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1.
Am Heart J ; 222: 131-138, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults, the most common cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) is acute coronary artery occlusion. If an immediate coronary angiogram (CAG) is recommended for survivors presenting a ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram (ECG) performed after resuscitation, there is still a debate regarding the best strategy in patients without ST segment elevation. HYPOTHESIS: Performing an immediate CAG after an OHCA without ST segment elevation on the post-resuscitation ECG and no obvious non-cardiac cause of arrest could lead to a better 180-day survival rate with no or minimal neurological sequel as compared with a delayed CAG performed 48 to 96 hours after the arrest. DESIGN: The EMERGE trial is a prospective national, randomized, open and parallel group trial, in which 970 survivors of OHCA will be randomized (1:1) to either immediate (as soon as possible after return of spontaneous circulation) or delayed (48 to 96 h) CAG. Participants will be OHCA patients with no ST segment elevation on the post resuscitation ECG and no obvious non-cardiac cause of arrest. The primary endpoint of the study is the 180-day survival rate with no or minimal neurological sequel corresponding to Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 or 2. The secondary endpoints are: occurrence of shock during the first 48 hours, ventricular tachycardia and/or fibrillation during the first 48 hours, change in left ventricular ejection fraction between baseline and 180 days assessed by echocardiogram, neurological status evaluated by the CPC score at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and day 90 neurological status assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended score (GOSE) at 90 and 180 days, overall survival rate, and hospital length of stay. SUMMARY: The EMERGE trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial that will assess the 180-day survival rate with no or minimal neurologic sequel in patients resuscitated from an OHCA without ST segment elevation and who will be managed with either immediate or delayed CAG.

2.
Resuscitation ; 148: 200-206, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older age is associated with worse outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Therefore, we tested the performance of CAHP score, to predict neurological outcome in elderly OHCA patients and to select patients most likely to benefit from coronary angiogram (CAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a retrospective multicentre observational study at 3 non-university hospitals and 1 university hospital. CAHP score was calculated, and its performance to predict outcomes was evaluated. Factors associated with the use of CAG were analysed and the rate of CAG across each CAHP score risk group reported. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-six patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (median age of 81, [79-84]), among which a cardiac cause was presumed for 99 patients. The hospital unfavourable outcome was 91%. The ROC-AUC values for hospital neurological outcome prediction of CAHP score was 0.81 [0.68-0.94], showing good discrimination performance. ST-segment elevation in ECG and initial shockable rhythm were independent factors for performing early CAG, whereas age and distance from the percutaneous coronary intervention centre were independently associated with the absence of early CAG. The percentages of patients receiving early CAG in the low, medium and high CAHP score risk groups were 64%, 33% and 34%, respectively, and differed significantly between low CAHP score risk group and other groups (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The CAHP score exhibited a good discrimination performance to predict neurological outcome in elderly OHCA patients. This score could represent a helpful tool for treatment allocation. A simple prognostication score could permit avoiding unnecessary procedures in patients with minimal chances of survival.

3.
Resuscitation ; 138: 222-232, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prognostication is a major challenge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AIMS: We hypothesized that a genome-wide analysis of blood gene expression could offer new prognostic tools and lines of research. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from an ancillary study of the clinical trial NCT00999583 that tested the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) after OHCA. Blood samples were collected in comatose survivors of OHCA at hospital admission and 1 and 3 days after resuscitation. Gene expression profiles were analyzed (Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 BeadChip; >34,000 genes). Patients were classified into two categories representing neurological favorable outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] = 1-2) vs unfavorable outcome (CPC > 2) at Day 60 after OHCA. Differential and functional enrichment analyses were performed to compare transcriptomic profiles between these two categories. RESULTS: Among the 69 enrolled patients, 33 and 36 patients were treated or not by EPO, respectively. Among them, 42% had a favorable neurological outcome in both groups. EPO did not affect the transcriptomic response at Day-0 and 1 after OHCA. In contrast, 76 transcripts differed at Day-0 between patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. This signature persisted at Day-1 after OHCA. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a down-regulation of adaptive immunity with concomitant up-regulation of innate immunity and inflammation in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. The transcription of many genes of the HLA family was decreased in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. Concomitantly, neutrophil activation and inflammation were observed. Up-stream regulators analysis showed the implication of numerous factors involved in cell cycle and damages. A logistic regression including a set of genes allowed a reliable prediction of the clinical outcomes (specificity = 88%; Hit Rate = 83%). CONCLUSIONS: A transcriptomic signature involving a counterbalance between adaptive and innate immune responses is able to predict neurological outcome very early after hospital admission after OHCA. This deserves confirmation in a larger population.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(4): 428-437, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663044

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of an antibiotic protocol guided by serum procalcitonin (PCT) with that of standard antibiotic therapy in severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial in France. Patients experiencing severe AECOPDs were assigned to groups whose antibiotic therapy was guided by (1) a 5-day PCT algorithm with predefined cutoff values for the initiation or stoppage of antibiotics (PCT group) or (2) standard guidelines (control group). The primary endpoint was 3-month mortality. The predefined noninferiority margin was 12%. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were randomized into the PCT (n = 151) and control (n = 151) groups. Thirty patients (20%) in the PCT group and 21 patients (14%) in the control group died within 3 months of admission (adjusted difference, 6.6%; 90% CI - 0.3 to 13.5%). Among patients without antibiotic therapy at baseline (n = 119), the use of PCT significantly increased 3-month mortality [19/61 (31%) vs. 7/58 (12%), p = 0.015]. The in-ICU and in-hospital antibiotic exposure durations, were similar between the PCT and control group (5.2 ± 6.5 days in the PCT group vs. 5.4 ± 4.4 days in the control group, p = 0.85 and 7.9 ± 8 days in the PCT group vs. 7.7 ± 5.7 days in the control group, p = 0.75, respectively). CONCLUSION: The PCT group failed to demonstrate non-inferiority with respect to 3-month mortality and failed to reduce in-ICU and in-hospital antibiotic exposure in AECOPDs admitted to the ICU.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Algoritmos , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 18, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying patients at high risk of post-extubation acute respiratory failure requiring respiratory or mechanical cough assistance remains challenging. Here, our primary aim was to evaluate the accuracy of easily collected parameters obtained before or just after extubation in predicting the risk of post-extubation acute respiratory failure requiring, at best, noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) and/or mechanical cough assistance and, at worst, reintubation after extubation. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter prospective, open-label, observational study from April 2012 through April 2015. Patients who passed a weaning test after at least 72 h of endotracheal mechanical ventilation (MV) were included. Just before extubation, spirometry and maximal pressures were measured by a technician. The results were not disclosed to the bedside physicians. Patients were followed until discharge or death. RESULTS: Among 3458 patients admitted to the ICU, 730 received endotracheal MV for longer than 72 h and were then extubated; among these, 130 were included. At inclusion, the 130 patients had mean ICU stay and endotracheal MV durations both equal to 11 ± 4.2 days. After extubation, 36 patients required curative NIV, 7 both curative NIV and mechanical cough assistance, and 8 only mechanical cough assistance; 6 patients, all of whom first received NIV, required reintubation within 48 h. The group that required NIV after extubation had a significantly higher proportion of patients with chronic respiratory disease (P = 0.015), longer endotracheal MV duration at inclusion, and lower Medical Research Council (MRC) score (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, and P = 0.004, respectively). By multivariate analysis, forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak cough expiratory flow (PCEF) were independently associated with (NIV) and/or mechanical cough assistance and/or reintubation after extubation. Areas under the ROC curves for pre-extubation PCEF and FVC were 0.71 and 0.76, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FVC measured before extubation correlates closely with FVC after extubation and may serve as an objective predictor of post-extubation respiratory failure requiring NIV and/or mechanical cough assistance and/or reintubation in heterogeneous populations of medical ICU patients. ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01564745.

6.
Resuscitation ; 124: 1-6, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) contributes to improved neurological outcome in adults who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm. Endovascular cooling catheters are widely used to induce and maintain targeted temperature in the ICU. The aim of the study was to compare the risk of complications with cooling catheters and standard central venous catheters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective single-centre cohort study, we included all patients admitted to an intensive care unit for successfully resuscitated cardiac arrest that required endovascular TTM (Coolgard®, Zoll™ Medical corporation, MA, USA), between August 2012 and November 2014, inclusive. We matched the endovascular cooling catheter cohort with a retrospective historical cohort of 512 central femoral venous catheters from the 3SITES trial to compare thrombotic and infectious complications. RESULTS: Overall, 108 patients were included in the cooling cohort, of which 89 had ultrasound doppler. The duration of catheterization was 4.9 days in the control group versus 4.2 days in the TTM group (p = 0.08). After propensity-score matching, there were significantly more thrombotic complications in the cooling (n = 75) than in the control (n = 75) group (12 of 75 (16%) versus 0 of 75 (0%), respectively, p = 0.005), and 4 patients presented major complications. There were 8 colonized catheters in each group (11%) (p > 0.99), and none of the patients had a catheter-related bloodstream infection. CONCLUSIONS: In our propensity-score matched study, endovascular cooling catheters were associated with an increased risk of venous catheter-related thrombosis compared to standard central venous catheters.


Assuntos
Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/etiologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/etiologia
7.
Respir Care ; 62(7): 912-919, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28536282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to test the performance of PRESERVE and RESP scores to predict death in patients with severe ARDS receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with different case mixes. METHODS: All consecutive patients treated with ECMO for refractory ARDS, regardless of cause, in the Caen University Hospital in northwestern France over the last decade were included in a retrospective cohort study. The receiver operating characteristic curves of each score were plotted, and the area under the curve was computed to assess their performance in predicting mortality (c-index). RESULTS: Forty-one subjects were included. Pre-ECMO ventilator settings were: mean VT, 6.1 ± 0.9 mL/kg; breathing frequency, 32 ± 4 breaths/min; PEEP, 11 ± 4 cm H2O; peak inspiratory pressure, 48 ± 9 cm H2O; plateau pressure, 30.4 ± 4.4 cm H2O. At ECMO initiation, blood gas results were: pH 7.22 ± 0.17, PaO2 /FIO2 = 63 ± 22 mm Hg; PaCO2 = 56 ± 18 mm Hg; FIO2 = 99 ± 2%. Pre-ECMO data were available in 35 and 27 subjects for calculation of the PRESERVE score and RESP score, respectively. Pre-ECMO scoring system results were: median PRESERVE score, 4 (interquartile range 2-5), and median RESP score, 0 (interquartile range -2 to 2). Twenty-three subjects (56%) died, including 19 receiving ECMO. In univariate analysis, plateau pressure (P = .031), driving pressure (P = <.001), and compliance (P = .02) recorded at the time of ECMO initiation as well as the PRESERVE score (P = .032) were significantly associated with mortality. With a c-index of 0.69 (95% CI 0.53-0.87), the PRESERVE score had better discrimination than the RESP score (c-index of 0.60 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]) for predicting mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of these scores in helping physicians to determine the patients with ARDS most likely to benefit from ECMO should be limited in clinical practice because of their relatively poor performance in predicting death in subjects with severe ARDS receiving ECMO support. Before widespread use is initiated, these scoring systems should be tested in large prospective studies of subjects with severe ARDS undergoing ECMO treatment.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , França , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 6(1): 65, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27422256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevation of the immature/total granulocyte (I/T-G) ratio has been reported after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our purpose here was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the I/T-G ratio and to investigate whether the I/T-G ratio improves neurological outcome prediction after OHCA. METHODS: This single-center prospective cohort study included consecutive immunocompetent patients admitted to our intensive care unit over a 3-year period (2012-2014) after successfully resuscitated OHCA. The I/T-G ratio was determined in blood samples collected at admission. RESULTS: We studied 204 patients (77 % male, median age, 58 [48-67] years), of whom 64 % had a suspected cardiac cause of OHCA, 62 % died in the unit, and 31.5 % survived with good cerebral function. Independent outcome predictors by multivariate analysis were age, first shockable rhythm, bystander-initiated resuscitation, and I/T-G ratio. Compared to the model computed without the I/T-G ratio, the model with the ratio performed significantly better [areas under the ROC curves (AUCs), 0.78 vs. 0.83, respectively; P = 0.04]. These items were used to develop the MyeloScore equation: ([0.47 × I/T-G ratio] + [0.023 × age in years]) - 1.26 if initial VF/VT - 1.1 if bystander-initiated CPR. The MyeloScore predicted neurological outcomes with similar accuracy to the previously reported OHCA score (0.83 and 0.85, respectively; P = 0.6). The ROC-AUC was 0.84, providing external validation of the MyeloScore. CONCLUSIONS: The I/T-G ratio independently predicts neurological outcome after OHCA and, when added to other known risk factors, improves neurological outcome prediction. The clinical performance of the MyeloScore requires evaluation in a prospective study.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 68(1): 40-9, 2016 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27364049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggested a clinical benefit in treating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with a high dose of erythropoietin (Epo) analogs. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to evaluate the efficacy of epoetin alfa treatment on the outcome of OHCA patients in a phase 3 trial. METHODS: The authors performed a multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Patients still comatose after a witnessed OHCA of presumed cardiac origin were eligible. In the intervention group, patients received 5 intravenous injections spaced 12 h apart during the first 48 h (40,000 units each, resulting in a maximal dose of 200,000 total units), started as soon as possible after resuscitation. In the control group, patients received standard care without Epo. The main endpoint was the proportion of patients in each group reaching level 1 on the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale (survival with no or minor neurological sequelae) at day 60. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality rate, distribution of patients in CPC levels at different time points, and side effects. RESULTS: In total, 476 patients were included in the primary analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. At day 60, 32.4% of patients (76 of 234) in the intervention group reached a CPC 1 level, as compared with 32.1% of patients (78 of 242) in the control group (odds ratio: 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.48). The mortality rate and proportion of patients in each CPC level did not differ at any time points. Serious adverse events were more frequent in Epo-treated patients as compared with controls (22.6% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.03), particularly thrombotic complications (12.4% vs. 5.8%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients resuscitated from an OHCA of presumed cardiac cause, early administration of erythropoietin plus standard therapy did not confer a benefit, and was associated with a higher complication rate. (High Dose of Erythropoietin Analogue After Cardiac Arrest [Epo-ACR-02]; NCT00999583).


Assuntos
Epoetina alfa/administração & dosagem , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 42(9): 1418-26, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compare the effectiveness of different cutaneous antiseptics in reducing risk of catheter-related infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: We compared the risk of central venous catheter-related infection according to four-step (scrub, rinse, dry, and disinfect) alcoholic 5 % povidone-iodine (PVI-a, n = 1521), one-step (disinfect) alcoholic 2 % chlorhexidine (2 % CHX-a, n = 1116), four-step alcoholic <1 % chlorhexidine (<1 % CHX-a, n = 357), and four-step aqueous 10 % povidone-iodine (PVI, n = 368) antiseptics used for cutaneous disinfection and catheter care during the 3SITES multicenter randomized controlled trial. Within this cohort, we performed a quasi-experimental study (i.e., before-after) involving the four ICUs which switched from PVI-a to 2 % CHX-a. We used propensity score matching (PSM, n = 776) and inverse probability weighting treatment (IPWT, n = 1592). The end point was the incidence of catheter-related infection (CRI) defined as catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) or a positive catheter tip culture plus clinical sepsis on catheter removal. RESULTS: In the cohort analysis and compared with PVI-a, the incidence of CRI was lower with 2 % CHX-a [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 0.51; 95 % confidence interval (CI) (0.28-0.96), p = 0.037] and similar with <1 % CHX-a [aHR, 0.73; (0.36-1.48), p = 0.37] and PVI [aHR, 1.50; 95 % CI (0.85-2.64), p = 0.16] after controlling for potential confounders. In the quasi-experimental study and compared with PVI-a, the incidence of catheter-related infection was again lower with 2 % CHX-a after PSM [HR, 0.35; 95 % CI (0.15, 0.84), p = 0.02] and in the IPWT analysis [HR, 0.31; 95 % CI (0.14, 0.70), p = 0.005]. The incidence of CRBSI or adverse event was not significantly different between antiseptics in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with PVI-a, the use of 2 % CHX-a for cutaneous disinfection of the central venous catheter insertion site and maintenance catheter care was associated with a reduced risk of catheter infection, while the benefit of <1 % CHX-a was uncertain. CLINICAL TRIALS IDENTIFIER: NCT01479153.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Idoso , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 6(1): 28, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: cRel, a subunit of NF-κB, is implicated in the inflammatory response observed in autoimmune disease. Hence, knocked-out mice for cRel had a significantly higher mortality, providing new and important functions of cRel in the physiopathology of septic shock. Whether genetic variants in the human REL gene are associated with severity of septic shock is unknown. METHODS: We genotyped a population of 1040 ICU patients with septic shock and 855 ICU controls for two known polymorphisms of REL; REL rs842647 and REL rs13031237. Outcome of patients according to the presence of REL variant alleles was compared. RESULTS: The distribution of REL variant alleles was not significantly different between patients and controls. Among the septic shock group, REL rs13031237*T minor allele was not associated with worse outcome. In contrast, REL rs842647*G minor allele was significantly associated with more multi-organ failure and early death [OR 1.4; 95 % CI (1.02-1.8)]. CONCLUSION: In a large ICU population, we report a significant clinical association between a variation in the human REL gene and severity and mortality of septic shock, suggesting for the first time a new insight into the role of cRel in response to infection in humans.

12.
ASAIO J ; 61(6): 676-81, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26366684

RESUMO

We aimed to identify factors associated with hospital mortality among patients receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS). All consecutive patients treated with ECLS for refractory cardiac arrest or shock in the Caen University Hospital in northwestern France during the last decade were included in a retrospective cohort study. Sixty-four patients were included: 29 with refractory cardiac arrest and 35 with refractory shock. The main reasons for ECLS were acute coronary syndrome (n = 23) and severe poisoning caused by drug intoxication (n = 19). At ECLS initiation, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 16% (±11). Initial blood test results were arterial pH = 7.19 (±0.20) and plasma lactate = 8.02 (±5.88) mmol/L. Forty (63%) patients died including 33 under ECLS. In a multivariate analysis, two factors were independently associated with survival: drug intoxication as the reason for ECLS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.07; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.01-0.28; p < 0.001) and arterial pH (an increase of 0.1 point [AOR, 0.013; 95% CI, <0.001-0.27; p < 0.01]). This study supports early ECLS as a last resort therapeutic option in a highly selected group of patients with refractory cardiac arrest or shock, in particular before profound acidosis occurs and when the cause is reversible.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Choque/terapia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/etiologia
14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 58(10): 5666-72, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24982071

RESUMO

Critically ill patients who require renal replacement therapy (RRT) are vulnerable to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). This study compared the risks of dialysis catheter infection according to the choice of locking solution in the intensive care unit (ICU). A prospective quasi-experimental study with marginal structural models (MSM) and 2:1 greedy propensity-score matching (PSM) was conducted at nine university-affiliated hospitals and three general hospitals. A total of 596 critically ill patients received either saline solution or heparin lock solution (the standard of care [SOC]) from 2004 to 2007 in the Cathedia cohort (n = 464 for MSM; n = 124 for PSM) or 46.7% citrate lock from 2011 to 2012 in the citrate (CLock) cohort (n = 132 for MSM; n = 62 for PSM) to perform RRT using intermittent hemodialysis. Catheter-tip colonization and CRBSI were analyzed. The mean duration (standard deviation [SD]) of catheterization was 7.1 days (6.1) in the SOC group and 7.0 days (5.9) in the CLock group (P = 0.84). The risk of dialysis catheter-tip colonization was lower in the CLock group (20.5 versus 38.7 per 1,000 catheter-days in the SOC group; hazard ratio [HR] from MSM, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.93; P < 0.02). Consistent findings were found from PSM (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.95; P < 0.04). The risk of CRBSI was nonsignificantly different in the CLock group (1.1 versus 1.8 per 1,000 catheter-days in the SOC group; HR from MSM, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.87; P = 0.29). By reducing the risk of catheter-tip colonization, citrate lock has the potential to improve hemodialysis safety in the ICU. Additional studies are warranted before the routine use of citrate locks can be recommended in the ICU.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Citratos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Citrato de Sódio
15.
Ann Intensive Care ; 4: 17, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25045580

RESUMO

The death of a loved one is often an ordeal and a tragedy for those who witness it, as death is not merely the end of a life, but also the end of an existence, the loss of a unique individual who is special and irreplaceable. In some situations, end-of-life signs, such as agonal gasps, can be an almost unbearable "sight" because the physical manifestations are hard to watch and can lead to subjective interpretation and irrational fears. Ethical unease arises as the dying patient falls prey to death throes and to the manifestations of ebbing life and the physician can only stand by and watch. From this point on, medicine can put an end to suffering by the use of neuromuscular blockade, but in so doing life ceases at the same time. It is difficult, however, not to respond to the distress of loved ones and caregivers. The ethical problem then becomes the shift from the original ethical concern, i.e. the dying patient, to the patient's loved ones. Is such a rupture due to a difference in nature or a difference in degree, given that the dying patient remains a person and not a thing as long as the body continues to lead its own life, expressed through movement and sound? Because there cannot be any simple and unequivocal answer to this question, the SRLF Ethics Commission is offering ethical reflections on end-of-life signs and symptoms in the intensive care setting, and on the use of neuromuscular blockade in this context, with presentations on the subject by two philosophers and members of the SRLF Ethics Commission, Ms Lise Haddad and Prof Dominique Folscheid. The SRLF Ethics Commission hopes to provide food for thought for everyone on this topic, which undoubtedly calls for further contributions, the aim being not to provide ready-made solutions or policy, but rather to allow everyone to ponder this question in all conscience.

16.
Resuscitation ; 85(8): 1115-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24795281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immature/total granulocyte (I/T-G) ratio increases during severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This study evaluated the I/T-G ratio as a predictor of poor outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We conducted a pilot prospective cohort study of patients who were admitted in our intensive care unit (ICU) during a one-year period after post-OHCA resuscitation. I/T-G ratio measurements were obtained from blood samples collected on admission using flow cytometry and the outcomes were ICU mortality and post-cardiac arrest syndrome. RESULTS: Among the 130 patients (76% male, median age 54 [46-67] years), the median I/T-G ratio was 0.85 [0.42-1.98]%. The I/T-G ratio was poorly correlated with the SOFA score and lactate level on day 1 (r=0.25, p=0.005 and r=0.5, p<0.001, respectively). Patients with high I/T-G ratios were more likely to develop post-resuscitation shock (37% vs. 58%, p=0.02). Patients dying from post-resuscitation shock had a higher I/T-G ratio than patients dying from neurological causes (2 [1-4]% vs. 1.2 [0.6-1.2]%, p=0.02). The area under the ROC curve based on the I/T-G ratio was 0.82 for predicting ICU mortality. CONCLUSION: The I/T-G ratio appears to be an accurate predictor of poor outcome. However, the added clinical value of this marker and the possible involvement of immature granulocytes in the pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest syndrome remain to be investigated.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Granulócitos/patologia , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
17.
Crit Care Med ; 42(3): 565-73, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24145847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate breathing-swallowing interactions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation and, if needed, to develop a technical modification of the ventilator designed to eliminate ventilator insufflations during swallowing. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, open-label, interventional study. PATIENTS: Fifteen consecutive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with exacerbations requiring ICU admission and NIV. INTERVENTIONS: Swallowing performance and breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated noninvasively by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, and inductive respiratory plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10 mL) were tested in random order. Swallowing was tested with and without noninvasive mechanical ventilation, in random order. First, a standard mechanical ventilator capable of delivering noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used. Second, a marketed device was equipped with an off-switch for use during swallowing. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Swallowing performance and breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated noninvasively by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, and inductive respiratory plethysmography. Two water bolus sizes (5 and 10 mL) were tested in random order. Swallowing was tested with and without noninvasive mechanical ventilation in random order. First, a standard mechanical ventilator capable of delivering noninvasive mechanical ventilation was used. Swallowing efficiency, breathing-swallowing synchronization, and Borg Scale dyspnea scores improved significantly with noninvasive mechanical ventilation. However, swallowing induced ventilator triggering followed by autotriggering. To improve patient-ventilator synchrony, a marketed device was equipped with an off-switch for use during swallowing. This device completely eliminated swallowing-induced ventilator triggering and postswallow autotriggering. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the ICU for acute exacerbations had abnormal breathing-swallowing interactions and dyspnea, which improved with noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, a ventilator device with a simple switch-off pushbutton to eliminate insufflations during swallows prevented swallowing-induced ventilator triggering and postswallow autotriggering.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Respiração , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Pletismografia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ventiladores Mecânicos
18.
Ann Intensive Care ; 4(1): 183, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26187156

RESUMO

The death of a loved one is often an ordeal and a tragedy for those who witness it, as death is not merely the end of a life, but also the end of an existence, the loss of a unique individual who is special and irreplaceable. In some situations, end-of-life signs, such as agonal gasps, can be an almost unbearable "sight" because the physical manifestations are hard to watch and can lead to subjective interpretation and irrational fears. Ethical unease arises as the dying patient falls prey to death throes and to the manifestations of ebbing life and the physician can only stand by and watch. From this point on, medicine can put an end to suffering by the use of neuromuscular blockade, but in so doing life ceases at the same time. It is difficult, however, not to respond to the distress of loved ones and caregivers. The ethical problem then becomes the shift from the original ethical concern, i.e. the dying patient, to the patient's loved ones. Is such a rupture due to a difference in nature or a difference in degree, given that the dying patient remains a person and not a thing as long as the body continues to lead its own life, expressed through movement and sound? Because there cannot be any simple and unequivocal answer to this question, the SRLF Ethics Commission is offering ethical reflections on end-of-life signs and symptoms in the intensive care setting, and on the use of neuromuscular blockade in this context, with presentations on the subject by two philosophers and members of the SRLF Ethics Commission, Ms Lise Haddad and Prof Dominique Folscheid. The SRLF Ethics Commission hopes to provide food for thought for everyone on this topic, which undoubtedly calls for further contributions, the aim being not to provide ready-made solutions or policy, but rather to allow everyone to ponder this question in all conscience.

19.
Intensive Care Med ; 39(5): 857-65, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23361630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic accuracies of plasma NGAL (pNGAL) for contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI) in critically ill patients. METHODS: In a prospective observational study in two adult intensive care units in a university hospital, 100 consecutive critically ill patients with stable serum creatinine concentrations up to 48 h before contrast medium (CM) injection were enrolled. Serial blood sampling for pNGAL analysis was performed at enrolment, 2, 6, and 24 h after CM injection. The primary outcome was CI-AKI, defined by AKIN criteria, within the first 72 h following CM injection. Secondary outcomes were the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 98 patients analyzed, 30 developed CI-AKI. The pNGAL levels did not differ in patients with or without CI-AKI, and were higher in septic patients compared to nonseptic patients, and in patients with AKI preceding CM injection. The discriminative value of pNGAL to predict CI-AKI and mortality was poor; although, it did predict the need for RRT requirement after CM injection (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.85, 0.80, 0.83 and 0.86 at H0, H2, H6 and H24, respectively). CONCLUSION: CI-AKI was common in critically ill patients. pNGAL levels were higher in patients with sepsis or previous AKI, but did not help to diagnose CI-AKI any earlier than serum creatinine after CM injection. However, pNGAL could be of interest to detect patients at risk of subsequent RRT requirement.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal , Gelatinases/sangue , Lipocalinas/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Angiografia , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 28(2): 430-7, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22535635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clinical impact on cardiovascular stability during intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) for acute kidney injury (AKI) of online monitoring devices that control blood volume (BV) and blood temperature in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. We compared different dialysis treatment modalities with or without these new systems among critically ill patients requiring IHD. METHODS: In a prospective single-centre three-arm randomized controlled trial, 600 dialysis sessions in 74 consecutive AKI critically ill patients were involved to assess intradialytic hypotension. Standard dialysis therapy with constant ultrafiltration (UF) rate, cool dialysate and high sodium conductivity (Treatment A) was compared to regimens with adjunctive interventions including BV control (Treatment B) and the combination of BV and active blood temperature control (Treatment C). Each dialysis session was randomly assigned to one of the three treatment arms and served as statistical unit. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-two dialysis sessions were analysed (188, 190 and 194 in Treatments A, B and C, respectively). Hypotension occurred in 16.6% treatments, with similar rates among the arms. Haemodynamic parameters and dialysis-related complications did not differ between therapies. Based on generalized estimating equation adjusted to dialysate sodium conductivity, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment the day of dialysis session, the need for vasopressors and lower systolic blood pressure at the onset of the session were identified as independent predictors of hypotensive episodes, whereas regimens containing the new online monitors were not. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that both actively controlled body temperature and UF profiled by online monitoring systems have no significant impact on the incidence of intradialytic hypotension in the ICU setting. Further research is needed before the use of these new sophisticated automatic methods can be applied routinely to the ICU setting.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Estado Terminal , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Diálise Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/etiologia , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas On-Line , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
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