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1.
Neurology ; 93(11): e1034-e1044, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate polysomnographic markers (sleep latency and sleep-onset REM periods [SOREMPs] at the Multiple Sleep Latency Test [MSLT] and nocturnal polysomnography [PSG]) for pediatric narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) against CSF hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) deficiency and presence of cataplexy, as no criteria are currently validated in children. METHODS: Clinical, neurophysiologic, and, when available, biological data (HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, CSF hcrt-1 levels) of 357 consecutive children below 18 years of age evaluated for suspected narcolepsy were collected. Best MSLT cutoffs were obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis by contrasting among patients with available CSF hcrt-1 assay (n = 228) with vs without CSF hcrt-1 deficiency, and further validated in patients without available CSF hcrt-1 against cataplexy (n = 129). RESULTS: Patients with CSF hcrt-1 deficiency were best recognized using a mean MSLT sleep latency ≤8.2 minutes (area under the ROC curve of 0.985), or by at least 2 SOREMPs at the MSLT (area under the ROC curve of 0.975), or the combined PSG + MSLT (area under the ROC curve of 0.977). Although specificity and sensitivity of reference MSLT sleep latency ≤8 minutes and ≥2 SOREMPs (nocturnal SOREMP included) was 100% and 94.87%, the combination of MSLT sleep latency and SOREMP counts did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Age or sex also did not significantly influence these results in our pediatric population. CONCLUSIONS: At least 2 SOREMPs or a mean sleep latency ≤8.2 minutes at the MSLT are valid and reliable markers for pediatric NT1 diagnosis, a result contrasting with adult NT1 criteria. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that for children with suspected narcolepsy, polysomnographic and MSLT markers accurately identify those with narcolepsy type 1.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392847

RESUMO

We report sleep phenotypes and polysomnographic findings in two siblings with a novel homozygous variant of the GLRA1 gene causing hereditary hyperekplexia (HH). Both sisters had startles during wakefulness and sleep, sleep terrors, and one had symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Frequent startles were found in NREM sleep associated with NREM parasomnias in deep sleep. In REM sleep, both had motor behaviors and increased phasic/tonic muscle activities confirming RBD. Clonazepam improved startles, motor behaviors, and muscle activities in REM sleep. Impaired glycinergic transmission in human HH could be involved in the pathophysiology of RBD and NREM parasomnias.

3.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 15(9): 519-539, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324898

RESUMO

Narcolepsy is a rare brain disorder that reflects a selective loss or dysfunction of orexin (also known as hypocretin) neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, accompanied by sleep-wake symptoms, such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis and disturbed sleep. Diagnosis is based on these clinical features and supported by biomarkers: evidence of rapid eye movement sleep periods soon after sleep onset; cerebrospinal fluid orexin deficiency; and positivity for HLA-DQB1*06:02. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant and anticataplectic drugs is usually efficacious. This Review focuses on our current understanding of how genetic, environmental and immune-related factors contribute to a prominent (but not isolated) orexin signalling deficiency in patients with NT1. Data supporting the view of NT1 as a hypothalamic disorder affecting not only sleep-wake but also motor, psychiatric, emotional, cognitive, metabolic and autonomic functions are presented, along with uncertainties concerning the 'narcoleptic borderland', including narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). The limitations of current diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy are discussed, and a possible new classification system incorporating the borderland conditions is presented. Finally, advances and obstacles in the symptomatic and causal treatment of narcolepsy are reviewed.

4.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 161: 353-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307613

RESUMO

Central nervous system hypersomnias (narcolepsy type 1 and type 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, and Kleine-Levin syndrome) are orphan sleep disorders in which the predominant symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness. The evaluation of sleepiness requires rigorous clinical and neurophysiologic approaches that may include the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, multiple sleep latency tests, and the maintenance of wakefulness test. However, to date, no gold standard measurement of excessive sleepiness exists, and there are no quantifiable biologic markers. The main pathophysiologic feature of central hypersomnias is thought to reflect a deficiency of arousal systems, rather than an overactivity of sleep systems or an imbalance between those systems. Impaired neurotransmission of hypocretin/orexin (neuropeptides of the lateral hypothalamus) is involved in the neurobiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NT1). NT1 is a well-characterized disorder, due to the destruction of hypocretin/orexin neurons by a probable autoimmune process. The biologic hallmarks of the other central hypersomnias remain unknown, and neurophysiologic biomarkers are still of major importance for the diagnosis and characterization of those disorders.

6.
J Autoimmun ; 100: 1-6, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948158

RESUMO

Convergent evidence points to the involvement of T cells in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). Here, we hypothesized that expanded disease-specific T cell clones could be detected in the blood of NT1 patients. We compared the TCR repertoire of circulating antigen-experienced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 13 recently diagnosed NT1 patients and 11 age-, sex-, and HLA-DQB1*06:02-matched healthy controls. We detected a bias in the usage of TRAV3 and TRAV8 families, with public CDR3α motifs only present in CD4+ T cells from patients with NT1. These findings may offer a unique tool to identify disease-relevant antigens.

7.
Neurology ; 92(15): e1754-e1762, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the Idiopathic Hypersomnia Severity Scale (IIHSS), a self-report measure of hypersomnolence symptoms, consequences, and responsiveness to treatment. METHODS: The 14-item IHSS (developed and validated by sleep experts with patients' feedback) was filled in by 218 participants (2.3% missing data). Among the 210 participants who fully completed the IHSS, there were 57 untreated and 43 treated patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) aged 16 years or older, 37 untreated patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), and 73 controls without sleepiness. IHSS psychometric properties, discriminant diagnostic validity, and score changes with treatment were assessed. RESULTS: The IHSS showed good internal consistency and content validity. Factor analysis indicated a 2-component solution with good reliability expressed by satisfactory Cronbach α values. IHSS scores were reproducible without changes in the test-retest evaluation (13 treated and 14 untreated patients). Convergent validity analysis showed that IHSS score was correlated with daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in patients with IH. The IHSS score was lower in treated than untreated patients (5-8 unit difference, without ceiling effect). The cutoff value for discriminating between untreated and treated patients was 26/50 (sensitivity 55.8%, specificity 78.9%). IHSS scores were higher in drug-free IH patients than NT1 and controls. The best cutoff value to differentiate between untreated IH patients and controls was 22 (sensitivity 91.1%, specificity 94.5%), and 29 with NT1. CONCLUSIONS: The IHSS is a reliable and valid clinical tool for the quantification of IH symptoms and consequences that might be useful for patient identification, follow-up, and management.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 129(1): 204-211, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882519

RESUMO

There is increasing awareness that sleep disorders may be associated with increased perioperative risk. The Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine created the Narcolepsy Perioperative Task Force: (1) to investigate the current state of knowledge of the perioperative risk for patients with narcolepsy, (2) to determine the viability of developing perioperative guidelines for the management of patients with narcolepsy, and (3) to delineate future research goals and clinically relevant outcomes. The Narcolepsy Perioperative Task Force established that there is evidence for increased perioperative risk in patients with narcolepsy; however, this evidence is sparse and based on case reviews, case series, and retrospective reviews. Mechanistically, there are a number of potential mechanisms by which patients with narcolepsy could be at increased risk for perioperative complications. These include aggravation of the disease itself, dysautonomia, narcolepsy-related medications, anesthesia interactions, and withdrawal of narcolepsy-related medications. At this time, there is inadequate research to develop an expert consensus or guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with narcolepsy. The paucity of available literature highlights the critical need to determine if patients with narcolepsy are at an increased perioperative risk and to establish appropriate research protocols and clearly delineated patient-centered outcomes. There is a real need for collaborative research among sleep medicine specialists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perioperative providers. This future research will become the foundation for the development of guidelines, or at a minimum, a better understanding how to optimize the perioperative care of patients with narcolepsy.

9.
Mov Disord ; 34(4): 526-535, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SMPD1 (acid-sphingomyelinase) variants have been associated with Parkinson's disease in recent studies. The objective of this study was to further investigate the role of SMPD1 mutations in PD. METHODS: SMPD1 was sequenced in 3 cohorts (Israel Ashkenazi Jewish cohort, Montreal/Montpellier, and New York), including 1592 PD patients and 975 controls. Additional data were available for 10,709 Ashkenazi Jewish controls. Acid-sphingomyelinase activity was measured by a mass spectrometry-based assay in the New York cohort. α-Synuclein levels were measured in vitro following CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and siRNA knockdown of SMPD1 in HeLa and BE(2)-M17 cells. Lysosomal localization of acid-sphingomyelinase with different mutations was studied, and in silico analysis of their effect on acid-sphingomyelinase structure was performed. RESULTS: SMPD1 mutations were associated with PD in the Ashkenazi Jewish cohort, as 1.4% of PD patients carried the p.L302P or p.fsP330 mutation, compared with 0.37% in 10,709 Ashkenazi Jewish controls (OR, 3.7; 95%CI, 1.6-8.2; P = 0.0025). In the Montreal/Montpellier cohort, the p.A487V variant was nominally associated with PD (1.5% versus 0.14%; P = 0.0065, not significant after correction for multiple comparisons). Among PD patients, reduced acid-sphingomyelinase activity was associated with a 3.5- to 5.8-year earlier onset of PD in the lowest quartile versus the highest quartile of acid-sphingomyelinase activity (P = 0.01-0.001). We further demonstrated that SMPD1 knockout and knockdown resulted in increased α-synuclein levels in HeLa and BE(2)-M17 dopaminergic cells and that the p.L302P and p.fsP330 mutations impair the traffic of acid-sphingomyelinase to the lysosome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support an association between SMPD1 variants, acid-sphingomyelinase activity, and PD. Furthermore, they suggest that reduced acid-sphingomyelinase activity may lead to α-synuclein accumulation. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

10.
Sleep ; 42(5)2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722056

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The association between restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and iron deficiency has been reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however little is known in adults. The aim of this study was to assess frequencies of RLS, PLMS and other leg movements (LM) and iron deficiency and their relationships with ADHD phenotype in adults with ADHD. METHODS: Two hundred adults with ADHD (112 males, median age 31 years) were evaluated on lifetime ADHD symptoms and sleep characteristics. RLS was diagnosed according to standard criteria. Serum ferritin levels were measured, with iron deficiency defined as <50 ng/mL. A subgroup of 48 ADHD patients with RLS, 48 ADHD without RLS and 48 controls underwent a polysomnography to record sleep, LM, and PLMS. RESULTS: RLS was diagnosed in 33.0%, associated with earlier onset of ADHD, hyperactive presentation and more severe lifetime ADHD symptoms. Iron deficiency was found in 35.5% with higher frequency in patients with RLS. LM were more frequent in ADHD patients, with higher LM periodicity levels in those with comorbid RLS in comparison to controls. However, PLMS index did not differ between groups. Patients with ADHD and RLS had higher frequency of iron deficiency than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of adults with ADHD, we individualized a subgroup characterized by earlier and severe ADHD symptoms, RLS, higher LM during sleep and iron deficiency. This endophenotype may reflect a different neurobiological mechanism that remains to be further studied.

11.
Sleep Med ; 55: 1-5, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735912

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between real and simulated driving performance and the objective level of alertness as measured by the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) in patients suffering from narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients (10 patients with narcolepsy, type 1 (n = 7) and type 2 (n = 3), and 17 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, mean age = 33.8 ± 11.1 years, range = 18-65 y; four males) were recruited in a randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, and compared to 27 matched healthy controls. Patients were randomly assigned to receive modafinil (400 mg) or placebo before the driving test (2 h of real and 2 h of simulated highway driving for each patient). Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) of the vehicle in real and simulated driving and mean sleep latency in a 4 × 40 min MWT were assessed. RESULTS: Untreated patients presented shorter sleep latencies on the MWT (20.8 (IQ range 16.1-32.9) vs. 34.9 min (IQ range 28.1-40.0)) and worse simulated driving performance (P < 0.001) than treated patients. Nevertheless, treated patients still exhibited shorter mean sleep latencies on the MWT than controls (34.9 (IQ range 28.1-40.0) vs. 40 min (IQ range 37.1-40.0), P < 0.05), but driving performance was identical in both groups. The SDLP of the vehicle in real driving conditions and the MWT score correlated with the SDLP in simulated driving (respectively, r = 0.34, P < 0.05 and r = -0.56, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with narcolepsy/idiopathic hypersomnia, simulated driving and MWT explore different dimensions of fitness-to-drive and could be used complementarily to better evaluate sleep-related driving impairment.

12.
Brain ; 142(3): 744-759, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789229

RESUMO

Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) is a powerful early sign of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to directly observe prodromal neurodegenerative states, and potentially intervene with neuroprotective therapy. For future neuroprotective trials, it is essential to accurately estimate phenoconversion rate and identify potential predictors of phenoconversion. This study assessed the neurodegenerative disease risk and predictors of neurodegeneration in a large multicentre cohort of iRBD. We combined prospective follow-up data from 24 centres of the International RBD Study Group. At baseline, patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD without parkinsonism or dementia underwent sleep, motor, cognitive, autonomic and special sensory testing. Patients were then prospectively followed, during which risk of dementia and parkinsonsim were assessed. The risk of dementia and parkinsonism was estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Predictors of phenoconversion were assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, adjusting for age, sex, and centre. Sample size estimates for disease-modifying trials were calculated using a time-to-event analysis. Overall, 1280 patients were recruited. The average age was 66.3 ± 8.4 and 82.5% were male. Average follow-up was 4.6 years (range = 1-19 years). The overall conversion rate from iRBD to an overt neurodegenerative syndrome was 6.3% per year, with 73.5% converting after 12-year follow-up. The rate of phenoconversion was significantly increased with abnormal quantitative motor testing [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.16], objective motor examination (HR = 3.03), olfactory deficit (HR = 2.62), mild cognitive impairment (HR = 1.91-2.37), erectile dysfunction (HR = 2.13), motor symptoms (HR = 2.11), an abnormal DAT scan (HR = 1.98), colour vision abnormalities (HR = 1.69), constipation (HR = 1.67), REM atonia loss (HR = 1.54), and age (HR = 1.54). There was no significant predictive value of sex, daytime somnolence, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, sleep apnoea, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, or hyperechogenicity on substantia nigra ultrasound. Among predictive markers, only cognitive variables were different at baseline between those converting to primary dementia versus parkinsonism. Sample size estimates for definitive neuroprotective trials ranged from 142 to 366 patients per arm. This large multicentre study documents the high phenoconversion rate from iRBD to an overt neurodegenerative syndrome. Our findings provide estimates of the relative predictive value of prodromal markers, which can be used to stratify patients for neuroprotective trials.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 85(3): 359-370, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Solriamfetol (JZP-110) is a selective dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with wake-promoting effects. This phase 3 study (NCT02348593) evaluated the safety and efficacy of solriamfetol in narcolepsy. METHODS: Patients with narcolepsy with mean sleep latency <25 minutes on the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score ≥10, and usual nightly sleep ≥6 hours were randomized to solriamfetol 75, 150, or 300 mg, or placebo for 12 weeks. Coprimary endpoints were change from baseline to week 12 in MWT and ESS. Improvement on the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGI-C) was the key secondary endpoint. RESULTS: Safety and modified intention-to-treat populations included 236 and 231 patients, respectively. Solriamfetol 300 and 150 mg were positive on both coprimary endpoints. Least squares mean (standard error [SE]) changes from baseline were 12.3 (SE = 1.4) and 9.8 (SE = 1.3) minutes for solriamfetol 300 and 150 mg on the MWT, respectively, versus 2.1 (SE = 1.3) minutes for placebo, and -6.4 (SE = 0.7) for 300 mg and -5.4 (SE = 0.7) for 150 mg on the ESS versus -1.6 (SE = 0.7) for placebo (all p < 0.0001). At week 12, higher percentages of patients treated with solriamfetol 150 mg (78.2%) and 300 mg (84.7%) reported PGI-C improvement relative to placebo (39.7%; both p < 0.0001). Adverse events ≥5% across all solriamfetol doses included headache (21.5%), nausea (10.7%), decreased appetite (10.7%), nasopharyngitis (9.0%), dry mouth (7.3%), and anxiety (5.1%). INTERPRETATION: Solriamfetol has the potential to be an important therapeutic option for the treatment of impaired wakefulness and excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:359-370.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 73: 231.e1-231.e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314816

RESUMO

GCH1 encodes the enzyme guanosine triphospahte (GTP) cyclohydrolase 1, essential for dopamine synthesis in nigrostriatal cells, and rare mutations in GCH1 may lead to Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). While GCH1 is implicated in genomewide association studies in Parkinson's disease (PD), only a few studies examined the role of rare GCH1 variants in PD, with conflicting results. In the present study, GCH1 and its 5' and 3' untranslated regions were sequenced in 1113 patients with PD and 1111 controls. To examine the association of rare GCH1 variants with PD, burden analysis was performed. Three rare GCH1 variants, which were previously reported to be pathogenic in DRD, were found in five patients with PD and not in controls (sequence Kernel association test, p = 0.024). A common haplotype, tagged by rs841, was associated with a reduced risk for PD (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.61-0.83, p = 1.24 × 10-4), and with increased GCH1 expression in brain regions relevant for PD (www.gtexportal.org). Our results support a role for rare, DRD-related variants, and common GCH1 variants in the pathogenesis of PD.

15.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(3): 412-418, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiac sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and controls using 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, and to determine the clinical and neurophysiological variables associated with 123I-MIBG scintigraphy results in NT1. METHODS: Fifty-six NT1 patients and 91 controls without neurological diseases underwent a cardiac scintigraphy. MIBG uptake was quantified by delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio. Clinical, neurophysiological and biological determinants of a low H/M were assessed in NT1. RESULTS: MIBG uptake did not differ between NT1 and controls in crude and adjusted associations. Five patients had low MIBG uptake (<1.42, first decile of controls), often with advanced age, cardiovascular (CV) diseases, stimulants intake, and REM sleep behavior disorder. Patients with H/M <1.62 (lowest tertile) were older, with higher BMI, microarousal index and CV comorbidities. A three-fold increase of phasic/tonic REM sleep motor activities was found in those patients, confirmed in a subanalysis of 40 drug-free patients. No association was found with CSF hypocretin levels. CONCLUSION: A direct measure of the heart adrenergic nerve activity revealed no sympathetic denervation in NT1. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate normal cardiac sympathetic innervation in NT1. However, few patients with low MIBG uptake also presented CV comorbidities and REM sleep motor deregulation, potentially at high CV risk, requiring a careful follow-up.

16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5229, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523329

RESUMO

Analysis of sleep for the diagnosis of sleep disorders such as Type-1 Narcolepsy (T1N) currently requires visual inspection of polysomnography records by trained scoring technicians. Here, we used neural networks in approximately 3,000 normal and abnormal sleep recordings to automate sleep stage scoring, producing a hypnodensity graph-a probability distribution conveying more information than classical hypnograms. Accuracy of sleep stage scoring was validated in 70 subjects assessed by six scorers. The best model performed better than any individual scorer (87% versus consensus). It also reliably scores sleep down to 5 s instead of 30 s scoring epochs. A T1N marker based on unusual sleep stage overlaps achieved a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 91%, validated in independent datasets. Addition of HLA-DQB1*06:02 typing increased specificity to 99%. Our method can reduce time spent in sleep clinics and automates T1N diagnosis. It also opens the possibility of diagnosing T1N using home sleep studies.

18.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 8: 36, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237869

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is impacted by allergens and air pollution but interactions between air pollution, sleep and allergic diseases are insufficiently understood. POLLAR (Impact of air POLLution on sleep, Asthma and Rhinitis) is a project of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT Health). It will use a freely-existing application for AR monitoring that has been tested in 23 countries (the Allergy Diary, iOS and Android, 17,000 users, TLR8). The Allergy Diary will be combined with a new tool allowing queries on allergen, pollen (TLR2), sleep quality and disorders (TRL2) as well as existing longitudinal and geolocalized pollution data. Machine learning will be used to assess the relationship between air pollution, sleep and AR comparing polluted and non-polluted areas in 6 EU countries. Data generated in 2018 will be confirmed in 2019 and extended by the individual prospective assessment of pollution (portable sensor, TLR7) in AR. Sleep apnea patients will be used as a demonstrator of sleep disorder that can be modulated in terms of symptoms and severity by air pollution and AR. The geographic information system GIS will map the results. Consequences on quality of life (EQ-5D), asthma, school, work and sleep will be monitored and disseminated towards the population. The impacts of POLLAR will be (1) to propose novel care pathways integrating pollution, sleep and patients' literacy, (2) to study sleep consequences of pollution and its impact on frequent chronic diseases, (3) to improve work productivity, (4) to propose the basis for a sentinel network at the EU level for pollution and allergy, (5) to assess the societal implications of the interaction. MASK paper N°32.

19.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized in humans by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Greater than fifty percent of narcoleptic patients have an onset of symptoms prior to the age of 18. Current general agreement considers the loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons as the direct cause of narcolepsy notably cataplexy. To assess whether brain histamine (HA) is also involved, we quantified the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of HA and tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA), the direct metabolite of HA between children with orexin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and controls. METHODS: We included 24 children with NT1 (12.3 ± 3.6 years, 11 boys, 83% cataplexy, 100% HLA DQB1*06:02) and 21 control children (11.2 ± 4.2 years, 10 boys). CSF HA and t-MeHA were measured in all subjects using a highly sensitive liquid chromatographic-electrospray/tandem mass spectrometric assay. CSF hypocretin-1 values were determined in the narcoleptic patients. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, NT1 children had higher CSF HA levels (771 vs 234 pmol/L, P < 0.001), lower t-MeHA levels (879 vs 1924 pmol/L, P < 0.001), and lower t-MeHA/HA ratios (1.1 vs 8.2, P < 0.001). NT1 patients had higher BMI z-scores (2.7 ± 1.6 vs 1.0 ± 2.3, P = 0.006) and were more often obese (58% vs 29%, P = 0.05) than the controls. Multivariable analyses including age, gender, and BMI z-score showed a significant decrease in CSF HA levels when the BMI z-score increased in patients (P = 0.007) but not in the controls. No association was found between CSF HA, t-MeHA, disease duration, age at disease onset, the presence of cataplexy, lumbar puncture timing, and CSF hypocretin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Narcolepsy type 1 children had a higher CSF HA level together with a lower t-MeHA level leading to a significant decrease in the t-MeHA/HA ratios. These results suggest a decreased HA turnover and an impairment of histaminergic neurotransmission in narcoleptic children and support the use of a histaminergic therapy in the treatment against narcolepsy.

20.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054718797434, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self Report (WFIRS-S) in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. METHOD: Patients ( N = 363) were diagnosed with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria. Psychometric properties of the French version of the WFIRS-S were tested including construct validity with a confirmatory factor analysis, internal structural validity with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, external validity by correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire. RESULTS: The confirmatory factor analysis found the following: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.061, 90% confidence interval (CI) = [0.058, 0.063]; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.67. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .91. Correlations with EQ-5D descriptive index, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, and BDI-II scores were -0.48, -0.55, and 0.53, respectively. CONCLUSION: The French version of the WFIRS-S is a psychometrically acceptable self-reported questionnaire for the multi-domain evaluation of functional impairments in adults with ADHD, for research and clinical purposes.

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