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1.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 921-924, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of data evaluating recent changes in clinical and prescriber characteristics of patients initiating sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: U.S.-based administrative claims data (July 2013 to June 2018) were used to identify initiators of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA. RESULTS: Over 5 years, empagliflozin initiation (as a proportion of SGLT2i) increased by 57.1% (P < 0.001 for trend), while canagliflozin initiation declined by 75.1% (P < 0.001). Empagliflozin was the only agent within SGLT2i with an increase in the proportion of patients with myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure (collectively called CVD-HF) (P < 0.001). Liraglutide initiation (as a proportion of total GLP-1RA) declined by 32.1% (P < 0.001), and dulaglutide initiation increased by 34.1% (P < 0.001); the proportion of patients with CVD-HF increased the most in liraglutide initiators (5.1% increase; P < 0.001). Most prescribers were internists or endocrinologists; cardiologist prescribing remained low (<1%). CONCLUSIONS: For SGLT2i, shifts in preference for empagliflozin followed changes in drug labels and guidelines, while for GLP-1RA, other factors such as price or ease of administration may have led to a preference for dulaglutide over liraglutide.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2437-2443, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the clinical development of new pain and reformulated pain medications given the ongoing opioid crisis and the public health burden of inadequately controlled pain. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new drugs starting clinical testing between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. We searched two comprehensive commercial databases of global research and development activity. The primary outcomes were trends in new and reformulated pain drugs starting clinical testing, proportion of new pain drugs targeting a novel biological pathway, and rates and reasons for discontinuation of development. RESULTS: The proportion of new pain drugs entering phase 1 testing (relative to all new drug trials) declined from 2.5% between 2000 and 2002 to 1.7% between 2013 and 2015. No significant changes in the proportion of new pain drugs entering phase 2 or phase 3 trials were observed. Most new pain drugs failed to reach late-stage clinical development, with 52% of pain drugs successfully advancing from phase 1 to phase 2 and 11% advancing from phase 2 to phase 3 trials. The number of reformulated products starting clinical testing increased over the study period and was greater than that for new analgesics in 2012 and every year thereafter. CONCLUSION: Pain drug development activity has largely shifted from new therapeutics to reformulated ones. New policies, such as increased funding for basic pain research, may help address the urgent need for new therapies for pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Pharmacotherapy ; 39(10): 1005-1011, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the rising incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), data evaluating trends in maternal risk factors associated with NAS have not been available for recent years, a period characterized by declining opioid prescriptions. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of opioid- and non-opioid-related factors associated with NAS, and by mutually exclusive subgroups of deliveries without prescription-opioid use, with prescription-opioid use, and with opioid-use disorder (OUD). METHODS: A cohort of pregnancies resulting in live births in a commercial claims data base in 2011-2015 was identified. Examples of maternal risk factors of interest included antepartum prescription-drug use (e.g., opioids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs], antipsychotics) and nonprescription-related factors (e.g., smoking, OUD). RESULTS: A total of 659 cases of NAS among 621,940 deliveries was identified. Among NAS deliveries, prescription opioids were the most commonly used drug-class (39.0%). Adjusted relative risk (RR) for NAS was 5.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.25-6.95), followed by SSRIs (20.9%; RR 3.16, CI 2.43-4.11); OUD was noted in 36.3% of the deliveries (RR 40.74, CI 22.64-73.32). In the subgroup of deliveries without a prescription opioid (33% of overall NAS deliveries), the absolute incidence of NAS was low (0.3 cases/1000 deliveries), and SSRIs were the most commonly used medication class (32.7%; RR 10.21, CI 7.28-14.31). In the subgroup of deliveries with an opioid prescription, the absolute incidence of NAS was 7.7/1000 (29% of all overall NAS deliveries), and 22.7% of these deliveries were exposed to one other psychotropic agent in addition to the opioid, most commonly an SSRI (18.0%). In the subgroup of deliveries with a diagnosis of OUD, the NAS incidence was high (214.3/1000 [36% of all NAS cases]). CONCLUSION: A third of NAS deliveries did not have evidence of prescription opioids. Other psychotropic medications, especially SSRIs, were strong predictors of NAS in this stratum but had no relevance among deliveries with OUD, suggesting varying etiologies and the need for tailored preventive approaches to reduce NAS effectively.

7.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357213

RESUMO

Background: Prior studies evaluating risk for severe urinary tract infections (UTIs) with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have reported conflicting findings. Objective: To assess whether patients initiating use of SGLT-2 inhibitors were at increased risk for severe UTI events compared with those initiating use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1) agonists. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: 2 large, U.S.-based databases of commercial claims (March 2013 to September 2015). Participants: Within each database, 2 cohorts were created and matched 1:1 on propensity score. Patients were aged 18 years or older, had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and were initiating use of SGLT-2 inhibitors versus DPP-4 inhibitors (cohort 1) or GLP-1 agonists (cohort 2). Measurements: The primary outcome was a severe UTI event, defined as a hospitalization for primary UTI, sepsis with UTI, or pyelonephritis; the secondary outcome was outpatient UTI treated with antibiotics. Hazard ratios [HRs] were estimated in each propensity score-matched cohort, with adjustment for more than 90 baseline characteristics. Results: After 1:1 matching on propensity score, 123 752 patients were identified in cohort 1 and 111 978 in cohort 2 in the 2 databases. In cohort 1, persons newly receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors had 61 severe UTI events (incidence rate [IR] per 1000 person-years, 1.76), compared with 57 events in the DPP-4 inhibitor group (IR, 1.77) (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.68 to 1.41]). In cohort 2, those receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors had 73 events (IR, 2.15), compared with 87 events in the GLP-1 agonist group (IR, 2.96) (HR, 0.72 [CI, 0.53 to 0.99]). Findings were robust across sensitivity analyses; within several subgroups of age, sex, and frailty; and for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin individually. In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors were not associated with increased risk for outpatient UTIs (cohort 1: HR, 0.96 [CI, 0.89 to 1.04]; cohort 2: HR, 0.91 [CI, 0.84 to 0.99]). Limitation: Generalizability of the study findings may be limited to patients with commercial insurance. Conclusion: In a large cohort of patients seen in routine clinical practice, risk for severe and nonsevere UTI events among those initiating SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy was similar to that among patients initiating treatment with other second-line antidiabetic medications. Primary Funding Source: Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics.

8.
9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(2): 434-438, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207042

RESUMO

The extent to which sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors increase the risk of genital infections in routine clinical care, compared with other antidiabetic medications, is not clear, or whether the increased risk is consistent across gender or age subgroups, within individual SGLT2 agents, or if it is more pronounced at a particular time after treatment initiation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using two US commercial claims databases (2013-2017). In the primary analysis, 1:1 propensity score-matched cohorts of female and male subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiating SGLT2 versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were created. The outcome was a composite of genital candidal infections, vaginitis or vulvovaginitis in women, and genital candidal infections, balanitis, balanoposthitis, phimosis or paraphimosis in men. Among propensity score-matched cohorts of 129 994 women and 156 074 men, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and excess risk per 1000 person-years for SGLT2 versus DPP-4 inhibitors was 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64, 2.99) and 87.4 (95% CI, 79.1, 96.2) respectively for women, and was 2.68 (95% CI, 2.31, 3.11) and 11.9 (95% CI, 9.3-15.0) for men. Findings were similar in the SGLT2 inhibitor versus GLP-1 agonist comparison, more pronounced in the subgroup of patients aged ≥60 (HR, 4.45 [95% CI, 3.83-5.17] in women and 3.30 [95% CI, 2.56-4.25] in men), and no meaningful difference across individual SGLT2 inhibitors was identified. This increase in risk was evident in the first month of treatment initiation and remained elevated throughout the course of therapy. SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with an approximately 3-fold increase in risk of genital infections.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/induzido quimicamente , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Candidíase/induzido quimicamente , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Value Health ; 21(11): 1286-1290, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescription drug shortages can disrupt essential patient care and drive up drug prices. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate some predictors of shortages within a large cohort of generic drugs in the United States and to determine the association between drug shortages and changes in generic drug prices. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Outpatient prescription claims from commercial health plans between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed. Seven years of data were divided into fourteen 6-month periods; the first period was designated as the baseline period. The first model estimated the probability of experiencing a drug shortage using drug-specific competition levels, market sizes, formulations (e.g., capsules), and drug prices as predictors. The second model estimated the percentage change in drug prices from baseline on the basis of drug shortage duration. RESULTS: From 1.3 billion prescription claims, a cohort of 1114 generic drugs was identified. Low-priced generic drugs were at a higher risk for drug shortages compared with medium- and high-priced generic drugs, with odds ratios of 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.82) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-0.99), respectively. Compared with periods of no shortage, drug shortages lasting less than 6 months, 6 to 12 months, 12 to 18 months, and at least 18 months had corresponding price increases of 6.0% (95% CI 4.7-7.4), 10.9% (95% CI 8.5-13.4), 14.2% (95% CI 10.6-17.9), and 14.0% (95% CI 9.1-19.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings may not be generalizable to drugs that became generic after 2008 or those commonly used in an inpatient setting. The lowest priced drugs are at a substantially elevated risk of experiencing a drug shortage. Periods of drug shortages were associated with modest increases in drug prices.


Assuntos
Comércio , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribução , Assistência Ambulatorial , Indústria Farmacêutica , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Marketing , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Hypertens ; 31(12): 1324-1331, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Withdrawing medications that interfere with blood pressure (BP) is recommended in patients with uncontrolled BP, yet real-world use of such agents is not well characterized among individuals with hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the use of BP-interfering prescription medications among US patients with hypertension. METHODS: This retrospective drug utilization study used medical and prescription claims (January 2008 to December 2014) in the MarketScan commercial claims database. We included adults, aged 18-65 years, with a hypertension diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 401) and ≥1 antihypertensive medication fill. Two hypertension cohorts were examined-new antihypertensive drug users (incident hypertension) and patients requiring titration to a fourth antihypertensive (incident treatment-resistant hypertension [TRH]). Patient-level exposure to BP-interfering medications was assessed 6 months before and after the index date, defined as the first prescription fill of an antihypertensive drug or the first occurrence of overlapping use of ≥4 antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: We identified 521,028 patients with incident hypertension and 131,764 patients with incident TRH. The most prevalent BP-interfering prescription medications were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophens, and hormones. Overall, 18.3% of the incident hypertension cohort and 17.6% of the incident TRH cohort initiated a BP-interfering medication following antihypertensive titration. Among patients previously taking a BP-interfering medication, 57.6% with incident hypertension and 64.9% with incident TRH refilled that medication after antihypertensive intensification. CONCLUSIONS: The use of prescription BP-interfering medications, especially NSAIDs, is prevalent among patients requiring intensification of their antihypertensive regimen. Greater efforts to limit the use of these medications, where feasible, may be required among patients with uncontrolled hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Interações Medicamentosas , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Affect Disord ; 238: 542-546, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of new-onset depression in a cohort of US adult patients initiating lipophilic statin therapy compared to hydrophilic statin therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large US commercial claims database PARTICIPANTS: 1:1 propensity score matched cohort of lipophilic (atorvastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin) and hydrophilic (pravastatin and rosuvastatin) statin initiators between January 2009 to June 2015. OUTCOME: New onset of depression. RESULTS: In a propensity-score matched cohort of 299,298 statin initiators, the crude incidence of depression in the hydrophilic and lipophilic group was 136.6 and 142.8 per 10,000 person-years respectively. Compared to hydrophilic statin use, lipophilic statin use was not associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of depression, adjusted HR 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10, p = 0.078) and excess incidence of 6.3 (95% CI, -0.7-13.7) per 10,000 person-years. Findings were consistent across the subgroups of patients with history of psychiatric conditions HR 1.05 (95% CI, 0.94-1.16, p = 0.41), and those initiating statins for primary or secondary prevention, HR 1.03 (95% CI, 0.97-1.10, p = 0.33) and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.99-1.16, p = 0.10) respectively. Within individual lipophilic statins, only simvastatin was associated with a moderate increase in the risk of depression HR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16, p = 0.003), followed by lovastatin HR 1.07 (95% CI, 0.93-1.24, p = 0.34) and atorvastatin HR 1.05 (95% CI, 0.97-1.13, p = 0.27). LIMITATIONS: Findings are generalizable to patients with commercial insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Lipophilic statin use was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of incident depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/classificação , Incidência , Lovastatina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pravastatina/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/efeitos adversos , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(2): 181-191, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This multicenter pragmatic investigation assessed outcomes following clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles impair clopidogrel effectiveness after PCI. METHODS: After clinical genotyping, each institution recommended alternative antiplatelet therapy (prasugrel, ticagrelor) in PCI patients with a loss-of-function allele. Major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) within 12 months of PCI were compared between patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy. Risk was also compared between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy. Cox regression was performed, adjusting for group differences with inverse probability of treatment weights. RESULTS: Among 1,815 patients, 572 (31.5%) had a loss-of-function allele. The risk for major adverse cardiovascular events was significantly higher in patients with a loss-of-function allele prescribed clopidogrel versus alternative therapy (23.4 vs. 8.7 per 100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio: 2.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.32; p = 0.013). Similar results were observed among 1,210 patients with acute coronary syndromes at the time of PCI (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 6.09; p = 0.013). There was no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events between patients without a loss-of-function allele and loss-of-function allele carriers prescribed alternative therapy (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.88; p = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: These data from real-world observations demonstrate a higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele if clopidogrel versus alternative therapy is prescribed. A future randomized study of genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy may be of value.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Farmacogenética , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
Ann Intern Med ; 167(3): 145-151, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672324

RESUMO

Background: Prices for some generic drugs have increased in recent years, adversely affecting patients who rely on them. Objective: To determine the association between market competition levels and the change in generic drug prices in the United States. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Prescription claims from commercial health plans between 2008 and 2013. Measurements: The 5.5 years of data were divided into 11 study periods of 6 months each. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-calculated by summing the squares of individual manufacturers' market shares, with higher values indicating a less competitive market-and average drug prices were estimated for the generic drugs in each period. The HHI value estimated in the baseline period (first half of 2008) was modeled as a fixed covariate. Models estimated price changes over time by level of competition, adjusting for drug shortages, market size, and dosage forms. Results: From 1.08 billion prescription claims, a cohort of 1120 generic drugs was identified. After adjustment, drugs with quadropoly (HHI value of 2500, indicating relatively high levels of competition), duopoly (HHI value of 5000), near-monopoly (HHI value of 8000), and monopoly (HHI value of 10 000) levels of baseline competition were associated with price changes of -31.7% (95% CI, -34.4% to -28.9%), -11.8% (CI, -18.6% to -4.4%), 20.1% (CI, 5.5% to 36.6%), and 47.4% (CI, 25.4% to 73.2%), respectively, over the study period. Limitation: Study findings may not be generalizable to drugs that became generic after 2008. Conclusion: Market competition levels were associated with a change in generic drug prices. Such measurements may be helpful in identifying older prescription drugs at higher risk for price change in the future. Primary Funding Source: None.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Competição Econômica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
Pharmacotherapy ; 37(7): 806-813, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine secular trends of (i) maternal prescription opioid use in late pregnancy, (ii) neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) stratified by late maternal prescription opioid use, and (iii) maternal risk factors among NAS deliveries. METHODS: Women with a live birth who were enrolled 90 days before and 30 days after delivery in Florida Medicaid Analytic Extract billing records linked to birth certificates from 2000 to 2010 were identified for the study. Changes in the annual prevalence of prescription opioid use during pregnancy were tested with use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Temporal trends of NAS deliveries were estimated with the use of Poisson regression and stratified by prescription opioid exposure in the last 90 days of pregnancy in the study period. To identify contributors to the increase in NAS cases, variations in prevalence of opioid dispensing, tobacco use, antidepressant use, and substance use disorder among NAS and non-NAS deliveries were examined. RESULTS: There were 41,968 (9.4%) deliveries exposed to at least one opioid prescription in late pregnancy, and this rate remained stable from 2000 to 2010. Among prescription opioid-exposed deliveries, frequency of NAS increased from 1.6 to 25.2 per 1000 live births during the study period (p<0.05). Although the prevalence of maternal use of prescription opioid, tobacco, and antidepressants remained stable among NAS deliveries from 2000 to 2010, the prevalence of substance use disorder diagnoses increased substantially from 38.9% in 2000 to 67.9% in 2006 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NAS increased dramatically whereas the prevalence of major risk factors, including maternal prescription opioid use, remained stable in Florida between 2000 and 2010. The increase in substance use disorder may be responsible for the sharp increase in NAS deliveries.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Medicaid/tendências , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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