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1.
Circulation ; 146(12): 892-906, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a prothrombotic state, but long-term effects of COVID-19 on incidence of vascular diseases are unclear. METHODS: We studied vascular diseases after COVID-19 diagnosis in population-wide anonymized linked English and Welsh electronic health records from January 1 to December 7, 2020. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios comparing the incidence of arterial thromboses and venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) after diagnosis of COVID-19 with the incidence in people without a COVID-19 diagnosis. We conducted subgroup analyses by COVID-19 severity, demographic characteristics, and previous history. RESULTS: Among 48 million adults, 125 985 were hospitalized and 1 319 789 were not hospitalized within 28 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. In England, there were 260 279 first arterial thromboses and 59 421 first VTEs during 41.6 million person-years of follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios for first arterial thrombosis after COVID-19 diagnosis compared with no COVID-19 diagnosis declined from 21.7 (95% CI, 21.0-22.4) in week 1 after COVID-19 diagnosis to 1.34 (95% CI, 1.21-1.48) during weeks 27 to 49. Adjusted hazard ratios for first VTE after COVID-19 diagnosis declined from 33.2 (95% CI, 31.3-35.2) in week 1 to 1.80 (95% CI, 1.50-2.17) during weeks 27 to 49. Adjusted hazard ratios were higher, for longer after diagnosis, after hospitalized versus nonhospitalized COVID-19, among Black or Asian versus White people, and among people without versus with a previous event. The estimated whole-population increases in risk of arterial thromboses and VTEs 49 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis were 0.5% and 0.25%, respectively, corresponding to 7200 and 3500 additional events, respectively, after 1.4 million COVID-19 diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: High relative incidence of vascular events soon after COVID-19 diagnosis declines more rapidly for arterial thromboses than VTEs. However, incidence remains elevated up to 49 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis. These results support policies to prevent severe COVID-19 by means of COVID-19 vaccines, early review after discharge, risk factor control, and use of secondary preventive agents in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombose , Doenças Vasculares , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Silanos , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of people have a body mass index (BMI) classified as overweight or obese and published studies disagree whether this will be beneficial or detrimental to health. We applied and evaluated two intergenerational instrumental variable methods to estimate the average causal effect of BMI on mortality in a cohort with many deaths: the parents of UK Biobank participants. METHODS: In Cox regression models, parental BMI was instrumented by offspring BMI using an 'offspring as instrument' (OAI) estimation and by offspring BMI-related genetic variants in a 'proxy-genotype Mendelian randomization' (PGMR) estimation. RESULTS: Complete-case analyses were performed in parents of 233 361 UK Biobank participants with full phenotypic, genotypic and covariate data. The PGMR method suggested that higher BMI increased mortality with hazard ratios per kg/m2 of 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.04) for mothers and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) for fathers. The OAI method gave considerably higher estimates, which varied according to the parent-offspring pairing between 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.10; mother-son) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.29; father-daughter). CONCLUSION: Both methods supported a causal role of higher BMI increasing mortality, although caution is required regarding the immediate causal interpretation of these exact values. Evidence of instrument invalidity from measured covariates was limited for the OAI method and minimal for the PGMR method. The methods are complementary for interrogating the average putative causal effects because the biases are expected to differ between them.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a form of instrumental variable analysis used to investigate causality using observational data. Another important, although less frequently applied, use of this technique is to investigate confounding due to reverse causality. METHODS: We used a form of reverse MR and data from UK Biobank in a proof-of-principle study to investigate confounding due to reverse causation. Here we focus on the association between alcohol consumption (exposure) and outcomes including educational attainment, and physical and mental health. First, we examined the observational relationship between alcohol consumption and these outcomes. Allele scores were then derived for educational attainment, and physical and mental health, and the association with alcohol consumption (as the outcome) was explored. Sample sizes ranged from 114 941-336 473 in observational analyses and 142 093-336 818 in genetic analyses. RESULTS: Conventional observational analyses indicated associations between alcohol consumption and a number of outcomes (e.g. neuroticism, body mass index, educational attainment). Analyses using allele scores suggested evidence of reverse causation for several of these relationships (in particular physical health and educational attainment). CONCLUSION: Allele scores allow us to investigate reverse causation in observational studies. Our findings suggest that observed associations implying beneficial effects of alcohol consumption may be due to confounding by reverse causation in many cases.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271933, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947639

RESUMO

Studies leveraging gene-environment (GxE) interactions within Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses have prompted the emergence of two similar methodologies: MR-GxE and MR-GENIUS. Such methods are attractive in allowing for pleiotropic bias to be corrected when using individual instruments. Specifically, MR-GxE requires an interaction to be explicitly identified, while MR-GENIUS does not. We critically examine the assumptions of MR-GxE and MR-GENIUS in the absence of a pre-defined covariate, and propose sensitivity analyses to evaluate their performance. Finally, we explore the effect of body mass index (BMI) upon systolic blood pressure (SBP) using data from the UK Biobank, finding evidence of a positive effect of BMI on SBP. We find both approaches share similar assumptions, though differences between the approaches lend themselves to differing research settings. Where a suitable gene-by-covariate interaction is observed MR-GxE can produce unbiased causal effect estimates. MR-GENIUS can circumvent the need to identify interactions, but as a consequence relies on either the MR-GxE assumptions holding globally, or additional information with respect to the distribution of pleiotropic effects in the absence of an explicitly defined interaction covariate.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Viés , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causalidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos
6.
Elife ; 112022 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938910

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D supplements are widely prescribed to help reduce disease risk. However, this strategy is based on findings using conventional epidemiological methods which are prone to confounding and reverse causation. Methods: In this short report, we leveraged genetic variants which differentially influence body size during childhood and adulthood within a multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) framework, allowing us to separate the genetically predicted effects of adiposity at these two timepoints in the lifecourse. Results: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), there was strong evidence that higher childhood body size has a direct effect on lower vitamin D levels in early life (mean age: 9.9 years, range = 8.9-11.5 years) after accounting for the effect of the adult body size genetic score (beta = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.54 to -0.10, p=0.004). Conversely, we found evidence that the effect of childhood body size on vitamin D levels in midlife (mean age: 56.5 years, range = 40-69 years) is putatively mediated along the causal pathway involving adulthood adiposity (beta = -0.17, 95% CI = -0.21 to -0.13, p=4.6 × 10-17). Conclusions: Our findings have important implications in terms of the causal influence of vitamin D deficiency on disease risk. Furthermore, they serve as a compelling proof of concept that the timepoints across the lifecourse at which exposures and outcomes are measured can meaningfully impact overall conclusions drawn by MR studies. Funding: This work was supported by the Integrative Epidemiology Unit which receives funding from the UK Medical Research Council and the University of Bristol (MC_UU_00011/1).


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
7.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using Mendelian randomisation (MR), we examined whether childhood body size affects risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), gout and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) after accounting for the effect of adult body size. METHODS: Genetic instruments for childhood (age 10 years) and adult body size were derived using data from 453 169 individuals from the UK Biobank study (313 and 580 variants respectively), which have been previously validated using body mass index data from three independent populations. Genome-wide association data comprised 22 350 RA, 9069 AS, 3609 PsA, 13 179 gout and 5201 SLE cases. For each outcome, we conducted univariable MR to estimate the total effects of childhood and adult body size, and multivariable MR to examine the independent effect of childhood body size after accounting for adult body size. RESULTS: Genetically predicted childhood body size had a total effect on risk of PsA (OR 2.18 per change in body size category; 95% CI 1.43 to 3.31), gout (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.43 to 3.31) and SLE (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.14 to 5.22), but not RA (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.29) or AS (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.52). After accounting for adult body size, the direct effect of childhood body size was little changed for PsA (OR 1.92; 1.14 to 3.25) and SLE (OR 2.69; 1.24 to 5.87) but was attenuated for gout (OR 1.40; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, for PsA and SLE, the risk conferred from having a larger body size during childhood may not be fully reversable even when a healthy size is achieved in adulthood.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica , Artrite Reumatoide , Gota , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Espondilite Anquilosante , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Criança , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética
8.
Nature ; 608(7922): 336-345, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896751

RESUMO

In European and many African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian populations, lactase persistence (LP) is the most strongly selected monogenic trait to have evolved over the past 10,000 years1. Although the selection of LP and the consumption of prehistoric milk must be linked, considerable uncertainty remains concerning their spatiotemporal configuration and specific interactions2,3. Here we provide detailed distributions of milk exploitation across Europe over the past 9,000 years using around 7,000 pottery fat residues from more than 550 archaeological sites. European milk use was widespread from the Neolithic period onwards but varied spatially and temporally in intensity. Notably, LP selection varying with levels of prehistoric milk exploitation is no better at explaining LP allele frequency trajectories than uniform selection since the Neolithic period. In the UK Biobank4,5 cohort of 500,000 contemporary Europeans, LP genotype was only weakly associated with milk consumption and did not show consistent associations with improved fitness or health indicators. This suggests that other reasons for the beneficial effects of LP should be considered for its rapid frequency increase. We propose that lactase non-persistent individuals consumed milk when it became available but, under conditions of famine and/or increased pathogen exposure, this was disadvantageous, driving LP selection in prehistoric Europe. Comparison of model likelihoods indicates that population fluctuations, settlement density and wild animal exploitation-proxies for these drivers-provide better explanations of LP selection than the extent of milk exploitation. These findings offer new perspectives on prehistoric milk exploitation and LP evolution.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Doença , Genética Populacional , Lactase , Leite , Seleção Genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Cerâmica/história , Estudos de Coortes , Indústria de Laticínios/história , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Fome Epidêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Reino Unido
9.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 21: 100457, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832062

RESUMO

Background: The direct effects of general adiposity (body mass index (BMI)) and central adiposity (waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR)) on circulating lipoproteins, lipids, and metabolites are unknown. Methods: We used new metabolic data from UK Biobank (N=109,532, a five-fold higher N over previous studies). EDTA-plasma was used to quantify 249 traits with nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy including subclass-specific lipoprotein concentrations and lipid content, plus pre-glycemic and inflammatory metabolites. We used univariable and multivariable two-stage least-squares regression models with genetic risk scores for BMI and WHR as instruments to estimate total (unadjusted) and direct (mutually-adjusted) effects of BMI and WHR on metabolic traits; plus effects on statin use and interaction by sex, statin use, and age (proxy for medication use). Findings: Higher BMI decreased apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) before and after WHR-adjustment, whilst BMI increased triglycerides only before WHR-adjustment. These effects of WHR were larger and BMI-independent. Direct effects differed markedly by sex, e.g., triglycerides increased only with BMI among men, and only with WHR among women. Adiposity measures increased statin use and showed metabolic effects which differed by statin use and age. Among the youngest (38-53y, statins-5%), BMI and WHR (per-SD) increased LDL-C (total effects: 0.04-SD, 95%CI=-0.01,0.08 and 0.10-SD, 95%CI=0.02,0.17 respectively), but only WHR directly. Among the oldest (63-73y, statins-29%), BMI and WHR directly lowered LDL-C (-0.19-SD, 95%CI=-0.27,-0.11 and -0.05-SD, 95%CI=-0.16,0.06 respectively). Interpretation: Excess adiposity likely raises atherogenic lipid and metabolite levels exclusively via adiposity stored centrally, particularly among women. Apparent effects of adiposity on lowering LDL-C are likely explained by an effect of adiposity on statin use. Funding: UK Medical Research Council; British Heart Foundation; Novo Nordisk; National Institute for Health Research; Wellcome Trust; Cancer Research UK.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796550

RESUMO

Despite early interest, the evidence linking fatty acids to cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. We used Mendelian randomization to explore the involvement of polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids biosynthesis in the aetiology of several cardiovascular disease endpoints in up to 1 153 768 European (maximum 123 668 cases) and 212 453 East Asian (maximum 29 319 cases) ancestry individuals. As instruments, we selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) mapping to genes with well-known roles in PUFA (i.e. FADS1/2 and ELOVL2) and MUFA (i.e. SCD) biosynthesis. Our findings suggest that higher PUFA biosynthesis rate (proxied by rs174576 near FADS1/2) is related to higher odds of multiple cardiovascular diseases, particularly ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease and venous thromboembolism, whereas higher MUFA biosynthesis rate (proxied by rs603424 near SCD) is related to lower odds of coronary artery disease among Europeans. Results were unclear for East Asians as most effect estimates were imprecise. By triangulating multiple approaches (i.e. uni-/multi-variable Mendelian randomization, a phenome-wide scan, genetic colocalization and within-sibling analyses), our results are compatible with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (and possibly glucose) being a downstream effect of higher PUFA biosynthesis rate. Our findings indicate that PUFA and MUFA biosynthesis are involved in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases and suggest LDL-cholesterol as a potential mediating trait between PUFA biosynthesis and cardiovascular diseases risk.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) is a powerful tool through which the causal effects of modifiable exposures on outcomes can be estimated from observational data. Most exposures vary throughout the life course, but MR is commonly applied to one measurement of an exposure (e.g. weight measured once between ages 40 and 60 years). It has been argued that MR provides biased causal effect estimates when applied to one measure of an exposure that varies over time. METHODS: We propose an approach that emphasizes the liability that causes the entire exposure trajectory. We demonstrate this approach using simulations and an applied example. RESULTS: We show that rather than estimating the direct or total causal effect of changing the exposure value at a given time, MR estimates the causal effect of changing the underlying liability for the exposure, scaled to the effect of the liability on the exposure at that time. As such, results from MR conducted at different time points are expected to differ (unless the effect of the liability on exposure is constant over time), as we illustrate by estimating the effect of body mass index measured at different ages on systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Univariable MR results should not be interpreted as time-point-specific direct or total causal effects, but as the effect of changing the liability for the exposure. Estimates of how the effects of a genetic variant on an exposure vary over time, together with biological knowledge that provides evidence regarding likely effective exposure periods, are required to interpret time-point-specific causal effects.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Mendelian randomization (MR) in epidemiology has increased considerably in recent years, with a subsequent increase in systematic reviews of MR studies. We conducted a systematic review of tools designed for assessing risk of bias and/or quality of evidence in MR studies and a review of systematic reviews of MR studies. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Web of Science, preprints servers and Google Scholar for articles containing tools for assessing, conducting and/or reporting MR studies. We also searched for systematic reviews and protocols of systematic reviews of MR studies. From eligible articles we collected data on tool characteristics and content, as well as details of narrative description of bias assessment. RESULTS: Our searches retrieved 2464 records to screen, from which 14 tools, 35 systematic reviews and 38 protocols were included in our review. Seven tools were designed for assessing risk of bias/quality of evidence in MR studies and evaluation of their content revealed that all seven tools addressed the three core assumptions of instrumental variable analysis, violation of which can potentially introduce bias in MR analysis estimates. CONCLUSION: We present an overview of tools and methods to assess risk of bias/quality of evidence in MR analysis. Issues commonly addressed relate to the three standard assumptions of instrumental variables analyses, the choice of genetic instrument(s) and features of the population(s) from which the data are collected (particularly in two-sample MR), in addition to more traditional non-MR-specific epidemiological biases. The identified tools should be tested and validated for general use before recommendations can be made on their widespread use. Our findings should raise awareness about the importance of bias related to MR analysis and provide information that is useful for assessment of MR studies in the context of systematic reviews.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 18(7): e1010247, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797272

RESUMO

Estimating effects of parental and sibling genotypes (indirect genetic effects) can provide insight into how the family environment influences phenotypic variation. There is growing molecular genetic evidence for effects of parental phenotypes on their offspring (e.g. parental educational attainment), but the extent to which siblings affect each other is currently unclear. Here we used data from samples of unrelated individuals, without (singletons) and with biological full-siblings (non-singletons), to investigate and estimate sibling effects. Indirect genetic effects of siblings increase (or decrease) the covariance between genetic variation and a phenotype. It follows that differences in genetic association estimates between singletons and non-singletons could indicate indirect genetic effects of siblings if there is no heterogeneity in other sources of genetic association between singletons and non-singletons. We used UK Biobank data to estimate polygenic score (PGS) associations for height, BMI and educational attainment in self-reported singletons (N = 50,143) and non-singletons (N = 328,549). The educational attainment PGS association estimate was 12% larger (95% C.I. 3%, 21%) in the non-singleton sample than in the singleton sample, but the height and BMI PGS associations were consistent. Birth order data suggested that the difference in educational attainment PGS associations was driven by individuals with older siblings rather than firstborns. The relationship between number of siblings and educational attainment PGS associations was non-linear; PGS associations were 24% smaller in individuals with 6 or more siblings compared to the rest of the sample (95% C.I. 11%, 38%). We estimate that a 1 SD increase in sibling educational attainment PGS corresponds to a 0.025 year increase in the index individual's years in schooling (95% C.I. 0.013, 0.036). Our results suggest that older siblings may influence the educational attainment of younger siblings, adding to the growing evidence that effects of the environment on phenotypic variation partially reflect social effects of germline genetic variation in relatives.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Irmãos , Escolaridade , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Pais
14.
Epidemiology ; 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpreting instrumental variable results often requires further assumptions in addition to the core assumptions of relevance, independence, and the exclusion restriction. METHODS: We assess whether instrument-exposure additive homogeneity renders the Wald estimand equal to the average derivative effect (ADE) in the case of a binary instrument and a continuous exposure. EESULTS: Instrument-exposure additive homogeneity is insufficient for ADE identification when the instrument is binary, the exposure is continuous, and the effect of the exposure on the outcome is non-linear on the additive scale. For a binary exposure, the exposure-outcome effect is necessarily additive linear, so the homogeneity condition is sufficient. CONCLUSIONS: For binary instruments, instrument-exposure additive homogeneity identifies the ADE if the exposure is also binary. Otherwise, additional assumptions (such as additive linearity of the exposure-outcome effect) are required.

15.
Econ Hum Biol ; 46: 101154, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803012

RESUMO

Accurate measurement of the effects of disease status on healthcare costs is important in the pragmatic evaluation of interventions but is complicated by endogeneity bias. Mendelian Randomization, the use of random perturbations in germline genetic variation as instrumental variables, can avoid these limitations. We used a novel Mendelian Randomization analysis to model the causal impact on inpatient hospital costs of liability to six prevalent diseases and health conditions: asthma, eczema, migraine, coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, and depression. We identified genetic variants from replicated genome-wide associations studies and estimated their association with inpatient hospital costs on over 300,000 individuals. There was concordance of findings across varieties of sensitivity analyses, including stratification by sex and methods robust to violations of the exclusion restriction. Results overall were imprecise and we could not rule out large effects of liability to disease on healthcare costs. In particular, genetic liability to coronary heart disease had substantial impacts on costs.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos
16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(8): 799-810, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793100

RESUMO

Importance: Several maternal exposures during pregnancy are considered predisposing factors for offspring neurodevelopmental conditions. However, many of these exposures may be noncausal and biased by maternal genetic liability. Objective: To assess whether pregnancy-related predisposing factors for offspring neurodevelopmental conditions are associated with maternal genetic liability for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and schizophrenia and to compare associations for maternal genetic liability with those for paternal genetic liability, which could indicate that paternal exposures are not suitable negative controls for maternal exposures. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a population-based pregnancy cohort that recruited parents from June 1999 to December 2008. Polygenic scores (PGS) for ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia were derived in mothers and fathers. The associations between maternal PGS and 37 pregnancy-related measures were estimated, and these results were compared with those from paternal PGS predicting paternal measures during the mother's pregnancy. Analysis took place between March 2021 and March 2022. Exposures: PGS for ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia, calculated (using discovery effect size estimates and threshold of P < .05) from the largest available genome-wide association studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported pregnancy-related measures capturing lifestyle behaviors, metabolism, infectious and autoimmune diseases, other physical health conditions, and medication use. Results: Data were available for up to 14 539 mothers (mean [SD] age, 30.00 [4.45] years) and 14 897 fathers (mean [SD] age, 32.46 [5.13] years) of European ancestry. Modest but robust associations were observed between specific pregnancy-related measures and maternal PGS, including ADHD PGS with asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.15 [95% CI, 1.06-1.25]), smoking (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.19-1.33]), prepregnancy body mass index (ß, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.18-0.31]), pregnancy weight gain (ß, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.10-0.30]), taking folate (OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88-0.96]), and not taking supplements (OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]). Schizophrenia PGS was associated with coffee consumption (OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.05-1.12]), smoking (OR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.06-1.19]), prepregnancy body mass index (ß, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.25 to -0.11]), and pregnancy weight gain (ß, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.07-0.27]). All 3 PGSs associated with symptoms of depression/anxiety (ADHD: OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.22]; autism: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.06-1.19]; schizophrenia: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.07-1.20]). Associations were largely consistent for maternal and paternal PGS, except ADHD PGS and smoking (fathers: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.09-1.17]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, genetic liability to neurodevelopmental conditions that is passed from mothers to children was associated with several pregnancy-related factors and may therefore confound associations between these pregnancy-related factors and offspring neurodevelopment that have previously been thought to be causal. It is crucial that future study designs account for genetic confounding to obtain valid causal inferences so that accurate advice can be given to pregnant individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Autístico , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Causalidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pai , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
17.
PLoS Genet ; 18(7): e1010290, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849575

RESUMO

Mendelian Randomisation (MR) is a powerful tool in epidemiology that can be used to estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome in the presence of unobserved confounding, by utilising genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) for the exposure. The effect estimates obtained from MR studies are often interpreted as the lifetime effect of the exposure in question. However, the causal effects of some exposures are thought to vary throughout an individual's lifetime with periods during which an exposure has a greater effect on a particular outcome. Multivariable MR (MVMR) is an extension of MR that allows for multiple, potentially highly related, exposures to be included in an MR estimation. MVMR estimates the direct effect of each exposure on the outcome conditional on all the other exposures included in the estimation. We explore the use of MVMR to estimate the direct effect of a single exposure at different time points in an individual's lifetime on an outcome. We use simulations to illustrate the interpretation of the results from such analyses and the key assumptions required. We show that causal effects at different time periods can be estimated through MVMR when the association between the genetic variants used as instruments and the exposure measured at those time periods varies. However, this estimation will not necessarily identify exact time periods over which an exposure has the most effect on the outcome. Prior knowledge regarding the biological basis of exposure trajectories can help interpretation. We illustrate the method through estimation of the causal effects of childhood and adult BMI on C-Reactive protein and smoking behaviour.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Causalidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos
18.
Diabetologia ; 65(10): 1664-1675, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902387

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin use has been associated with reduced incidence of dementia in diabetic individuals in observational studies. However, the causality between the two in the general population is unclear. This study uses Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of metformin targets on Alzheimer's disease and potential causal mechanisms in the brain linking the two. METHODS: Genetic proxies for the effects of metformin drug targets were identified as variants in the gene for the corresponding target that associated with HbA1c level (N=344,182) and expression level of the corresponding gene (N≤31,684). The cognitive outcomes were derived from genome-wide association studies comprising 527,138 middle-aged Europeans, including 71,880 with Alzheimer's disease or Alzheimer's disease-by-proxy. MR estimates representing lifelong metformin use on Alzheimer's disease and cognitive function in the general population were generated. Effect of expression level of 22 metformin-related genes in brain cortex (N=6601 donors) on Alzheimer's disease was further estimated. RESULTS: Genetically proxied metformin use, equivalent to a 6.75 mmol/mol (1.09%) reduction on HbA1c, was associated with 4% lower odds of Alzheimer's disease (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.95, 0.98], p=1.06×10-4) in non-diabetic individuals. One metformin target, mitochondrial complex 1 (MCI), showed a robust effect on Alzheimer's disease (OR 0.88, p=4.73×10-4) that was independent of AMP-activated protein kinase. MR of expression in brain cortex tissue showed that decreased MCI-related gene (NDUFA2) expression was associated with lower Alzheimer's disease risk (OR 0.95, p=4.64×10-4) and favourable cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin use may cause reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in the general population. Mitochondrial function and the NDUFA2 gene are plausible mechanisms of action in dementia protection.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Metformina , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(9): 645-654, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to whether the threshold for blood pressure-lowering treatment should differ between people with and without type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment on the risk of major cardiovascular events by type 2 diabetes status, as well as by baseline levels of systolic blood pressure. METHODS: We conducted a one-stage individual participant-level data meta-analysis of major randomised controlled trials using the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration dataset. Trials with information on type 2 diabetes status at baseline were eligible if they compared blood pressure-lowering medications versus placebo or other classes of blood pressure-lowering medications, or an intensive versus a standard blood pressure-lowering strategy, and reported at least 1000 persons-years of follow-up in each group. Trials exclusively on participants with heart failure or with short-term therapies and acute myocardial infarction or other acute settings were excluded. We expressed treatment effect per 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure on the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event as the primary outcome, defined as the first occurrence of fatal or non-fatal stroke or cerebrovascular disease, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic heart disease, or heart failure causing death or requiring hospitalisation. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by trial, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) separately by type 2 diabetes status at baseline, with further stratification by baseline categories of systolic blood pressure (in 10 mm Hg increments from <120 mm Hg to ≥170 mm Hg). To estimate absolute risk reductions, we used a Poisson regression model over the follow-up duration. The effect of each of the five major blood pressure-lowering drug classes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, ß blockers, calcium channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics, was estimated using a network meta-analysis framework. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018099283. FINDINGS: We included data from 51 randomised clinical trials published between 1981 and 2014 involving 358 533 participants (58% men), among whom 103 325 (29%) had known type 2 diabetes at baseline. The baseline mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure of those with and without type 2 diabetes was 149/84 mm Hg (SD 19/11) and 153/88 mm Hg (SD 21/12), respectively. Over 4·2 years median follow-up (IQR 3·0-5·0), a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure decreased the risk of major cardiovascular events in both groups, but with a weaker relative treatment effect in participants with type 2 diabetes (HR 0·94 [95% CI 0·91-0·98]) compared with those without type 2 diabetes (0·89 [0·87-0·92]; pinteraction=0·0013). However, absolute risk reductions did not differ substantially between people with and without type 2 diabetes because of the higher absolute cardiovascular risk among participants with type 2 diabetes. We found no reliable evidence for heterogeneity of treatment effects by baseline systolic blood pressure in either group. In keeping with the primary findings, analysis using stratified network meta-analysis showed no evidence that relative treatment effects differed substantially between participants with type 2 diabetes and those without for any of the drug classes investigated. INTERPRETATION: Although the relative beneficial effects of blood pressure reduction on major cardiovascular events were weaker in participants with type 2 diabetes than in those without, absolute effects were similar. The difference in relative risk reduction was not related to the baseline blood pressure or allocation to different drug classes. Therefore, the adoption of differential blood pressure thresholds, intensities of blood pressure lowering, or drug classes used in people with and without type 2 diabetes is not warranted. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation, UK National Institute for Health Research, and Oxford Martin School.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747941

RESUMO

Deucravacitinib, a novel, selective inhibitor of TYK2 is currently under review at the FDA and EMA for treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. It is unclear whether recent safety concerns (ie, elevated rates of lung cancer and lymphoma) related to similar medications (ie, other JAK inhibitors) are shared with this novel TYK2 inhibitor. We used a partial loss-of-function variant in TYK2 (rs34536443), previously shown to protect against psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases, to evaluate the potential effect of therapeutic TYK2 inhibition on risk of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Summary genetic association data on lung cancer risk were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis of 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls in the Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Risk and Aetiology (INTEGRAL) consortium. Summary genetic association data on non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis of 8489 cases and 374 506 controls in the UK Biobank and InterLymph consortium. In the primary analysis, each copy of the minor allele of rs34536443, representing partial TYK2 inhibition, was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.23, P = 2.29 × 10-6 ) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33, P = 5.25 × 10-3 ). Our analyses using an established partial loss-of-function mutation to mimic TYK2 inhibition provide genetic evidence that therapeutic TYK2 inhibition may increase risk of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These findings, consistent with recent reports from postmarketing trials of similar JAK inhibitors, could have important implications for future safety assessment of deucravacitinib and other TYK2 inhibitors in development.

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