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Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112067, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543636


COVID-19 positive patients can egest live SARS-CoV-2 virus and viral genome fragments through faecal matter and urine, raising concerns about viral transmission through the faecal-oral route and/or contaminated aerosolized water. These concerns are amplified in many low- and middle-income countries, where raw sewage is often discharged into surface waterways and open defecation is common. Nonetheless, there has been no evidence of COVID-19 transmission via ambient urban water, and the virus viability in such aquatic matrices is believed to be minimal and not a matter of concern. In this manuscript, we attempt to discern the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material (ORF-1ab, N and S genes) in the urban water (lakes, rivers, and drains) of the two Indian cities viz., Ahmedabad (AMD), in western India with 9 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and Guwahati (GHY), in the north-east of the country with no such treatment facilities. The present study was carried out to establish the applicability of environmental water surveillance (E-wat-Surveillance) of COVID-19 as a potential tool for public health monitoring at the community level. 25.8% and 20% of the urban water samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in AMD and GHY, respectively. N-gene > S-gene > ORF-1ab-gene were readily detected in the urban surface water of AMD, whereas no such observable trend was noticed in the case of GHY. The high concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 genes (e.g., ORF-1ab; 800 copies/L for Sabarmati River, AMD and S-gene; 565 copies/L for Bharalu urban river, GHY) found in urban waters suggest that WWTPs do not always completely remove the virus genetic material and that E-wat-Surveillance of COVID-19 in cities/rural areas with poor sanitation is possible.

Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148367, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465041


Following the proven concept, capabilities, and limitations of detecting the RNA of Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater, it is pertinent to understand the utility of wastewater surveillance data on various scale. In the present work, we put forward the first wastewater surveillance-based city zonation for effective COVID-19 pandemic preparedness. A three-month data of Surveillance of Wastewater for Early Epidemic Prediction (SWEEP) was generated for the world heritage city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. In this expedition, 116 wastewater samples were analyzed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA, from September 3rd to November 26th, 2020. A total of 111 samples were detected with at least two out of three SARS-CoV-2 genes (N, ORF 1ab, and S). Monthly variation depicted a significant decline in all three gene copies in October compared to September 2020, followed by a sharp increment in November 2020. Correspondingly, the descending order of average effective gene concentration was: November (~10,729 copies/L) > September (~3047 copies/L) > October (~454 copies/L). Monthly variation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the wastewater samples may be ascribed to a decline of 20.48% in the total number of active cases in October 2020 and a rise of 1.82% in November 2020. Also, the monthly recovered new cases were found to be 16.61, 20.03, and 15.58% in September, October, and November 2020, respectively. The percentage change in the gene concentration was observed in the lead of 1-2 weeks with respect to the percentage change in the provisional figures of confirmed cases. SWEEP data-based city zonation was matched with the heat map of the overall COVID-19 infected population in Ahmedabad city, and month-wise effective gene concentration variations are shown on the map. The results expound on the potential of WBE surveillance of COVID-19 as a city zonation tool that can be meaningfully interpreted, predicted, and propagated for community preparedness through advanced identification of COVID-19 hotspots within a given city.

COVID-19 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias