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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5549, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218495

RESUMO

Stochastic resonance (SR) is an ingenious phenomenon observed in nature and in biological systems but has seen very few practical applications in engineering. It has been observed and analyzed in widely different natural phenomenon including in bio-organisms (e.g. Mechanoreceptor of crayfish) and in environmental sciences (e.g. the periodic occurrence of ice ages). The main idea behind SR seems quite unorthodox - it proposes that noise, that is intrinsically present in a system or is extrinsically added, can help enhance the signal power at the output, in a desired frequency range. Despite its promise and ubiquitous presence in nature, SR has not been successively harnessed in engineering applications. In this work, we demonstrate both experimentally as well as theoretically how the intrinsic threshold noise of an insulator-metal-transition (IMT) material can enable SR. We borrow inspiration from natural systems which use SR to detect and amplify low-amplitude signals, to demonstrate how a simple electrical circuit which uses an IMT device can exploit SR in engineering applications. We explore two such applications: one of them utilizes noise to correctly transmit signals corresponding to different vowel sounds akin to auditory nerves, without amplifying the amplitude of the input audio sound. This finds applications in cochlear implants where ultra-low power consumption is a primary requirement. The second application leverages the frequency response of SR, where the loss of resonance at out-of-band frequencies is used. We demonstrate how to provide frequency selectivity by tuning an extrinsically added noise to the system.

2.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456659

RESUMO

As computational models inspired by the biological neural system, spiking neural networks (SNN) continue to demonstrate great potential in the landscape of artificial intelligence, particularly in tasks such as recognition, inference, and learning. While SNN focuses on achieving high-level intelligence of individual creatures, Swarm Intelligence (SI) is another type of bio-inspired models that mimic the collective intelligence of biological swarms, i.e., bird flocks, fish school and ant colonies. SI algorithms provide efficient and practical solutions to many difficult optimization problems through multi-agent metaheuristic search. Bridging these two distinct subfields of artificial intelligence has the potential to harness collective behavior and learning ability of biological systems. In this work, we explore the feasibility of connecting these two models by implementing a generalized SI model on SNN. In the proposed computing paradigm, we use SNNs to represent agents in the swarm and encode problem solutions with the spike firing rate and with spike timing. The coupled neurons communicate and modulate each other's action potentials through event-driven spikes and synchronize their dynamics around the states of optimal solutions. We demonstrate that such an SI-SNN model is capable of efficiently solving optimization problems, such as parameter optimization of continuous functions and a ubiquitous combinatorial optimization problem, namely, the traveling salesman problem with near-optimal solutions. Furthermore, we demonstrate an efficient implementation of such neural dynamics on an emerging hardware platform, namely ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) based spiking neurons. Such an emerging in-silico neuron is composed of a compact 1T-1FeFET structure with both excitatory and inhibitory inputs. We show that the designed neuromorphic system can serve as an optimization solver with high-performance and high energy-efficiency.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3299, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341167

RESUMO

The striking similarity between biological locomotion gaits and the evolution of phase patterns in coupled oscillatory network can be traced to the role of central pattern generator located in the spinal cord. Bio-inspired robotics aim at harnessing this control approach for generation of rhythmic patterns for synchronized limb movement. Here, we utilize the phenomenon of synchronization and emergent spatiotemporal pattern from the interaction among coupled oscillators to generate a range of locomotion gait patterns. We experimentally demonstrate a central pattern generator network using capacitively coupled Vanadium Dioxide nano-oscillators. The coupled oscillators exhibit stable limit-cycle oscillations and tunable natural frequencies for real-time programmability of phase-pattern. The ultra-compact 1 Transistor-1 Resistor implementation of oscillator and bidirectional capacitive coupling allow small footprint area and low operating power. Compared to biomimetic CMOS based neuron and synapse models, our design simplifies on-chip implementation and real-time tunability by reducing the number of control parameters.


Assuntos
Geradores de Padrão Central/fisiologia , Marcha , Nanotecnologia , Robótica , Relógios Biológicos , Nanopartículas , Óxidos , Compostos de Vanádio
4.
Nanoscale ; 11(13): 6016-6022, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869095

RESUMO

The 1T phase of tantalum disulfide (1T-TaS2) possesses a variety of charge-density-wave (CDW) orders, and as a result, it attracts an increasing amount of academic and technological interest. Researchers have devoted tremendous efforts towards understanding the impacts of doping, alloying, intercalation or other triggering agents on its charge density wave orders. In this work, we demonstrate that incorporating potassium chloride (KCl) during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of TaS2 can control the phase (1T, 2H or metal nanowires) via the intercalation of potassium ions (K+) between TaS2 layers. Finally, we demonstrate that K+ not only impacts the structure during synthesis but also strongly impacts the CDW phase transition as a function of temperature, increasing the nearly commensurate (NCCDW) to commensurate (CCDW) transition to just below room temperature.

5.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 210, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670508

RESUMO

Artificial neural networks can harness stochasticity in multiple ways to enable a vast class of computationally powerful models. Boltzmann machines and other stochastic neural networks have been shown to outperform their deterministic counterparts by allowing dynamical systems to escape local energy minima. Electronic implementation of such stochastic networks is currently limited to addition of algorithmic noise to digital machines which is inherently inefficient; albeit recent efforts to harness physical noise in devices for stochasticity have shown promise. To succeed in fabricating electronic neuromorphic networks we need experimental evidence of devices with measurable and controllable stochasticity which is complemented with the development of reliable statistical models of such observed stochasticity. Current research literature has sparse evidence of the former and a complete lack of the latter. This motivates the current article where we demonstrate a stochastic neuron using an insulator-metal-transition (IMT) device, based on electrically induced phase-transition, in series with a tunable resistance. We show that an IMT neuron has dynamics similar to a piecewise linear FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron and incorporates all characteristics of a spiking neuron in the device phenomena. We experimentally demonstrate spontaneous stochastic spiking along with electrically controllable firing probabilities using Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) based IMT neurons which show a sigmoid-like transfer function. The stochastic spiking is explained by two noise sources - thermal noise and threshold fluctuations, which act as precursors of bifurcation. As such, the IMT neuron is modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process with a fluctuating boundary resulting in transfer curves that closely match experiments. The moments of interspike intervals are calculated analytically by extending the first-passage-time (FPT) models for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process to include a fluctuating boundary. We find that the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals depend on the relative proportion of thermal and threshold noise, where threshold noise is the dominant source in the current experimental demonstrations. As one of the first comprehensive studies of a stochastic neuron hardware and its statistical properties, this article would enable efficient implementation of a large class of neuro-mimetic networks and algorithms.

6.
Nanoscale ; 10(20): 9441-9449, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663006

RESUMO

Large banks of cheap, fast, non-volatile, energy efficient, scalable solid-state memories are an increasingly essential component for today's data intensive computing. Conductive-bridge random access memory (CBRAM) - which involves voltage driven formation and dissolution of Cu or Ag filaments in a Cu (or Ag) anode/dielectric (HfO2 or Al2O3)/inert cathode device - possesses the necessary attributes to fit the requirements. Cu and Ag are, however, fast diffusers and known contaminants in silicon microelectronics. Herein, employing a criterion for electrode metal selection applicable to cationic filamentary devices and using first principles calculations for estimating diffusion barriers in HfO2, we identify tin (Sn) as a rational, silicon CMOS compatible replacement for Cu and Ag anodes in CBRAM devices. We then experimentally fabricate Sn based CBRAM devices and demonstrate very fast, steep-slope memory switching as well as threshold switching, comparable to Cu or Ag based devices. Furthermore, time evolution of the cationic filament formation along with the switching mechanism is discussed based on time domain measurements (I vs. t) carried out under constant voltage stress. The time to threshold is shown to be a function of both the voltage stress (Vstress) as well as the initial leakage current (I0) through the device.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6120, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651031

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 28(40): 405201, 2017 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836505

RESUMO

We report the results of finite element simulations of the ON state characteristic of VO2-based threshold switching devices and compare the results with experimental data. The model is based on thermally induced threshold switching (thermal runaway) and successfully reproduces the I-V characteristics showing the formation and growth of the conductive filament in the ON state. Furthermore, we compare the I-V characteristics for two VO2 films with different electrical conductivities in the insulating and metallic phases as well as those based on TaO x and NbO x functional layers.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(18): 15848-15856, 2017 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380291

RESUMO

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has matured into a preeminent thin film deposition technique by offering a highly scalable and economic route to integrate chemically dissimilar materials with excellent thickness control down to the subnanometer regime. Contrary to its extensive applications, a quantitative and comprehensive understanding of the reaction processes seems intangible. Complex and manifold reaction pathways are possible, which are strongly affected by the surface chemical state. Here, we report a combined modeling and experimental approach utilizing ReaxFF reactive force field simulation and in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry to gain insights into the ALD process of Al2O3 from trimethylaluminum and water on hydrogenated and oxidized Ge(100) surfaces. We deciphered the origin for the different peculiarities during initial ALD cycles for the deposition on both surfaces. While the simulations predicted a nucleation delay for hydrogenated Ge(100), a self-cleaning effect was discovered on oxidized Ge(100) surfaces and resulted in an intermixed Al2O3/GeOx layer that effectively suppressed oxygen diffusion into Ge. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry in combination with ex situ atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed these simulation results. Electrical impedance characterizations evidenced the critical role of the intermixed Al2O3/GeOx layer to achieve electrically well-behaved dielectric/Ge interfaces with low interface trap density. The combined approach can be generalized to comprehend the deposition and reaction kinetics of other ALD precursors and surface chemistry, which offers a path toward a theory-aided rational design of ALD processes at a molecular level.

10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 911, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424457

RESUMO

While Boolean logic has been the backbone of digital information processing, there exist classes of computationally hard problems wherein this paradigm is fundamentally inefficient. Vertex coloring of graphs, belonging to the class of combinatorial optimization, represents one such problem. It is well studied for its applications in data sciences, life sciences, social sciences and technology, and hence, motivates alternate, more efficient non-Boolean pathways towards its solution. Here we demonstrate a coupled relaxation oscillator based dynamical system that exploits insulator-metal transition in Vanadium Dioxide (VO2) to efficiently solve vertex coloring of graphs. Pairwise coupled VO2 oscillator circuits have been analyzed before for basic computing operations, but using complex networks of VO2 oscillators, or any other oscillators, for more complex tasks have been challenging in theory as well as in experiments. The proposed VO2 oscillator network harnesses the natural analogue between optimization problems and energy minimization processes in highly parallel, interconnected dynamical systems to approximate optimal coloring of graphs. We further indicate a fundamental connection between spectral properties of linear dynamical systems and spectral algorithms for graph coloring. Our work not only elucidates a physics-based computing approach but also presents tantalizing opportunities for building customized analog co-processors for solving hard problems efficiently.

11.
Nat Mater ; 15(11): 1166-1171, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571451

RESUMO

The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials 'beyond graphene' offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (∼5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides 'beyond hBN' and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(20): 12908-14, 2016 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136956

RESUMO

DC and pulse voltage-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in epitaxial VO2 two terminal devices were measured at various stage temperatures. The power needed to switch the device to the ON-state decrease linearly with increasing stage temperature, which can be explained by the Joule heating effect. During transient voltage induced MIT measurement, the incubation time varied across 6 orders of magnitude. Both DC I-V characteristic and incubation times calculated from the electrothermal simulations show good agreement with measured values, indicating Joule heating effect is the cause of MIT with no evidence of electronic effects. The width of the metallic filament in the ON-state of the device was extracted and simulated within the thermal model.

13.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7812, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249212

RESUMO

Collective interactions in functional materials can enable novel macroscopic properties like insulator-to-metal transitions. While implementing such materials into field-effect-transistor technology can potentially augment current state-of-the-art devices by providing unique routes to overcome their conventional limits, attempts to harness the insulator-to-metal transition for high-performance transistors have experienced little success. Here, we demonstrate a pathway for harnessing the abrupt resistivity transformation across the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), to design a hybrid-phase-transition field-effect transistor that exhibits gate controlled steep ('sub-kT/q') and reversible switching at room temperature. The transistor design, wherein VO2 is implemented in series with the field-effect transistor's source rather than into the channel, exploits negative differential resistance induced across the VO2 to create an internal amplifier that facilitates enhanced performance over a conventional field-effect transistor. Our approach enables low-voltage complementary n-type and p-type transistor operation as demonstrated here, and is applicable to other insulator-to-metal transition materials, offering tantalizing possibilities for energy-efficient logic and memory applications.

14.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7311, 2015 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088295

RESUMO

Vertical integration of two-dimensional van der Waals materials is predicted to lead to novel electronic and optical properties not found in the constituent layers. Here, we present the direct synthesis of two unique, atomically thin, multi-junction heterostructures by combining graphene with the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). The realization of MoS2-WSe2-graphene and WSe2-MoS2-graphene heterostructures leads to resonant tunnelling in an atomically thin stack with spectrally narrow, room temperature negative differential resistance characteristics.

15.
Nano Lett ; 15(3): 1861-6, 2015 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25626012

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate abrupt, reversible switching of resistance in 1T-TaS2 using dc and pulsed sources, corresponding to an insulator-metal transition between the insulating Mott and equilibrium metallic states. This transition occurs at a constant critical resistivity of 7 mohm-cm regardless of temperature or bias conditions and the transition time is significantly smaller than abrupt transitions by avalanche breakdown in other small gap Mott insulating materials. Furthermore, this critical resistivity corresponds to a carrier density of 4.5 × 10(19) cm(-3), which compares well with the critical carrier density for the commensurate to nearly commensurate charge density wave transition. These results suggest that the transition is facilitated by a carrier driven collapse of the Mott gap in 1T-TaS2, which results in fast (3 ns) switching.

16.
ACS Nano ; 9(2): 2009-17, 2015 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25632880

RESUMO

Quantitative impedance mapping of the spatially inhomogeneous insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is performed with a lateral resolution of 50 nm through near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) at 16 GHz. SMM is used to measure spatially resolved electronic properties of the phase coexistence in an unstrained VO2 film during the electrically as well as thermally induced IMT. A quantitative impedance map of both the electrically driven filamentary conduction and the thermally induced bulk transition is established. This was modeled as a 2-D heterogeneous resistive network where the distribution function of the IMT temperature across the sample is captured. Applying the resistive network model for the electrically induced IMT case, we reproduce the filamentary nature of electronically induced IMT, which elucidates a cascading avalanche effect triggered by the local electric field across nanoscale insulating and metallic domains.

17.
Nano Lett ; 14(12): 6936-41, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25383798

RESUMO

Heterogeneous engineering of two-dimensional layered materials, including metallic graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, presents an exciting opportunity to produce highly tunable electronic and optoelectronic systems. In order to engineer pristine layers and their interfaces, epitaxial growth of such heterostructures is required. We report the direct growth of crystalline, monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) on epitaxial graphene (EG) grown from silicon carbide. Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning tunneling microscopy confirm high-quality WSe2 monolayers, whereas transmission electron microscopy shows an atomically sharp interface, and low energy electron diffraction confirms near perfect orientation between WSe2 and EG. Vertical transport measurements across the WSe2/EG heterostructure provides evidence that an additional barrier to carrier transport beyond the expected WSe2/EG band offset exists due to the interlayer gap, which is supported by theoretical local density of states (LDOS) calculations using self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF).


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Membranas Artificiais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Selênio/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Teste de Materiais
18.
Nano Lett ; 14(11): 6115-20, 2014 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268467

RESUMO

We locally investigate the electronic transport through individual tunnel junctions containing a 10 nm thin film of vanadium dioxide (VO2) across its thermally induced phase transition. The insulator-to-metal phase transition in the VO2 film collapses the Hubbard gap (experimentally determined to be 0.4 ± 0.07 V), leading to several orders of magnitude change in tunnel conductance. We quantitatively evaluate underlying transport mechanisms via theoretical quantum mechanical transport calculations which show excellent agreement with the experimental results.

19.
Nano Lett ; 14(2): 626-33, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24382089

RESUMO

The III-V semiconductors such as In x Ga 1-x As (x = 0.53-0.70) have attracted significant interest in the context of low power digital complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology due to their superior transport properties. However, top-down patterning of III-V semiconductor thin films into strongly confined quasi-one-dimensional (1D) nanowire geometries can potentially degrade the transport properties. To date, few reports exist regarding transport measurement in multigate nanowire structures. In this work, we report a novel methodology for characterizing electron transport in III-V multigate nanowire field effect transistors (NWFETs). We demonstrate multigate NWFETs integrated with probe electrodes in Hall Bridge geometry to enable four-point measurements of both longitudinal and transverse resistance. This allows for the first time accurate extraction of Hall mobility and its dependence on carrier concentration in III-V NWFETs. Furthermore, it is shown that by implementing parallel arrays of nanowires, it is possible to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, enabling more reliable measurement of Hall voltage (carrier concentration) and, hence, mobility. We characterize the mobility for various nanowire widths down to 40 nm and observe a monotonic reduction in mobility compared to planar devices. Despite this reduction, III-V NWFET mobility is shown to outperform state-of-the-art strained silicon NWFETs. Finally, we demonstrate evidence of room -temperature ballistic transport, a desirable property in the context of short channel transistors, in strongly confined III-V nanowire junctions using magneto-transport measurements in a nanoscale Hall-cross structure.

20.
Science ; 341(6142): 140-1, 2013 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23846898
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