackish and open sea water were 25, 133, 65 and 81 days, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, volatilisation of the residues after 12 h was 1.4 - 3.6, 2.3 - 4.5 and 6.5 - 20.2 percent from a sandy loam soil with 1, 10 and 20 percent moisture levels, respectively. Photolysis in soil was significantly faster (P< 0.05) in direct sunlight (T 1/2 of 12.3 days). The microbial degradation of ethoprophos from unweeded plantation soil at 23 degrees slope was significantly (P=0.015) less than at 38 degrees slope; the amounts lost after 9 weeks and 27.5 mm of rainfall were 89.4 and 91.2 percent respectively, of the applied amount from the two respective slopes. In the weeded plots, 93.6 and 92.4 percent of the applied insecticide were lost from 23 degrees and 38 degrees slopes, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, between 67.0 and 85.1 percent of ethoprophos leached through the soil columns. Under field conditions, after 9 weeks and 25 mm of rainfall, only 2.8 and 2.0 percent residues were recovered at a depth of 10-15 cm from unweeded and weeded slopes, respectively at 23 degrees slope, and 2.2 and 1.9 percent from the two respective plots at 38 degrees slope. (AU)


Assuntos
Inseticidas Organofosforados/química , Organotiofosfatos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Meia-Vida , Hidrólise , Inseticidas Organofosforados/metabolismo , Jamaica , Fotólise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Organotiofosfatos/metabolismo , Volatilização , Poluição Química da Água/análise
9.
West Indian med. j ; 48(Suppl. 1): 24-5, Mar. 7, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1246

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO), a potent modulator of cellular function, and NO donors have been useful tools in both experimental and clinical setting. Low molecular weight thiols such as cysteine and glutathoine were proposed to act as NO-carriers. The study was undertaken to investigate the pharmacological activity of the NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathoine (GSNO), on the plasma glucose and on the gluco-regulatory hormones, insulin and glucagon in healthy normoglycaemic dogs. Plasma glucose levels were measured by the glucose oxidase method, while the insulin and glucagon levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. In healthy normoglycaemic dogs, administration of 50 mg/kg GSNO caused an increase in post-prandial plasma glucose levels. The plasma glucose levels were significantly (p<0.05) elevated at 1.5 hr, 2.0 hr and 2.5 hr of the oral glucose tolerance test. These values were significantly higher than those obtained for the controls. The increase in glucose level was associated with a significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in glucagon levels (p<0.05). The fasting insulin level was 8.0 ñ 0.3 IU/ml in the control. The insulin level increased to a maximum of 34.0 ñ 0.3 IU/ml 1.5 hr post-prandial, and then decreased to 12.4 ñ 0.4 IU/ml after 2.5 hr. On administration of 50 mg/kg GSNO, the insulin level increased to a maximum of 23.0 ñ 0.6 IU/,l after 1.5 hr post-prandial and then decreased to 17.0 ñ 0.4 IU/ml after 2.5 hr. The blood glucagon levels increased from 40.0 ñ 0.3 pg/ml to 53.0 ñ 0.3 pg/ml after 1 hr in controls. In dogs administered with GSNO, the blood glucagon level increases to a maximum level of 80.0 ñ 0.5 pg/ml 1.5hr post-prandial. These results suggest that in healthy normoglycaemic dogs, nitric oxide released from GSNO caused a transient increase in post-prandial plasma glucose levels, inhibited glucose stimulated insulin secretion and elevated glucagon levels.(AU)


Assuntos
Cães , 21003 , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Compostos Nitrosos/sangue , Glutationa/farmacologia , Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Cães/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose
10.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 2): 52, Apr. 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1825

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate differences in cellular binding of insulin in dogs administered with the nitric oxide donor, S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO). A time course assay of insulin binding to isolated erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from dogs administered with GSNO was done during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The erythrocyte receptor assay performed was the methodology used by Ghambir et al (1977). A modification was also done for mononuclear leucocyte insulin binding assay. The plasma glucose levels were measured by the glucose oxidase method, while the insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results of these studies show the erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from dogs administered with GSNO have lesser ability to bind insulin when compared to erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from the controls. In dogs administered with GSNO, there was less binding of erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes, 44 percent and 29 percent, respectively, when compared to the bound free ratio value of the controls.(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Cães , Compostos Nitrosos , Receptor de Insulina
11.
West Indian med. j ; 47(suppl. 1): 30-1, Mar. 5-8, 1998.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-1550

RESUMO

Nitric oxide is a pathogenic factor of inflammatory islet cell death in type 1 diabetes. An early event in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is intraislet accumulation of activated macrophages. Their secretory products such as nitric oxide (NO) are found to play a crucial role in islet destruction. Macrophage activity and progressive islet cell destruction persist during a long period of chronic inflammatory events preceding diabetes, suggesting the presence of nitric oxide contributing to continued immunostimulation. It has been shown previously that the nitric oxide donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) caused persistent postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal healthy dogs at 35 and 50mg/kg. parallel with an increase in plasma nitrate concentration and decrease in insulin secretion. This study was designed to investigate differences in cellular binding of insulin in dogs administered with the GSNO. A time course assay of insulin binding, to isolate erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from dog administered with GSNO, was done during the oral glucose tolerance test (OFTT). The erthrocyte receptor assay performed was the methodology used by Ghambir et al (1977). A modification was also done for mononuclear leucocytes insulin binding assay. The plasma glucose levels were measured by the glucose oxidase method, while the insulin levels were determined by radio-immunoassay. The results of these studies show that erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from dogs administered with GSNO have decreased ability to bind insulin when compared to erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from the controls. In dogs administered with GSNO, there was less binding of erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes, 44 percent and 29 percent respectively, when compared to the bound free ratio value of the controls. The data also shows that erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes from dogs administered with GSNO have 256 and 10.7x10 insulin receptor sites per cell, respectively, compared with 296 and 18.4x10 per cell for the control (P<0.05). Competitive inhibition studies using unlabelled insulin indicate that the affinity of insulin for its receptor on erythrocytes from dogs administered with GSNO was also significantly different from the controls, while that of mononuclear leucocytes from both group was comparable.(AU)


Assuntos
Cães , 21003 , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Nitrosos/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico
12.
WEST INDIAN MED. J ; 46(Suppl 2): 22, Apr. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2309

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is an important factor in both inflammatory-induced and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In this study we investigated the pharmacological activity of S-nitroso-glutathoine (GNSO), a carrier of NO, on blood glucose level in 10 mongrel dogs, and measured their plasma nitrate concentration after the administration of GSNO. S-nitroso-glutathoine elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood glucose level (15 - 102 percent) which was paralled with an increase in nitrate production. The blood glucose levels at 2.0 and 2.5 hrs in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test were significantly higher in dogs administered with GNSO than those of the controls (p<0.05). There was also a significant increase in plasma nitrate on administration of GSNO (35 - 100 percent). The plasma nitrate concentrations from 0.5hr to 2.5hrs were significantly higher compared to the controls (p<0.05). The hyperglycaemic effect of GSNO was enhanced with the co-adminstration of ascorbic acid. This resulted in 5 - 30 percent increase in blood glucose concentration. The blood glucose levels at 2hrs in dogs after the co-administration of 35mg kg of GSNO (P<0.05). The data from this study showed that persistent hyperglycemia can be an unwanted side effect of GSNO administration and that the glucose concentration should be closely monitored when this drug is used to treat patients(AU)


Assuntos
21003 , Cães , Compostos Nitrosos/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Óxido Nítrico
13.
West Indian med. j ; 46(1(Suppl.1)): 31-2, Feb. - Mar. 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-2400

RESUMO

Nitric oxide is a pathogenic factor of inflammatoryislet cell death in Type I diabetes. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) is mediated by an autoimmune mechanism or inflammatory process that is characterized by destruction of beta cells. Incubation of pancreatic islet cells with activated macrophages, which release large amounts of nitric oxide, causes the death of the islet cells. When the cells are exposed to the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, lysis of the cells occur in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In this study we investigated the pharmacological activity of S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), a carrier of nitric oxide on blood glucose levels in dogs, and measured the plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration in the dog serum after the administration of GSNO using an automated method. The blood glucose level was measured using the glucose oxidase assay. S-nitroso-glutathione elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood glucose levels which was paralleled with an increase in nitrate/nitrite production. The blood glucose levels at 2.0 hrs and 2.5 hrs of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) were significantly higher in dogs administered with GSNO than those of the controls (p<0.05). Post-prandial blood glucose levels in dogs administered with 35 mg per kg body weight of GSNO were 7.2 + 0.9mmol/l and 7.1 + 0.7mmol/l, compared with 4.8 + 0.2mmol/l and 4.6 + 0.2mmol/l in controls. The hyperglycaemic effect was more pronounced on adminstration of 35 mg per kg body weight of GSNO and ascorbic acid. Post-prandial blood glucose levels in the dogs after administration of 50 mg per body weight, at 2.0 hrs and 2.5 hrs were 9.2 + 0.7mmol/l and 9.3 + 0.3mmol/l, respectively. The basal nitrate/nitrite concentration was 12.4 + 0.4umol. On administration of 35 mg per kg body weight of GSNO, there was a 35 - 60 percent increase in the plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration. The plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration at 2.0 hrs to 2.5 hrs ranged from 16.8 + 1.0umol. The plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration increase by 100 percent on administration of 50 mg per kg of GSNO. This study confirms that S-nitroso-glutathione is a hyperglycaemic compound which affects the blood glucose levels in dogs. The hyperglycaemic effects can be caused by the nitric oxide action on the pancreatic islet cells (AU).


Assuntos
21003 , Cães , Óxido Nítrico , Compostos Nitrosos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pâncreas/anormalidades
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