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1.
Lancet HIV ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933190
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are a key step in fighting the pandemic. Nevertheless, their rapid development did not allow for testing among specific population subgroups such as pregnant and breastfeeding women, or elaborating specific guidelines for healthcare personnel working in high infection risk specialties, such as otolaryngology (ORL). This clinical consensus statement (CCS) aims to offer guidance for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to this high-risk population based on the best evidence available. METHODS: A multidisciplinary international panel of 33 specialists judged statements through a two-round modified Delphi method survey. Statements were designed to encompass the following topics: risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection and use of protective equipment in ORL; SARS-Cov-2 infection and vaccines and respective risks for the mother/child dyad; and counseling for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnant, breastfeeding, or fertile healthcare workers (PBFHW). All ORL PBFHW were considered as the target audience. RESULTS: Of the 13 statements, 7 reached consensus or strong consensus, 2 reached no consensus, and 2 reached near-consensus. According to the statements with strong consensus otorhinolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or with childbearing potential should have the opportunity to receive SARS-Cov-2 vaccination. Moreover, personal protective equipment (PPE) should still be used even after the vaccination. CONCLUSION: Until prospective evaluations on these topics are available, ORL-HNS must be considered a high infection risk specialty. While the use of PPE remains pivotal, ORL PBFHW should be allowed access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination provided they receive up-to-date information.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We lack the rationale on which to base the development of a yellow fever (YF) vaccination schedule for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV). OBJECTIVES: To report on the current evidence regarding the seroconversion rate and the duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine, as well as the impact of revaccination in PLWHIV. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Google Scholar, LILACS and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. METHODS: We selected studies on PLWHIV of all ages (including perinatally HIV-infected patients) and all settings (YF endemic and non-endemic zones). Intervention investigated was vaccination against YF, at least once after the HIV diagnosis. The research questions were the seroconversion rate, duration of humoral immunity after YF vaccine and impact of revaccination in PLWHIV. Selected studies were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: Ten, six and six studies were selected for the systematic review of each question, respectively. Only one study addressed the first question in perinatally HIV-infected children. The quality of the studies was assessed as Poor (n = 16), Fair (n = 2) or Good (n = 4). A meta-analysis demonstrated that 97.6% (95% CI 91.6%-100%) of the included population seroconverted. Between 1 and 10 years after YF vaccine, reported persistence of neutralizing antibodies was 72% (95% CI 53.6%-91%), and it was 62% (95% CI 45.4%-78.6%) more than 10 years after YF vaccine. No conclusions could be drawn on impact of revaccination because of the small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence regarding seroconversion rate, duration of humoral protection after YF vaccine and impact of revaccination in PLWHIV is limited by the low number and quality of studies. Based on the presently available data, it is difficult to rationally develop yellow fever vaccination guidelines for PLWHIV.

6.
Vaccine ; 39(14): 1963-1967, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease. Booster immunization is required in order to induce long-lived tetanus-toxoid (TT) specific antibody response. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of TT seronegativity in a cohort of people living with HIV (PWH) in Belgium along with the respective performance of vaccine history and a rapid dipstick test (Tetanus Quick Stick ® or TQS) compared to ELISA testing. METHODS: PWH were prospectively enrolled and answered a questionnaire. ELISA was performed on serum or plasma using a commercial kit. A TT antibody level ≥ 0.15 IU / mL was considered protective. The TQS test was performed on a limited number of subjects. RESULTS: Three-hundred forty-four subjects were included. The prevalence of tetanus seroprotection was 84,9%. Median age was 46.7 and 68% were born outside Belgium. Antiretroviral therapy coverage was almost universal (98.5%). After multivariable analysis, two risk factors were independently associated with TT seronegativity: an education level equivalent or below than secondary school and being born outside Europe. Vaccine history was shown to be unreliable (sensitivity: 43.8%; specificity: 76.5%; positive predictive value: 91.4% and negative predictive value :19.3%). The correlation between vaccine history and tetanus seroprotection was low (kappa coefficient = 0.09). The TQS performances were good (sensitivity 86.4%, specificity 96.0%, positive predictive value 99.3%, negative predictive value 52.17%). The correlation between TQS and tetanus seroprotection was substantial (kappa coefficient = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of PWH with a high proportion of migrants, socio-demographic and educational factors were associated with TT seronegativity while HIV-related factors were not, indicating that vaccine information should be tailored to cultural and educational background. As vaccine history is not reliable, TQS could represent an efficient tool for screening of TT-seronegativity.

7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disease prevention and improving vaccination coverage in Europe are key elements contributing to resilient health systems and ensuring better health outcomes for all. The aim of this study was to describe the immunization funding landscape across all European Union 28 countries (EU28). AREAS COVERED: Data collected in a targeted literature review supported descriptive analysis on the different indicators that were looked at: vaccines included in the EU28 national immunization programs (NIP), national immunization funding, immunization funding per capita (2015-2019) and percentage of healthcare budget allocated to immunization. EXPERT OPINION: Immunization funding represents a small proportion of total healthcare spend in Europe (median 0.3%). In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, demographic changes and the potential introduction of new vaccines; the need for adequate financing of immunization programs will be important, to establish resilient immunization systems and provide sustainable protection of the population against vaccine preventable diseases.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591936

RESUMO

Among 359 healthcare workers (HCW) employed in Panzi General Referral Hospital located in Bukavu in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 148 (41.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Thirty-three (22.3%) of the 148 personnel with positive serology reported symptoms evoking a prior COVID-19 illness. None of the infected HCWs reported COVID-related hospitalization, and all of them recovered. Our findings indicate high and underestimated circulation of SARS-CoV-2 within the Bukavu area.

10.
AIDS ; 35(4): 605-618, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As women living with HIV (WLWH) become older, their risk of developing breast cancer increases. Nonetheless, literature is conflicting regarding tumor stage, distribution of subtypes and overall survival among WLWH vs. HIV-negative women with breast cancer. We assessed differences in clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival between these two groups. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO and conference abstracts up to 1 January 2020. Cross-sectional/cohort studies comparing baseline characteristics (stage and/or subtypes) and/or overall survival of WLWH vs. HIV-negative women with breast cancer were included. We performed random-effects meta-analyses to estimate summary statistics and subgroup analyses according to region of the world. RESULTS: Eighteen studies [4 from North America, 14 from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)] were included, with 3174 WLWH and 2 394 598 HIV-negative women. WLWH from North America and SSA were more likely to present with stage III/IV disease compared with HIV-negative women - pooled odds ratio (pOR) 1.76 [95% confidence interval (CI):1.58-1.95] and pOR 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06-1.42), respectively. WLWH from SSA were also less likely to have estrogen receptor-positive/HER2-negative tumors (pOR 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). After adjustment, WLWH had worse overall survival compared with HIV-negative women, both in North America [pooled adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.45; 95% CI: 1.11-5.41] and SSA (aHR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06-1.92). CONCLUSION: Compared with HIV-negative women, WLWH are diagnosed with breast cancer at a more advanced stage and have a worse overall survival. These results should raise awareness regarding the detection and survival gap among WLWH with breast cancer and further studies are needed to decipher the reasons behind these disparities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , América do Norte
11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(3)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478623

RESUMO

In October and November 2020, we conducted a survey of 2,678 healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in general population immunisation in France, French-speaking Belgium and Quebec, Canada to assess acceptance of future COVID-19 vaccines (i.e. willingness to receive or recommend these) and its determinants. Of the HCWs, 48.6% (n = 1,302) showed high acceptance, 23.0% (n = 616) moderate acceptance and 28.4% (n = 760) hesitancy/reluctance. Hesitancy was mostly driven by vaccine safety concerns. These must be addressed before/during upcoming vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Canadá , Feminino , França , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3)2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292922

RESUMO

We report 4 cases of Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteremia associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Three cases occurred concomitantly with COVID-19 diagnosis; 1 occurred on day 15 of intensive care. None of the patients had known risk factors for F. nucleatum bacteremia. F. nucleatum infection could represent a possible complication of COVID-19.

15.
Trials ; 21(1): 981, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed an enormous burden on health care systems around the world. In the past, the administration of convalescent plasma of patients having recovered from SARS and severe influenza to patients actively having the disease showed promising effects on mortality and appeared safe. Whether or not this also holds true for the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently unknown. METHODS: DAWn-Plasma is a multicentre nation-wide, randomized, open-label, phase II proof-of-concept clinical trial, evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of the addition of convalescent plasma to the standard of care in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Belgium. Patients hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 are eligible when they are symptomatic (i.e. clinical or radiological signs) and have been diagnosed with COVID-19 in the 72 h before study inclusion through a PCR (nasal/nasopharyngeal swab or bronchoalveolar lavage) or a chest-CT scan showing features compatible with COVID-19 in the absence of an alternative diagnosis. Patients are randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either standard of care and convalescent plasma (active treatment group) or standard of care only. The active treatment group receives 2 units of 200 to 250 mL of convalescent plasma within 12 h after randomization, with a second administration of 2 units 24 to 36 h after ending the first administration. The trial aims to include 483 patients and will recruit from 25 centres across Belgium. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients that require mechanical ventilation or have died at day 15. The main secondary endpoints are clinical status on day 15 and day 30 after randomization, as defined by the WHO Progression 10-point ordinal scale, and safety of the administration of convalescent plasma. DISCUSSION: This trial will either provide support or discourage the use of convalescent plasma as an early intervention for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04429854 . Registered on 12 June 2020 - Retrospectively registered.

16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(39)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006303

RESUMO

BackgroundRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory illness in young children (< 5 years old) and older adults (≥ 65 years old) leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to recommend the implementation of a dedicated surveillance in countries.AimWe tested the capacity of the severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospital network to contribute to RSV surveillance in Belgium.MethodsDuring the 2018/19 influenza season, we started the SARI surveillance for influenza in Belgium in week 40, earlier than in the past, to follow RSV activity, which usually precedes influenza virus circulation. While the WHO SARI case definition for influenza normally used by the SARI hospital network was employed, flexibility over the fever criterion was allowed, so patients without fever but meeting the other case definition criteria could be included in the surveillance.ResultsBetween weeks 40 2018 and 2 2019, we received 508 samples from SARI patients. We found an overall RSV detection rate of 62.4% (317/508), with rates varying depending on the age group: 77.6% in children aged < 5 years (253/326) and 34.4% in adults aged ≥ 65 years (44/128). Over 90% of the RSV-positive samples also positive for another tested respiratory virus (80/85) were from children aged < 5 years. Differences were also noted between age groups for symptoms, comorbidities and complications.ConclusionWith only marginal modifications in the case definition and the period of surveillance, the Belgian SARI network would be able to substantially contribute to RSV surveillance and burden evaluation in children and older adults, the two groups of particular interest for WHO.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 342-345, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore cytokine profile in patients as it relates to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, and to establish a predictive cytokine score to discriminate severe from non-severe cases and provide a prognosis parameter for patients that will require intensive care unit (ICU) transfer. METHODS: Serum samples of 63 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected early after hospital admission (day 0-3). Patients were categorized in five groups based on the clinical presentation, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the requirement of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Three cytokines, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, were markedly higher in severe forms (n = 44) than in non-severe forms (n = 19) (p < 0.005). A score combining levels of these three cytokines (IL-6*IL-8*IL-10) had the highest performance to predict severity: sensitivity of 86.4% (95% CI, 72.4-94.8) and specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 74.0-99.9) for a cutoff value of 2068 pg/mL. Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were also found in critically ill patients. The combination of IL-6*IL-10 serum levels allowed the highest predictability for ICU transfer: AUC of 0.898 (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The combinatorial IL-6*IL-8*IL-10 score at presentation was highly predictive of the progression to a severe form of the disease, and could contribute to improve patient triage and to adapt therapeutic strategy within clinical trials more accurately and efficiently.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944894

RESUMO

To assess the incidence, clinical, microbiological features and outcome of invasive Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infections in non-pregnant adults in three tertiary hospitals of the Brussels-Capital Region. All bacterial cultures positive for GBS, from 2005 to 2019 from 3 hospitals of the Brussels-Capital Region, were extracted, and only cases of invasive diseases were included. Medical files were retrospectively retrieved for risk factors, clinical manifestations and outcome and also antibiotic-susceptibility testing and GBS serotypes. Incidence rates were calculated based on the hospitals catchment populations. A total of 337 cases of GBS-invasive infections were included. The incidence of invasive GBS for the 3 hospitals increased from 3.7 to 8.2 cases per 100.000 inhabitants between 2009 and 2018 (p = 0.04). The most frequently identified risk factors were diabetes (36.8%), obesity (35.0%), cancer (21.7%), renal disease (20.8%), and advanced age (≥ 65 years; 47.2%). Isolated bacteremia (22%), osteoarticular infection (21.4%), abscesses (13.9%), and skin and soft tissue infections (18.4%) were the most frequent manifestations. Intensive care unit admission was required in 21.7% and overall mortality was 9.4%. All strains remained susceptible to penicillin over the years. Up to 20% of strains were resistant to clindamycin. Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, IV, and V represented 96.8% of the available serotypes (60/62). As reported in several countries, invasive GBS disease in non-pregnant adults represents an increasing burden, particularly among diabetic, obese, and elderly patients. Almost all serotypes identified are included in the upcoming hexavalent GBS conjugate vaccine.

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