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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1804, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000703

RESUMO

Dishevelled (DVL) is the key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. Currently, DVL conformational dynamics under native conditions is unknown. To overcome this limitation, we develop the Fluorescein Arsenical Hairpin Binder- (FlAsH-) based FRET in vivo approach to study DVL conformation in living cells. Using this single-cell FRET approach, we demonstrate that (i) Wnt ligands induce open DVL conformation, (ii) DVL variants that are predominantly open, show more even subcellular localization and more efficient membrane recruitment by Frizzled (FZD) and (iii) Casein kinase 1 ɛ (CK1ɛ) has a key regulatory function in DVL conformational dynamics. In silico modeling and in vitro biophysical methods explain how CK1ɛ-specific phosphorylation events control DVL conformations via modulation of the PDZ domain and its interaction with DVL C-terminus. In summary, our study describes an experimental tool for DVL conformational sampling in living cells and elucidates the essential regulatory role of CK1ɛ in DVL conformational dynamics.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/metabolismo , Domínios PDZ/fisiologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oócitos , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Xenopus laevis
2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 5: 47, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523267

RESUMO

Mammalian limb development is driven by the integrative input from several signaling pathways; a failure to receive or a misinterpretation of these signals results in skeletal defects. The brachydactylies, a group of overlapping inherited human hand malformation syndromes, are mainly caused by mutations in BMP signaling pathway components. Two closely related forms, Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) and BDB1 are caused by mutations in the BMP antagonist Noggin (NOG) and the atypical receptor tyrosine kinase ROR2 that acts as a receptor in the non-canonical Wnt pathway. Genetic analysis of Nog and Ror2 functional interaction via crossing Noggin and Ror2 mutant mice revealed a widening of skeletal elements in compound but not in any of the single mutants, thus indicating genetic interaction. Since ROR2 is a non-canonical Wnt co-receptor specific for Wnt-5a we speculated that this phenotype might be a result of deregulated Wnt-5a signaling activation, which is known to be essential for limb skeletal elements growth and patterning. We show that Noggin potentiates activation of the Wnt-5a-Ror2-Disheveled (Dvl) pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in a Ror2-dependent fashion. Rat chondrosarcoma chondrocytes (RCS), however, are not able to respond to Noggin in this fashion unless growth arrest is induced by FGF2. In summary, our data demonstrate genetic interaction between Noggin and Ror2 and show that Noggin can sensitize cells to Wnt-5a/Ror2-mediated non-canonical Wnt signaling, a feature that in cartilage may depend on the presence of active FGF signaling. These findings indicate an unappreciated function of Noggin that will help to understand BMP and Wnt/PCP signaling pathway interactions.

3.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 4: 25530, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25833224

RESUMO

Flow cytometry is a powerful method, which is widely used for high-throughput quantitative and qualitative analysis of cells. However, its straightforward applicability for extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mainly exosomes is hampered by several challenges, reflecting mostly the small size of these vesicles (exosomes: ~80-200 nm, microvesicles: ~200-1,000 nm), their polydispersity, and low refractive index. The current best and most widely used protocol for beads-free flow cytometry of exosomes uses ultracentrifugation (UC) coupled with floatation in sucrose gradient for their isolation, labeling with lipophilic dye PKH67 and antibodies, and an optimized version of commercial high-end cytometer for analysis. However, this approach requires an experienced flow cytometer operator capable of manual hardware adjustments and calibration of the cytometer. Here, we provide a novel and fast approach for quantification and characterization of both exosomes and microvesicles isolated from cell culture media as well as from more complex human samples (ascites of ovarian cancer patients) suitable for multiuser labs by using a flow cytometer especially designed for small particles, which can be used without adjustments prior to data acquisition. EVs can be fluorescently labeled with protein-(Carboxyfluoresceinsuccinimidyl ester, CFSE) and/or lipid- (FM) specific dyes, without the necessity of removing the unbound fluorescent dye by UC, which further facilitates and speeds up the characterization of microvesicles and exosomes using flow cytometry. In addition, double labeling with protein- and lipid-specific dyes enables separation of EVs from common contaminants of EV preparations, such as protein aggregates or micelles formed by unbound lipophilic styryl dyes, thus not leading to overestimation of EV numbers. Moreover, our protocol is compatible with antibody labeling using fluorescently conjugated primary antibodies. The presented methodology opens the possibility for routine quantification and characterization of EVs from various sources. Finally, it has the potential to bring a desired level of control into routine experiments and non-specialized labs, thanks to its simple bead-based standardization.

4.
Methods ; 46(4): 319-23, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18955145

RESUMO

Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the regulation of apoptosis. An imbalance in apoptosis can lead to disease. Unscheduled apoptosis has been linked to neurodegeneration while inhibition of apoptosis can cause cancer. An early and key event during apoptosis is the release of factors from mitochondria. In apoptosis the mitochondrial outer membrane becomes permeable, leading to release of apoptogenic factors into the cytosol. One such factor, cytochrome c, is an electron carrier of the respiratory chain normally trapped within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Many apoptotic studies investigate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) by monitoring the release of cytochrome c. Here, we describe three reliable techniques that detect cytochrome c release from mitochondria, through subcellular fractionation or immunocytochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, or isolated mitochondria and recombinant Bax and t-Bid proteins in vitro. These techniques will help to identify mechanisms and characterize factors regulating MOMP.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Animais , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Permeabilidade
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