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1.
Inorg Chem ; 58(23): 15962-15970, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713423

RESUMO

Thermodynamic properties of the complexation of 2,2'-(trifluoroazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (CF3ABDMA) with U(VI), Nd(III), and Np(V) have been studied in 1.0 M NaNO3 at 25 °C. Equilibrium constants of the complexation were determined by potentiometry and spectrophotometry. In comparison with a series of structurally related amine-bridged diacetamide ligands, including 2,2'-(benzylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (BnABDMA), 2,2'-azanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (ABDMA), and 2,2'-(methylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (MABDMA), CF3ABDMA forms weaker complexes with U(VI), Nd(III), and Np(V) due to the lower basicity of the center N atom in CF3ABDMA resulting from the attachment of the strong electron-withdrawing CF3- moiety. The complexation strength of CF3ABDMA with the three metal ions follows the order: UO22+ > Nd3+ > NpO2+, consistent with the order of the "effective" charges of the metal ions. Structural information on the U(VI)/CF3ABDMA complexes in solution and in solid was obtained by theoretical computation, single crystal X-ray diffractometry, 19F NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The structural data indicate that, similar to the three previously studied amine-bridged diacetamide ligands (BnABDMA, ABDMA, and MABDMA), the CF3ABDMA ligand coordinates to UO22+ in a tridentate mode, through the center nitrogen and the two amide oxygen atoms.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 57(15): 9453-9467, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040397

RESUMO

Pentavalent actinyl nitrate complexes AnVO2(NO3)2- were produced by elimination of two NO2 from AnIII(NO3)4- for An = Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, and Cf. Density functional theory (B3LYP) and relativistic multireference (CASPT2) calculations confirmed the AnO2(NO3)2- as AnVO2+ actinyl moieties coordinated by nitrates. Computations of alternative AnIIIO2(NO3)2- and AnIVO2(NO3)2- revealed significantly higher energies. Previous computations for bare AnO2+ indicated AnVO2+ for An = Pu, Am, Cf, and Bk, but CmIIIO2+: electron donation from nitrate ligands has here stabilized the first CmV complex, CmVO2(NO3)2-. Structural parameters and bonding analyses indicate increasing An-NO3 bond covalency from Pu to Cf, in accordance with principles for actinide separations. Atomic ionization energies effectively predict relative stabilities of oxidation states; more reliable energies are needed for the actinides.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 57(4): 2122-2131, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394057

RESUMO

The stability constants (log ß), enthalpies of complexation (ΔH), and entropies of complexation (ΔS) for the complexes of uranium(VI) with a series of amine-functionalized diaetamide ligands, 2,2'-benzylazanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (BnABDMA), 2,2'-azanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (ABDMA), and 2,2'-methylazanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (MABDMA), in aqueous solution were determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. Electronspray ionization mass spectrometry was used to verify the presence of uranium(VI) complexes in solution. The thermodynamic data indicate that the binding strengths of the three ligands with UO22+ follow the order BnABDMA < ABDMA < MABDMA, parallel to the order of the protonation constants as well as the order of the stability of the Nd3+ complexes, suggesting that the complexation of UO22+ with the ligands consist predominantly of electrostatic interactions. Denisty functional theory calculations were conducted to reveal the structures, electronic charge distribution, and energetics of the uranium(VI) complexes, providing insight into the thermodynamic trends of the complexation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to identify the structures of the uranium(VI) complexes in aqueous solution.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(47): 9156-9162, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136367

RESUMO

The highest known actinide oxidation states are Np(VII) and Pu(VII), both of which have been identified in solution and solid compounds. Recently a molecular Np(VII) complex, NpO3(NO3)2-, was prepared and characterized in the gas phase. In accord with the lower stability of heptavalent Pu, no Pu(VII) molecular species has been identified. Reported here are the gas-phase syntheses and characterizations of NpO4- and PuO4-. Reactivity studies and density functional theory computations indicate the heptavalent metal oxidation state in both. This is the first instance of Pu(VII) in the absence of stabilizing effects due to condensed phase solvation or crystal fields. The results indicate that addition of an electron to neutral PuO4, which has a computed electron affinity of 2.56 eV, counterintuitively results in oxidation of Pu(V) to Pu(VII), concomitant with superoxide reduction.

5.
Chemistry ; 23(68): 17369-17378, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024093

RESUMO

Actinyl chemistry is extended beyond Cm to BkO2+ and CfO2+ through transfer of an O atom from NO2 to BkO+ or CfO+ , establishing a surprisingly high lower limit of 73 kcal mol-1 for the dissociation energies, D[O-(BkO+ )] and D[O-(CfO+ )]. CCSD(T) computations are in accord with the observed reactions, and characterize the newly observed dioxide ions as linear pentavalent actinyls; these being the first Bk and Cf species with oxidation states above IV. Computations of actinide dioxide cations AnO2+ for An=Pa to Lr reveal an unexpected minimum for D[O-(CmO+ )]. For CmO2+ , and AnO2+ beyond EsO2+ , the most stable structure has side-on bonded η2 -(O2 ), as AnIII peroxides for An=Cm and Lr, and as AnII superoxides for An=Fm, Md, and No. It is predicted that the most stable structure of EsO2+ is linear [O=EsV =O]+ , einsteinyl, and that FmO2+ and MdO2+ , like CmO2+ , also have actinyl(V) structures as local energy minima. The results expand actinide oxidation state chemistry, the realm of the distinctive actinyl moiety, and the non-periodic character towards the end of the periodic table.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 56(21): 12930-12937, 2017 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019408

RESUMO

Recent efforts to activate the strong uranium-oxygen bonds in the dioxo uranyl cation have been limited to single oxo-group activation through either uranyl reduction and functionalization in solution, or by collision induced dissociation (CID) in the gas-phase, using mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we report and investigate the surprising double activation of uranyl by an organic ligand, 3,4,3-LI(CAM), leading to the formation of a formal U6+ chelate in the gas-phase. The cleavage of both uranyl oxo bonds was experimentally evidenced by CID, using deuterium and 18O isotopic substitutions, and by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) computations predict that the overall reaction requires only 132 kJ/mol, with the first oxygen activation entailing about 107 kJ/mol. Combined with analysis of similar, but unreactive ligands, these results shed light on the chelation-driven mechanism of uranyl oxo bond cleavage, demonstrating its dependence on the presence of ligand hydroxyl protons available for direct interactions with the uranyl oxygens.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 56(6): 3686-3694, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276685

RESUMO

The synthesis, reactivity, structures, and bonding in gas-phase binary and complex oxide anion molecules of protactinium and uranium have been studied by experiment and theory. The oxalate ions, AnVO2(C2O4)-, where An = Pa or U, are essentially actinyl ions, AnVO2+, coordinated by an oxalate dianion. Both react with water to yield the pentavalent hydroxides, AnVO(OH)2(C2O4)-. The chemistry of Pa and U becomes divergent for reactions that result in oxidation: whereas PaVI is inaccessible, UVI is very stable. The UVO2(C2O4)- complex exhibits a remarkable spontaneous exothermic replacement of the oxalate ligand by O2 to yield UO4- and two CO2 molecules. The structure of the uranium tetroxide anion is computed to correspond to distorted uranyl, UVIO22+, coordinated in the equatorial plane by two equivalent O atoms each having formal charges of -1.5 and U-O bond orders intermediate between single and double. The unreactive nature of PaVO2(C2O4)- toward O2 is a manifestation of the resistance toward oxidation of PaV, and clearly reveals the disparate chemistries of Pa and U. The uranium tetroxide anion, UO4-, reacts with water to yield UO5H2-. Infrared spectra obtained for UO5H2- confirm the computed lowest-energy structure, UO3(OH)2-.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 56(7): 4186-4196, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28294605

RESUMO

The gas-phase uranyl peroxide dimer, [(UO2)2(O2)(L)2]2+ where L = 2,2'-trifluoroethylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide), was synthesized by electrospray ionization of a solution of UO22+ and L. Collision-induced dissociation of this dimer resulted in endothermic O atom elimination to give [(UO2)2(O)(L)2]2+, which was found to spontaneously react with water via exothermic hydrolytic chemisorption to yield [(UO2)2(OH)2(L)2]2+. Density functional theory computations of the energies for the gas-phase reactions are in accord with observations. The structures of the observed uranyl dimer were computed, with that of the peroxide of particular interest, as a basis to evaluate the formation of condensed phase uranyl peroxides with bent structures. The computed dihedral angle in [(UO2)2(O2)(L)2]2+ is 145°, indicating a substantial deviation from the planar structure with a dihedral angle of 180°. Energies needed to induce bending in the most elementary gas-phase uranyl peroxide complex, [(UO2)2(O2)]2+, were computed. It was found that bending from the lowest-energy planar structure to dihedral angles up to 140° required energies of <10 kJ/mol. The gas-phase results demonstrate the inherent stability of the uranyl peroxide moiety and support the notion that the uranyl-peroxide-uranyl structural unit is intrinsically planar, with only minor energy perturbations needed to form the bent structures found in studtite and uranyl peroxide nanostructures.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 55(19): 9830-9837, 2016 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27631457

RESUMO

A central goal of chemistry is to achieve ultimate oxidation states, including in gas-phase complexes with no condensed phase perturbations. In the case of the actinide elements, the highest established oxidation states are labile Pu(VII) and somewhat more stable Np(VII). We have synthesized and characterized gas-phase AnO3(NO3)2- complexes for An = U, Np, and Pu by endothermic NO2 elimination from AnO2(NO3)3-. It was previously demonstrated that the PuO3+ core of PuO3(NO3)2- has a Pu-O• radical bond such that the oxidation state is Pu(VI); it follows that in UO3(NO3)2- it is the stable U(VI) oxidation state. On the basis of the relatively more facile synthesis of NpO3(NO3)2-, a Np(VII) oxidation state is inferred. This interpretation is substantiated by reactivity of the three complexes: NO2 spontaneously adds to UO3(NO3)2- and PuO3(NO3)2- but not to NpO3(NO3)2-. This unreactive character is attributed to a Np(VII)O3+ core with three stable Np═O bonds, this in contrast to reactive U-O• and Pu-O• radical bonds. The computed structures and reaction energies for the three AnO3(NO3)2- support the conclusion that the oxidation states are U(VI), Np(VII), and Pu(VI). The results establish the extreme Np(VII) oxidation state in a gas-phase complex, and demonstrate the inherently greater stability of Np(VII) versus Pu(VII).

10.
Dalton Trans ; 45(31): 12338-45, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424652

RESUMO

The divalent oxidation state is increasingly stable relative to the trivalent state for the later actinide elements, with californium the first actinide to exhibit divalent chemistry under moderate conditions. Although there is evidence for divalent Cf in solution and solid compounds, there are no reports of discrete complexes in which Cf(II) is coordinated by anionic ligands. Described here is the divalent Cf methanesulfinate coordination complex, Cf(II)(CH3SO2)3(-), prepared in the gas phase by reductive elimination of CH3SO2 from Cf(III)(CH3SO2)4(-). Comparison with synthesis of the corresponding Sm and Cm complexes reveals reduction of Cf(III) and Sm(III), and no evidence for reduction of Cm(III). This reflects the comparative 3+/2+ reduction potentials: Cf(3+) (-1.60 V) ≈ Sm(3+) (-1.55 V) ≫ Cm(3+) (-3.7 V). Association of O2 to the divalent complexes is attributed to formation of superoxides, with recovery of the trivalent oxidation state. The new gas-phase chemistry of californium, now the heaviest element to have been studied in this manner, provides evidence for Cf(II) coordination complexes and similar chemistry of Cf and Sm.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 45(30): 11968-75, 2016 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27222301

RESUMO

A series of amine functionalized ligands, including 2,2'-(benzylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (BnABDMA), 2,2'-azanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (ABDMA), and 2,2'-(methylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (MABDMA), are synthesized for the thermodynamic study of their complexation with Nd(3+) ions. Their complexation in solution is investigated using potentiometry, spectrophotometry, calorimetry, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results suggest that these ligands act as tridentate ligands. Furthermore, direct comparison between ABDMA and an analogous ether-functionalized ligand, 2,2'-oxybis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (TMDGA), showed that the amine functionalized ligand forms thermodynamically stronger complexes with Nd(3+) ions than the ether-functionalized ligand. In addition, the amine functionalized ligand can allow the fine-tuning of the binding strength with metal ions via substitution on the central amine N atom with different functional groups, which is not possible for ether functionalized ligands such as TMDGA.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(10): 7334-40, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898535

RESUMO

Activation of CO2 is demonstrated by its spontaneous dissociative reaction with the gas-phase anion complex NUOCl2(-), which can be considered as NUO(+) coordinated by two chloride anion ligands. This reaction was previously predicted by density functional theory to occur exothermically, without barriers above the reactant energy. The present results demonstrate the validity of the prediction of microscopic reversibility, and provide a rare case of spontaneous dissociative addition of CO2 to a gas-phase complex. The activation of CO2 by NUOCl2(-) proceeds by conversion of a U[triple bond, length as m-dash]N bond to a U[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond and creation of an isocyanate ligand to yield the complex UO2(NCO)Cl2(-), in which uranyl, UO2(2+), is coordinated by one isocyanate and two chloride anion ligands. This activation of CO2 by a uranium(vi) nitride complex is distinctive from previous reports of oxidative insertion of CO2 into lower oxidation state U(iii) or U(iv) solid complexes, during which both C-O bonds remain intact. This unusual observation of spontaneous addition and activation of CO2 by NUOCl2(-) is a result of the high oxophilicity of uranium. If the computed Gibbs free energy of the reaction pathway, rather than the energy, is considered, there are barriers above the reactant asymptotes such that the observed reaction should not proceed under thermal conditions. This result provides a demonstration that energy rather than Gibbs free energy determines reactivity under low-pressure bimolecular conditions.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 54(17): 8755-60, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26273901

RESUMO

The gas-phase complexes AnO2(CH3CO2)2(-) are actinyl(V) cores, An(V)O2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), coordinated by two acetate anion ligands. Whereas the addition of O2 to U(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) exothermically produces the superoxide complex U(VI)O2(O2)(CH3CO2)2(-), this oxidation does not occur for Np(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) or Pu(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) because of the higher reduction potentials for Np(V) and Pu(V). It is demonstrated that NO2 is a more effective electron-withdrawing oxidant than O2, with the result that all three An(V)O2(CH3CO2)2(-) exothermically react with NO2 to form nitrite complexes, An(VI)O2(CH3CO2)2(NO2)(-). The assignment of the NO2(-) anion ligand in these complexes, resulting in oxidation from An(V) to An(VI), is substantiated by the replacement of the acetate ligands in AnO2(CH3CO2)2(NO2)(-) and AnO2(CH3CO2)3(-) by nitrites, to produce the tris(nitrite) complexes AnO2(NO2)3(-). The key chemistry of oxidation of An(V) to An(VI) by the addition of neutral NO2 is established by the substitution of acetate by nitrite. The replacement of acetate ligands by NO2(-) is attributed to a metathesis reaction with nitrous acid to produce acetic acid and nitrite.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 54(15): 7474-80, 2015 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26203499

RESUMO

It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 142(13): 134308, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854244

RESUMO

Uranium chlorides are important in actinide chemistry and nuclear industries, but their chemical bonding and many physical and chemical properties are not well understood yet. Here, we report the first experimental observation of two gaseous uranium hexachloride anions, UCl6 (-) and UCl6 (2-), which are probed by photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum chemistry calculations. The electron affinity of UCl6 is measured for the first time as +5.3 eV; its second electron affinity is measured to be +0.60 eV from the photoelectron spectra of UCl6 (2-). We observe that the detachment cross sections of the 5f electrons are extremely weak in the visible and UV energy ranges. It is found that the one-electron one-determinental molecular orbital picture and Koopmans' theorem break down for the strongly internally correlated U-5f(2) valence shell of tetravalent U(+4) in UCl6 (2-). The calculated adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies from ab initio calculations agree well with the experimental observations. Electronic structure and chemical bonding in the uranium hexachloride species UCl6 (2-) to UCl6 are discussed as a function of the oxidation state of U.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 44(14): 6416-22, 2015 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25747665

RESUMO

The complexation of representative lanthanides with three calix[4]arenes functionalized with four pyrazine pendent arms containing different substituents such as carbamoyl dioctyl (), diisopropyl phosphonate (), and diphenyl phosphoryl () was investigated in water-saturated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BumimTf2N) by absorption spectroscopy, luminescence spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry. All three ligands form 1 : 1 ML complexes (M = Eu(3+) and L = ligand), and the stability constants (log ß) follow the order: (-1.38 ± 0.66) ≪ (3.71 ± 0.02) < (7.47 ± 0.03), similar to the trend in the metal distribution coefficients in solvent extraction using these ligands as extractants. The enthalpy of complexation, determined by microcalorimetry, shows that the complexation of lanthanides with these bulky ligands is exothermic, and proceeds via replacement of water molecules from the primary coordination spheres. The 1 : 1 stoichiometry of the ML complexes was confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Results from optical absorption, luminescence and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy suggest that, out of four pendent arms on the rigid calixarene platform, only two arms coordinate with the lanthanide ion and each arm is tridentate. The influence of structural features of the ligand on the complexation of lanthanides is explained with the help of thermodynamic parameters.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(13): 3218-24, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25766197

RESUMO

Transfer of halogen atoms from halogenated acetate ligands, CX3CO2 (X = F, Cl, Br), to actinyls, AnO2(2+) (An = U, Np, Pu) is stimulated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap. CID of [AnO2(CF3CO2)3](-) complexes results exclusively in F atom transfer, concomitant with elimination of CF2CO2, to produce [(CF3CO2)2AnO2F](-), [(CF3CO2)AnO2F2](-), and [AnO2F3](-). This contrasts with CID of transition metal fluoroacetates for which CO2-elimination to produce organometallics is an important pathway, a disparity that can be attributed to the differing bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the created metal-carbon and metal-fluorine bonds. The dominant pathway for CID of [AnO2(CF3CO2)(CCl3CO2)(CBr3CO2)](-) is Br-atom transfer to produce [(CF3CO2)(CCl3CO2)AnO2Br](-). The preferential formation of bromides, despite that the BDEs of An-F bonds are substantially greater than those of An-Br bonds, is attributed to the offsetting effect of higher BDEs for C-F versus C-Br bonds. The results for the trihaloacetates are similar for uranyl, neptunyl and plutonyl, indicating that for all three the An-X bond dissociation energies are sufficiently high that X atom transfer is overwhelmingly dominant. CID of [UO2(CH2XCO2)2(CX3CO2)](-) (X = F, Cl, Br) resulted in F-transfer only from CH2XCO2, but Cl- and Br-transfer from both CH2XCO2 and CX3CO2, a manifestation of the characteristic increase in BDE[C-F] in CHx-nFn species as n increases; the overall thermochemistry determines the observed CID processes, providing clear distinctions between fluorides and chlorides/bromides. The results of this work reveal the propensity of the actinides to form strong bonds with halogens, and suggest that there is not a large variation in actinyl-halogen BDEs between uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl.

18.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 10(3): 1283-1291, 2014 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24803858

RESUMO

Broken-symmetry density functional theory (BS-DFT) calculations are assessed for redox energetics [Cu(SCH3)2]1-/0, [Cu(NCS)2]1-/0, [FeCl4]1-/0, and [Fe(SCH3)4]1-/0 against vertical detachment energies (VDE) from valence photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), as a prelude to studies of metalloprotein analogs. The M06 and B3LYP hybrid functionals give VDE that agree with the PES VDE for the Fe complexes, but both underestimate it by ∼400 meV for the Cu complexes; other hybrid functionals give VDEs that are an increasing function of the amount of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange and so cannot show good agreement for both Cu and Fe complexes. Range-separated (RS) functionals appear to give a better distribution of HF exchange since the negative HOMO energy is approximately equal to the VDEs but also give VDEs dependent on the amount of HF exchange, sometimes leading to ground states with incorrect electron configurations; the LRC-ωPBEh functional reduced to 10% HF exchange at short-range give somewhat better values for both, although still ∼150 meV too low for the Cu complexes and ∼50 meV too high for the Fe complexes. Overall, the results indicate that while HF exchange compensates for self-interaction error in DFT calculations of both Cu and Fe complexes, too much may lead to more sensitivity to nondynamical correlation in the spin-polarized Fe complexes.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(18): 6726-36, 2013 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23549163

RESUMO

Photoelectron spectra of isolated [M-BDSZ](3-) (BDSZ = bisdisulizole, M = H, Li, Na, K, Cs) triply charged anions exhibit a dominant constant electron kinetic energy (KE) detachment feature, independent of detachment wavelengths over a wide UV range. Photoelectron imaging spectroscopy shows that this constant KE feature displays an angular distribution consistent with delayed rather than direct electron emission. Time-resolved pump-probe (388 nm/775 nm) two-colour photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the constant KE feature results from two simultaneously populated excited states, which decay at different rates. The faster of the two rates is essentially the same for all the [M-BDSZ](3-) species, regardless of M. The slower process is associated with lifetimes ranging from several picoseconds to tens of picoseconds. The lighter the alkali cation is, the longer the lifetime of this state. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the two decaying states are in fact the two lowest singlet excited states of the trianions. Each of the two corresponding photoexcitations is associated with significant charge transfer. However, electron density is transferred from different ends of the roughly chain-like molecule to its aromatic center. The energy (and therefore the decay rate) of the longer-lived excited state is found to be influenced by polarization effects due to the proximal alkali cation complexed to that end of the molecule. Systematic M-dependent geometry changes, mainly due to the size of the alkali cation, lead to M-dependent shifts in transition energies. At the constant pump wavelength this leads to different amounts of vibrational energy in the respective excited state, contributing to the variations in decay rates. The current experiments and calculations confirm excited state electron tunneling detachment (ESETD) to be the mechanism responsible for the observed constant KE feature. The ESETD phenomenon may be quite common for isolated multiply charged anions, which are strong fluorophores in the condensed phase - making ESETD useful for studies of the transient response of such species after electronic excitation.

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