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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247941

RESUMO

Prolonged dexamethasone (Dex) administration leads to serious adverse and decrease brain and heart size, muscular atrophy, hemorrhagic liver, and presence of kidney cysts. Herein, we used an untargeted proteomic approach using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneous identification of changes in proteomes of the major organs in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats post Dex treatment. The comparative and quantitative proteomic analysis of the brain, heart, muscle, liver, and kidney tissues revealed differential expression of proteins (n = 190, 193, 39, 230, and 53, respectively) between Dex-treated and control rats. Functional network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA revealed significant differences in regulation of metabolic pathways within the morphologically changed organs that related to: (i) brain-cell morphology, nervous system development, and function and neurological disease; (ii) heart-cellular development, cellular function and maintenance, connective tissue development and function; (iii) skeletal muscle-nucleic acid metabolism, and small molecule biochemical pathways; (iv) liver-lipid metabolism, small molecular biochemistry, and nucleic acid metabolism; and (v) kidney-drug metabolism, organism injury and abnormalities, and renal damage. Our study provides a comprehensive description of the organ-specific proteomic profilesand differentially altered biochemical pathways, after prolonged Dex treatement to understand the molecular basis for development of side effects.

2.
Clin Genet ; 95(2): 310-319, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561787

RESUMO

Defects in the peroxisomes biogenesis and/or function result in peroxisomal disorders. In this study, we describe the largest Arab cohort to date (72 families) of clinically, biochemically and molecularly characterized patients with peroxisomal disorders. At the molecular level, we identified 43 disease-causing variants, half of which are novel. The founder nature of many of the variants allowed us to calculate the minimum disease burden for these disorders in our population ~1:30 000, which is much higher than previous estimates in other populations. Clinically, we found an interesting trend toward genotype/phenotype correlation in terms of long-term survival. Nearly half (40/75) of our peroxisomal disorders patients had documented survival beyond 1 year of age. Most unusual among the long-term survivors was a multiplex family in which the affected members presented as adults with non-specific intellectual disability and epilepsy. Other unusual presentations included the very recently described peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 disorder as well as CRD, spastic paraparesis, white matter (CRSPW) syndrome. We conclude that peroxisomal disorders are highly heterogeneous in their clinical presentation. Our data also confirm the demonstration that milder forms of Zellweger spectrum disorders cannot be ruled out by the "gold standard" very long chain fatty acids assay, which highlights the value of a genomics-first approach in these cases.

3.
Allergy ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) are a clinically overlapping, heterogeneous group of inborn errors of immunity characterized by elevated serum IgE level, eosinophilia, atopy, and immune dysregulation. Deficiency of DOCK8 protein is potentially a life-threatening autosomal recessive HIES and only curable with bone marrow transplantation. Hence, the diagnosis of DOCK8 deficiency is critical and should be sought at an early stage to initiate definitive therapy. METHODS: Serum samples from patients with DOCK8 deficiency and atopic dermatitis were profiled on a cytokine/chemokine panel for potential differential expression. RESULTS: CXCL10 and TNF-A were upregulated in DOCK8 patients when compared to AD, possibly contributing toward increased susceptibility to infections and cancer. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was significantly downregulated in a subgroup of DOCK8-deficient and AD patients, while IL-31 expression was comparable between both DOCK8-deficient and AD cohorts, possibly contributing toward pruritus seen in both groups. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive cytokine profile in HIES patients reveals distinctive biomarkers that differentiate between the DOCK8-deficient and AD patients. The unique expression profile of various inflammatory cytokines in patients with DOCK8 deficiency vs atopic dermatitis likely reflects disease-specific perturbations in multiple cellular processes and pathways leading to a predisposition to infections and allergies seen in these patients. These data agree with the role for EGF replacement therapy in EGF-deficient individuals with AD as well as DOCK8 deficiency through a potential shared pathway. In addition, these novel biomarkers may be potentially useful in distinguishing DOCK8 deficiency from AD allowing early-targeted treatment options.

5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 117: 613-619, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005381

RESUMO

Multiplexed biosensors hold great promise for early diagnosis of diseases where the detection of multiple biomarkers is required. Hyper Immunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with mutations either in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), dedicator of cytokinesis 8 DOCK8) or phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3) genes. Yet, the diagnosis of HIES is challenged by the complexity of the existing laboratory assays. Here, we report for the first time the development of a multiplexed electrochemical immunosensor for the simultaneous detection of DOCK8, STAT3 and PGM3 proteins. The immunosensor was constructed on carbon array electrodes that were first modified by electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The array electrodes were then used to immobilize specific antibodies for the three proteins after the functionalization of the electrodes with cysteamine/glutaraldehyde linkers. The simultaneous detection of the DOCK8, PGM3 and STAT3 proteins was successfully realized by the immunosensor with respective limits of detections of 3.1, 2.2 and 3.5 pg/ml. The immunosensor has shown good sensitivity as well as selectivity against other proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Moreover, the immunosensor was successfully applied in human serum samples showing capability to distinguish the HIES from the control samples.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 117: 84-90, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890394

RESUMO

Simultaneous and point-of-care detection of multiple protein biomarkers has significant impact on patient care. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) are well known progressive hereditary disorders associated with increased morbidity as well as mortality. Therefore, rapid detection of biomarkers specific for these three disorders in newborns offers new opportunities for early diagnosis, delaying symptoms and effective treatment. Here, we report the development of a disposable carbon nanofiber (CNF)-based electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous detection of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and DMD proteins. The CNF-modified array electrodes were first functionalized by electroreduction of carboxyphenyl diazonium salt. Then, the immunosensor was fabricated by the covalent immobilization of the three antibodies on the working electrodes of the array sensor via carbodiimide (EDC/NHS) chemistry. Simultaneous detection of CFTR, DMD and SMN1 was achieved with high sensitivity and detection limits of 0.9 pg/ml, 0.7 pg/ml and 0.74 pg/ml, respectively. The multiplexed immunosensor has also shown strong selectivity against non-specific proteins. Moreover, high recovery percentage was obtained when the immunosensor was applied in spiked whole blood samples. This voltammetric immunosensor offers cost effective, easy to use, rapid and high throughput potential screening method for these three hereditary disorders using only few drops of blood.

7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1025: 141-153, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801603

RESUMO

Metabolome, the ultimate functional product of the genome, can be studied through identification and quantification of small molecules. The global metabolome influences the individual phenotype through clinical and environmental interventions. Metabolomics has become an integral part of clinical research and allowed for another dimension of better understanding of disease pathophysiology and mechanism. More than 95% of the clinical biochemistry laboratory routine workload is based on small molecular identification, which can potentially be analyzed through metabolomics. However, multiple challenges in clinical metabolomics impact the entire workflow and data quality, thus the biological interpretation needs to be standardized for a reproducible outcome. Herein, we introduce the establishment of a comprehensive targeted metabolomics method for a panel of 220 clinically relevant metabolites using Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) standardized for clinical research. The sensitivity, reproducibility and molecular stability of each targeted metabolite (amino acids, organic acids, acylcarnitines, sugars, bile acids, neurotransmitters, polyamines, and hormones) were assessed under multiple experimental conditions. The metabolic tissue distribution was determined in various rat organs. Furthermore, the method was validated in dry blood spot (DBS) samples collected from patients known to have various inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs). Using this approach, our panel appears to be sensitive and robust as it demonstrated differential and unique metabolic profiles in various rat tissues. Also, as a prospective screening method, this panel of diverse metabolites has the ability to identify patients with a wide range of IEMs who otherwise may need multiple, time-consuming and expensive biochemical assays causing a delay in clinical management.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Immunol ; 9: 782, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713328

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) copy number analysis is an efficient tool for population-based newborn screening (NBS) for SCID and other T cell lymphopenias. We sought to assess the incidence of SCID among Saudi newborn population and examine the feasibility of using targeted next generation sequencing PID gene panel (T-NGS PID) on DNA isolated from dried blood spots (DBSs) in routine NBS programs as a mutation screening tool for samples with low TREC count. Punches from 8,718 DBS collected on Guthrie cards were processed anonymously for the TREC assay. DNA was extracted from samples with confirmed low TREC count, then screened for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by real-time polymerase chain reaction and for mutations in PID-related genes by T-NGS PID panel. Detected mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Sixteen out of the 8,718 samples were confirmed to have low TREC copy number. Autosomal recessive mutations in AK2, JAK3, and MTHFD1 were confirmed in three samples. Two additional samples were positive for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. In this study, we provide evidence for high incidence of SCID among Saudi population (1/2,906 live births) and demonstrate the feasibility of using T-NGS PID panel on DNA extracted from DBSs as a new reliable, rapid, and cost-effective mutation screening method for newborns with low TREC assay, which can be implemented as part of NBS programs for SCID.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503615

RESUMO

Dexamethasone (Dex) is a synthetic glucocorticoid that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects and is used in several conditions such as asthma and severe allergy. Patients receiving Dex, either at a high dose or for a long time, might develop several side effects such as hyperglycemia, weight change, or osteoporosis due to its in vivo non-selectivity. Herein, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based comprehensive targeted metabolomic profiling as well as radiographic imaging techniques to study the side effects of Dex treatment in rats. The Dex-treated rats suffered from a ∼20% reduction in weight gain, hyperglycemia (145 mg/dL), changes in serum lipids, and reduction in total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (∼600 IU/L). Also, compared to controls, Dex-treated rats showed a distinctive metabolomics profile. In particular, serum amino acids metabolism showed six-fold reduction in phenylalanine, lysine, and arginine levels and upregulation of tyrosine and hydroxyproline reflecting perturbations in gluconeogenesis and protein catabolism which together lead to weight loss and abnormal bone metabolism. Sorbitol level was markedly elevated secondary to hyperglycemia and reflecting activation of the polyol metabolism pathway causing a decrease in the availability of reducing molecules (glutathione, NADPH, NAD+). Overexpression of succinylacetone (4,6-dioxoheptanoic acid) suggests a novel inhibitory effect of Dex on hepatic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. The acylcarnitines, mainly the very long chain species (C12, C14:1, C18:1) were significantly increased after Dex treatment which reflects degradation of the adipose tissue. In conclusion, long-term Dex therapy in rats is associated with a distinctive metabolic profile which correlates with its side effects. Therefore, metabolomics based profiling may predict Dex treatment-related side effects and may offer possible novel therapeutic interventions.

10.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1236-1245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We delineate the clinical spectrum and describe the histology in arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by tortuosity of the large and medium-sized arteries, caused by mutations in SLC2A10. METHODS: We retrospectively characterized 40 novel ATS families (50 patients) and reviewed the 52 previously reported patients. We performed histology and electron microscopy (EM) on skin and vascular biopsies and evaluated TGF-ß signaling with immunohistochemistry for pSMAD2 and CTGF. RESULTS: Stenoses, tortuosity, and aneurysm formation are widespread occurrences. Severe but rare vascular complications include early and aggressive aortic root aneurysms, neonatal intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, and gastric perforation. Thus far, no reports unequivocally document vascular dissections or ruptures. Of note, diaphragmatic hernia and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) are frequently observed. Skin and vascular biopsies show fragmented elastic fibers (EF) and increased collagen deposition. EM of skin EF shows a fragmented elastin core and a peripheral mantle of microfibrils of random directionality. Skin and end-stage diseased vascular tissue do not indicate increased TGF-ß signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings warrant attention for IRDS and diaphragmatic hernia, close monitoring of the aortic root early in life, and extensive vascular imaging afterwards. EM on skin biopsies shows disease-specific abnormalities.

11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 101: 282-289, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096367

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy is an untreatable potentially fatal hereditary disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene which encodes the SMN protein. Currently, definitive diagnosis relies on the demonstration of biallelic pathogenic variants in SMN1 gene. Therefore, there is an urgent unmet need to accurately quantify SMN protein levels for screening and therapeutic monitoring of symptomatic newborn and SMA patients, respectively. Here, we developed a voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of SMN protein based on covalently functionalized carbon nanofiber-modified screen printed electrodes. A comparative study of six different carbon nanomaterial-modified electrodes (carbon, graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and carbon nanofiber (CNF)) was performed. 4-carboxyphenyl layers were covalently grafted on the six electrodes by electroreduction of diazonium salt. Then, the terminal carboxylic moieties on the electrodes surfaces were utilized to immobilize the SMN antibody via EDC/NHS chemistry and to fabricate the immunosensors. The electrochemical characterization and analytical performance of the six immunosensors suggest that carbon nanofiber is a better electrode material for the SMN immunosensor. The voltammetric SMN carbon nanofiber-based immunosensor showed high sensitivity (detection limit of 0.75pg/ml) and selectivity against other proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and dystrophin (DMD). We suggest that this novel biosensor is superior to other developed assays for SMN detection in terms of lower cost, higher sensitivity, simplicity and capability of high throughput screening.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Carbono/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/sangue , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Grafite/química , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Moleculares , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/sangue , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/diagnóstico , Nanofibras/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/análise
12.
Mass Spectrom Rev ; 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073341

RESUMO

Metabolomics, which is the metabolites profiling in biological matrices, is a key tool for biomarker discovery and personalized medicine and has great potential to elucidate the ultimate product of the genomic processes. Over the last decade, metabolomics studies have identified several relevant biomarkers involved in complex clinical phenotypes using diverse biological systems. Most diseases result in signature metabolic profiles that reflect the sums of external and internal cellular activities. Metabolomics has a major role in clinical practice as it represents >95% of the workload in clinical laboratories worldwide. Many of these metabolites require different analytical platforms, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry (MS), and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), while many clinically relevant metabolites are still not routinely amenable to detection using currently available assays. Combining metabolomics with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies will result in a significantly improved understanding of the disease mechanisms and the pathophysiology of the target clinical phenotype. This comprehensive approach will represent a major step forward toward providing precision medical care, in which individual is accounted for variability in genes, environment, and personal lifestyle. In this review, we compare and evaluate the metabolomics strategies and studies that focus on the discovery of biomarkers that have "personalized" diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value, validated for monitoring disease progression and responses to various management regimens.

13.
Neurol Genet ; 3(3): e151, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the underlying genetic cause in 2 sisters affected with progressive lower extremity spasticity, neuropathy, and early-onset deafness. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed, and segregation testing of variants was investigated using targeted Sanger sequencing. An inherited paternal mosaic mutation was further evaluated through quantitative analysis of the ratio of mutant vs wild-type allele in genomic DNA from various tissues, including blood, dermal fibroblasts, and saliva. RESULTS: A novel heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.1140C>A; p.Y380X) in SOX10 was identified in the affected sisters. Paternal mosaicism was suspected based on a small chromatogram peak, which was less than the heterozygous peak of the mutated allele. Consistent with mosaicism, the mosaic paternal samples had notable variability in the ratio of mutant vs wild-type allele in various tissues (compared with the fully heterozygous daughter), with the highest paternal mutant levels in saliva (32.7%) and lowest in dermal fibroblasts (13.9%). Targeted clinical re-examination of the father revealed a sensorimotor neuropathy that was previously clinically unrecognized. CONCLUSIONS: These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of SOX10-related neurocristopathy. Mutations in SOX10 should be considered in patients presenting with a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia that includes neuropathy and deafness. Diagnostic workup may be complicated, as SOX10 mutations can present in a mosaic state, with a mild clinical manifestation.

14.
Mol Ther ; 25(5): 1199-1208, 2017 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341561

RESUMO

Duvoglustat HCl (AT2220, 1-deoxynojirimycin) is an investigational pharmacological chaperone for the treatment of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency, which leads to the lysosomal storage disorder Pompe disease, which is characterized by progressive accumulation of lysosomal glycogen primarily in heart and skeletal muscles. The current standard of care is enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (alglucosidase alfa [AA], Genzyme). Based on preclinical data, oral co-administration of duvoglustat HCl with AA increases exposure of active levels in plasma and skeletal muscles, leading to greater substrate reduction in muscle. This phase 2a study consisted of an open-label, fixed-treatment sequence that evaluated the effect of single oral doses of 50 mg, 100 mg, 250 mg, or 600 mg duvoglustat HCl on the pharmacokinetics and tissue levels of intravenously infused AA (20 mg/kg) in Pompe patients. AA alone resulted in increases in total GAA activity and protein in plasma compared to baseline. Following co-administration with duvoglustat HCl, total GAA activity and protein in plasma were further increased 1.2- to 2.8-fold compared to AA alone in all 25 Pompe patients; importantly, muscle GAA activity was increased for all co-administration treatments from day 3 biopsy specimens. No duvoglustat-related adverse events or drug-related tolerability issues were identified.


Assuntos
1-Desoxinojirimicina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Glucosidases/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Feminino , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/enzimologia , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/patologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Lisossomos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Segurança do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , alfa-Glucosidases/sangue
16.
N Engl J Med ; 375(6): 545-55, 2016 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27509102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease, an X-linked disorder of lysosomal α-galactosidase deficiency, leads to substrate accumulation in multiple organs. Migalastat, an oral pharmacologic chaperone, stabilizes specific mutant forms of α-galactosidase, increasing enzyme trafficking to lysosomes. METHODS: The initial assay of mutant α-galactosidase forms that we used to categorize 67 patients with Fabry's disease for randomization to 6 months of double-blind migalastat or placebo (stage 1), followed by open-label migalastat from 6 to 12 months (stage 2) plus an additional year, had certain limitations. Before unblinding, a new, validated assay showed that 50 of the 67 participants had mutant α-galactosidase forms suitable for targeting by migalastat. The primary end point was the percentage of patients who had a response (≥50% reduction in the number of globotriaosylceramide inclusions per kidney interstitial capillary) at 6 months. We assessed safety along with disease substrates and renal, cardiovascular, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: The primary end-point analysis, involving patients with mutant α-galactosidase forms that were suitable or not suitable for migalastat therapy, did not show a significant treatment effect: 13 of 32 patients (41%) who received migalastat and 9 of 32 patients (28%) who received placebo had a response at 6 months (P=0.30). Among patients with suitable mutant α-galactosidase who received migalastat for up to 24 months, the annualized changes from baseline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and measured GFR were -0.30±0.66 and -1.51±1.33 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area, respectively. The left-ventricular-mass index decreased significantly from baseline (-7.7 g per square meter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -15.4 to -0.01), particularly when left ventricular hypertrophy was present (-18.6 g per square meter; 95% CI, -38.2 to 1.0). The severity of diarrhea, reflux, and indigestion decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Among all randomly assigned patients (with mutant α-galactosidase forms that were suitable or not suitable for migalastat therapy), the percentage of patients who had a response at 6 months did not differ significantly between the migalastat group and the placebo group. (Funded by Amicus Therapeutics; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00925301 [study AT1001-011] and NCT01458119 [study AT1001-041].).


Assuntos
1-Desoxinojirimicina/análogos & derivados , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/química , Triexosilceramidas/análise , alfa-Galactosidase/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/efeitos adversos , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Doença de Fabry/complicações , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Triexosilceramidas/urina , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Galactosidase/genética
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(6): 1780-1787, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular genetics techniques are an essential diagnostic tool for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). The use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a comprehensive way of concurrently screening a large number of PID genes. However, its validity and cost-effectiveness require verification. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify and overcome complications associated with the use of NGS in a comprehensive gene panel incorporating 162 PID genes. We aimed to ascertain the specificity, sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity of the gene panel and its utility as a diagnostic tool for PIDs. METHODS: A total of 162 PID genes were screened in 261 patients by using the Ion Torrent Proton NGS sequencing platform. Of the 261 patients, 122 had at least 1 known causal mutation at the onset of the study and were used to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The remaining samples were from unsolved cases that were biased toward more phenotypically and genotypically complicated cases. RESULTS: The assay was able to detect the mutation in 117 (96%) of 122 positive control subjects with known causal mutations. For the unsolved cases, our assay resulted in a molecular genetic diagnosis for 35 of 139 patients. Interestingly, most of these cases represented atypical clinical presentations of known PIDs. CONCLUSIONS: The targeted NGS PID gene panel is a sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic tool that can be used as a first-line molecular assay in patients with PIDs. The assay is an alternative choice to the complex and costly candidate gene approach, particularly for patients with atypical presentation of known PID genes.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Biologia Computacional , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fluxo de Trabalho
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(2): 402-12, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25724123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) also classified as autosomal recessive (AR) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Recognizing patients with CID/HIES is of clinical importance because of the difference in prognosis and management. OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the clinical features that distinguish DOCK8 deficiency from other forms of HIES and CIDs, study the mutational spectrum of DOCK8 deficiency, and report on the frequency of specific clinical findings. METHODS: Eighty-two patients from 60 families with CID and the phenotype of AR-HIES with (64 patients) and without (18 patients) DOCK8 mutations were studied. Support vector machines were used to compare clinical data from 35 patients with DOCK8 deficiency with those from 10 patients with AR-HIES without a DOCK8 mutation and 64 patients with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient patients had median IgE levels of 5201 IU, high eosinophil levels of usually at least 800/µL (92% of patients), and low IgM levels (62%). About 20% of patients were lymphopenic, mainly because of low CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts. Fewer than half of the patients tested produced normal specific antibody responses to recall antigens. Bacterial (84%), viral (78%), and fungal (70%) infections were frequently observed. Skin abscesses (60%) and allergies (73%) were common clinical problems. In contrast to STAT3 deficiency, there were few pneumatoceles, bone fractures, and teething problems. Mortality was high (34%). A combination of 5 clinical features was helpful in distinguishing patients with DOCK8 mutations from those with STAT3 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: DOCK8 deficiency is likely in patients with severe viral infections, allergies, and/or low IgM levels who have a diagnosis of HIES plus hypereosinophilia and upper respiratory tract infections in the absence of parenchymal lung abnormalities, retained primary teeth, and minimal trauma fractures.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Fenótipo , Dermatopatias/complicações , Viroses/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/genética , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Lactente , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/mortalidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Sobrevida , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/mortalidade
19.
JAMA ; 313(7): 695-706, 2015 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25688781

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Gaucher disease type 1 is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and skeletal disease. A safe, effective oral therapy is needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether eliglustat, a novel oral substrate reduction therapy, safely reverses clinical manifestations in untreated adults with Gaucher disease type 1. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 18 sites in 12 countries from November 2009 to July 2012 among eligible patients with splenomegaly plus thrombocytopenia and/or anemia. Of 72 patients screened, 40 were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were stratified by spleen volume and randomized 1:1 to receive eliglustat (50 or 100 mg twice daily; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 9 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary efficacy end point was percentage change in spleen volume in multiples of normal from baseline to 9 months; secondary efficacy end points were change in hemoglobin level and percentage changes in liver volume and platelet count. RESULTS: All patients had baseline splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia (mostly moderate or severe), most had mild or moderate hepatomegaly, and 20% had mild anemia. Least-square mean spleen volume decreased by 27.77% (95% CI, -32.57% to -22.97%) in the eliglustat group (from 13.89 to 10.17 multiples of normal) vs an increase of 2.26% (95% CI, -2.54% to 7.06%) in the placebo group (from 12.50 to 12.84 multiples of normal) for an absolute treatment difference of -30.03% (95% CI, -36.82% to -23.24%; P < .001). For the secondary end points, the least-square mean absolute differences between groups all favored eliglustat, with a 1.22-g/dL increase in hemoglobin level (95% CI, 0.57-1.88 g/dL; P < .001), 6.64% decrease in liver volume (95% CI, -11.37% to -1.91%; P = .007), and 41.06% increase in platelet count (95% CI, 23.95%-58.17%; P < .001). No serious adverse events occurred. One patient in the eliglustat group withdrew (non-treatment related); 39 of the 40 patients transitioned to an open-label extension study. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among previously untreated adults with Gaucher disease type 1, treatment with eliglustat compared with placebo for 9 months resulted in significant improvements in spleen volume, hemoglobin level, liver volume, and platelet count. The clinical significance of these findings is uncertain, and more definitive conclusions about clinical efficacy and utility will require comparison with the standard treatment of enzyme replacement therapy as well as longer-term follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00891202.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Gaucher/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Doença de Gaucher/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Baço/patologia , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 25(4): 321-32, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617983

RESUMO

Emerging phenotypes in long-term survivors with Pompe disease on standard enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) (alglucosidase alfa 20 mg/kg/2 weeks) can include patients with worsening motor function. Whether higher doses of ERT improve skeletal function in these patients has not been systematically studied. This exploratory, randomized, open-label, 52-week study examined the safety and efficacy of 2 ERT regimens of alglucosidase alfa (20 mg/kg/week or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks) in 13 patients with Pompe disease and clinical decline or a lack of improvement on standard ERT: late-onset (n = 4), infantile-onset (n = 9). Cross-reactive immunologic material assay-negative patients were excluded. Eleven of 13 patients completed the study. Trends for improvement were seen in total gross motor function, but not mobility; however, 6 (late-onset, 2; infantile-onset, 4) of 11 patients (55%) who met the entry criteria of motor decline (late-onset, 4; infantile-onset, 7) showed improvement in motor and/or mobility skills. No between-regimen differences in efficacy emerged. Two case studies highlight the benefits of increased ERT dose in patients with Pompe disease experiencing clinical decline. Both alternative regimens were generally well tolerated. This study was limited by the small sample size, which is not uncommon for small clinical studies of rare diseases. Additionally, the study did not include direct assessment of muscle pathology, which may have identified potential causes of decreased response to ERT. Results were inconclusive but suggest that increased ERT dose may be beneficial in some patients with Pompe disease experiencing motor decline. Controlled studies are needed to clarify the benefits and risks of this strategy.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , alfa-Glucosidases/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Doença de Depósito de Glicogênio Tipo II/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Glucosidases/efeitos adversos
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