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2.
Health Secur ; 17(1): 46-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724616

RESUMO

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases pose growing global public health threats. However, research on and development of medical countermeasures (MCMs) for such pathogens is limited by the sporadic and unpredictable nature of outbreaks, lack of financial incentive for pharmaceutical companies to develop interventions for many of the diseases, lack of clinical research capacity in areas where these diseases are endemic, and the ethical dilemmas related to conducting scientific research in humanitarian emergencies. Hence, clinicians providing care for patients with emerging diseases are often faced with making clinical decisions about the safety and effectiveness of experimental MCMs, based on limited or no human safety, preclinical, or even earlier product research or historical data, for compassionate use. Such decisions can have immense impact on current and subsequent patients, the public health response, and success of future clinical trials. We highlight these dilemmas and underscore the need to proactively set up procedures that allow early and ethical deployment of MCMs as part of clinical trials. When clinical trials remain difficult to deploy, we present several suggestions of how compassionate use of off-label and unlicensed MCMs can be made more informed and ethical. We highlight several collaborations seeking to address these gaps in data and procedures to inform future clinical and public health decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Contramedidas Médicas , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa/normas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Emergências , Humanos
3.
Health Secur ; 17(1): 35-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779607

RESUMO

The 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that originated in West Africa underscored many of the challenges to conducting clinical research during an ongoing infectious disease epidemic, both in the most affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, as well as in the United States and Europe, where a total of 27 patients with EVD received care in biocontainment units. The Special Pathogens Research Network (SPRN) was established in the United States in November 2016 to provide an organizational structure to leverage the expertise of the 10 Regional Ebola and Other Special Pathogen Treatment Centers (RESPTCs); it was intended to develop and support infrastructure to improve readiness to conduct clinical research in the United States. The network enables the rapid activation and coordination of clinical research in the event of an epidemic and facilitates opportunities for multicenter research when the RESPTCs are actively caring for patients requiring a biocontainment unit. Here we provide an overview of opportunities identified in the clinical research infrastructure during the West Africa EVD epidemic and the SPRN activities to meet the ongoing challenges in the context of Ebola virus and other special pathogens.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Contramedidas Médicas , África/epidemiologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estados Unidos
4.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S690-S697, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032267

RESUMO

Background: The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa led to unprecedented morbidity and mortality. Although different classes of putative antiviral agents with supportive preclinical data were available for testing, and although several attempts to perform meaningful evaluation of these agents were undertaken during the epidemic, different research methods, a lack of appropriate controls in most studies, and formidable logistical challenges to completion of studies under field conditions hampered the success of these efforts. Ultimately only 1 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial (PREVAIL II) was performed in this setting, and, owing to a decrease in the number of new cases available for study, it, too, ended prior to reaching definitive results. Retrospective review of the lessons learned from this outbreak argues strongly for the need for much better preparedness in terms of selecting the trial design and drug(s) for use during the next outbreak. Methods: Using recent data provided by representatives from the pharmaceutical industry, clinical and laboratory subject matter experts from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, other US government agencies, and academic partners were consulted regarding the current state of knowledge about several lead compounds with putative activity against EVD. Consensus was sought on recommendations concerning the most promising treatment strategies against EVD that should be studied in the context of a randomized clinical trial during the next outbreak. Results: Four compounds from 2 different classes (monoclonal antibody [mAb] cocktails and direct-acting antiviral agents [DAAs]) were highlighted as lead candidates, limitations in the current knowledge base about these drug classes were reviewed, and recommendations about the optimal clinical research design for studying combinations of these different agents were made. Conclusions: Although achieving the desired sample size could be challenging, a randomized, controlled clinical trial based on a combination strategy of a mAb with a DAA was recommended as the most appropriate clinical trial design to be undertaken during the next outbreak of EVD.

5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(4): 410-418, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine. METHODS: We did a phase 1 double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose escalation trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. We recruited healthy participants aged 18-60 years who had normal laboratory parameters at enrolment, a body-mass index of 19-32 kg/m2, and a creatinine clearance of 70 mL/min or more, and who did not have any chronic medical problems that required daily oral medications, a positive rheumatoid factor (≥15 IU/mL), IgA deficiency (<7 mg/dL), or history of allergy to intravenous immunoglobulin or human blood products. Participants were randomly assigned by a computer-generated table, made by a masked pharmacist, to one of six cohorts (containing between three and ten participants each). Cohorts 1 and 2 had three participants, randomly assigned 2:1 to receive active drug SAB-301 versus normal saline placebo; cohorts 3 and 4 had six participants randomised 2:1; and cohorts 5 and 6 had ten participants, randomised 4:1. Participants received 1 mg/kg, 2·5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of SAB-301, or equivalent volume placebo (saline control), on day 0, and were followed up by clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic assessments on days 1, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 90. The primary outcome was safety, and immunogenicity was a secondary outcome. We analysed the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02788188. FINDINGS: Between June 2, 2016, and Jan 4, 2017, we screened 43 participants, of whom 38 were eligible and randomly assigned to receive SAB-301 (n=28) or placebo (n=10). 97 adverse events were reported: 64 adverse events occurred in 23 (82%) of 28 participants receiving SAB-301 (mean 2·3 adverse events per participant). 33 adverse events occurred in all ten participants receiving placebo (mean 3·3 adverse events per participant). The most common adverse events were headache (n=6 [21%] in participants who received SAB-301 and n=2 [20%] in those receiving placebo), albuminuria (n=5 [18%] vs n=2 [20%]), myalgia (n=3 [11%] vs n=1 [10%]), increased creatine kinase (n=3 [11%] vs 1 [10%]), and common cold (n=3 [11%] vs n=2 [20%]). There was one serious adverse event (hospital admission for suicide attempt) in one participant who received 50 mg/kg of SAB-301. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in the 50 mg/kg dose (27 498 µg × days per mL) is comparable to the AUC that was associated with efficacy in a preclinical model. INTERPRETATION: Single infusions of SAB-301 up to 50 mg/kg appear to be safe and well tolerated in healthy participants. Human immunoglobulin derived from transchromosomic cattle could offer a new platform technology to produce fully human polyclonal IgG antibodies for other medical conditions. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(1): ofx228, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29322062

RESUMO

Background: Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediated tryptophan (TRP) depletion has antimicrobial and immuno-regulatory effects. Increased kynurenine (KYN)-to-TRP (KT) ratios, reflecting increased IDO activity, have been associated with poorer outcomes from several infections. Methods: We performed a case-control (1:2; age and sex matched) analysis of adults hospitalized with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with protocol-defined disease progression (died/transferred to ICU/mechanical ventilation) after enrollment (cases) or survived without progression (controls) over 60 days of follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between baseline KT ratio and other metabolites and disease progression. Results: We included 32 cases and 64 controls with a median age of 52 years; 41% were female, and the median durations of influenza symptoms prior to hospitalization were 8 and 6 days for cases and controls, respectively (P = .04). Median baseline KT ratios were 2-fold higher in cases (0.24 mM/M; IQR, 0.13-0.40) than controls (0.12; IQR, 0.09-0.17; P ≤ .001). When divided into tertiles, 59% of cases vs 20% of controls had KT ratios in the highest tertile (0.21-0.84 mM/M). When adjusted for symptom duration, the odds ratio for disease progression for those in the highest vs lowest tertiles of KT ratio was 9.94 (95% CI, 2.25-43.90). Conclusions: High KT ratio was associated with poor outcome in adults hospitalized with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. The clinical utility of this biomarker in this setting merits further exploration. ClinicalTrialsgov Identifier: NCT01056185.

7.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 84(1): 25-34, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929521

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of the present study were to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of radavirsen following single ascending doses and multiple doses given as intravenous infusions in healthy adults. METHODS: A phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study of radavirsen was performed in healthy volunteers. The study was divided into two parts. The first was a single-ascending-dose study of five cohorts of eight subjects each, randomized 6:2 to receive single intravenous doses of radavirsen ranging from 0.5 mg kg-1 to 8 mg kg-1 or placebo. The second was a multiple-dose study of 16 subjects randomized 12:4 to receive 8 mg kg-1 or placebo once daily for 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 66 subjects were screened, and 56 subjects were dosed between 2013 and 2015. At least one adverse event occurred in 31/42 (74%) who received radavirsen, and 13/14 (93%) receiving placebo. The most common adverse events were headache and proteinuria, and were similar in incidence and severity among those receiving radavirsen or placebo. Single-dose pharmacokinetics demonstrated relatively linear and dose-proportional increases in maximal concentration and in area under the concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h (AUC0-24 ). At 8 mg kg-1 in the multiple-dose cohort, the day 4 geometric mean AUC0-24 was 57.9 µg*h ml-1 . CONCLUSION: Single infusions of radavirsen up to 8 mg kg-1 , and multi-dosing at 8 mg kg-1 once daily for 5 days, appear to be safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. The multi-dose day 4 AUC0-24 in the present study was comparable with that associated with protection from viral infection in a preclinical ferret influenza model. Further evaluation of radavirsen for the treatment of influenza infections is warranted.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Morfolinos/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinos/genética , Morfolinos/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Placebos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteinúria/induzido quimicamente , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(6): e183-e192, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153266

RESUMO

The massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa between 2013 and 2016 resulted in intense efforts to evaluate the efficacy of several specific countermeasures developed through years of preclinical work, including the first clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccines. In this Review, we discuss how the experience and data generated from that outbreak have helped to advance the understanding of the use of these countermeasures for post-exposure prophylaxis against Ebola virus infection. In future outbreaks, post-exposure prophylaxis could play an important part in reducing community transmission of Ebola virus by providing more immediate protection than does immunisation as well as providing additional protection for health-care workers who are inadvertently exposed over the course of their work. We propose provisional guidance for use of post-exposure prophylaxis in Ebola virus disease and identify the priorities for future preparedness and further research.

9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(12): 1255-1265, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza continues to have a substantial socioeconomic and health impact despite a long established vaccination programme and approved antivirals. Preclinical data suggest that combining antivirals might be more effective than administering oseltamivir alone in the treatment of influenza. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, multicentre phase 2 trial of a combination of oseltamivir, amantadine, and ribavirin versus oseltamivir monotherapy with matching placebo for the treatment of influenza in 50 sites, consisting of academic medical centre clinics, emergency rooms, and private physician offices in the USA, Thailand, Mexico, Argentina, and Australia. Participants who were aged at least 18 years with influenza and were at increased risk of complications were randomly assigned (1:1) by an online computer-generated randomisation system to receive either oseltamivir (75 mg), amantadine (100 mg), and ribavirin (600 mg) combination therapy or oseltamivir monotherapy twice daily for 5 days, given orally, and participants were followed up for 28 days. Blinded treatment kits were used to achieve masking of patients and staff. The primary endpoint was the percentage of participants with virus detectable by PCR in nasopharyngeal swab at day 3, and was assessed in participants who were randomised, had influenza infection confirmed by the central laboratory on a baseline nasopharyngeal sample, and had received at least one dose of study drug. Safety assessment was done in all patients in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01227967. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and April 29, 2016, 633 participants were randomly assigned to receive combination antiviral therapy (n=316) or monotherapy (n=317). Seven participants were excluded from analysis: three were not properly randomised, three withdrew from the study, and one was lost to follow-up. The primary analysis included 394 participants, excluding 47 in the pilot phase, 172 without confirmed influenza, and 13 without an endpoint sample. 80 (40·0%) of 200 participants in the combination group had detectable virus at day 3 compared with 97 (50·0%) of 194 (mean difference 10·0, 95% CI 0·2-19·8, p=0·046) in the monotherapy group. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal-related disorders, primarily nausea (65 [12%] of 556 reported adverse events in the combination group vs 63 [11%] of 585 reported adverse events in the monotherapy group), diarrhoea (56 [10%] of 556 vs 64 [11%] of 585), and vomiting (39 [7%] of 556 vs 23 [4%] of 585). There was no benefit in multiple clinical secondary endpoints, such as median duration of symptoms (4·5 days in the combination group vs 4·0 days in the monotherapy group; p=0·21). One death occurred in the study in an elderly participant in the monotherapy group who died of cardiovascular failure 13 days after randomisation, judged by the site investigator as not related to study intervention. INTERPRETATION: Although combination treatment showed a significant decrease in viral shedding at day 3 relative to monotherapy, this difference was not associated with improved clinical benefit. More work is needed to understand why there was no clinical benefit when a difference in virological outcome was identified. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, USA.


Assuntos
Amantadina/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Oseltamivir/administração & dosagem , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Amantadina/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Argentina/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(8): 1400-1403, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28582513

RESUMO

In one patient over time, we found that concentration of Ebola virus RNA in semen during recovery is remarkably higher than blood at peak illness. Virus in semen is replication-competent with no change in viral genome over time. Presence of sense RNA suggests replication in cells present in semen.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Sêmen/virologia , Adulto , Ebolavirus/classificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Carga Viral
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 5(6): 500-511, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain. Hospitalised children and adults (including pregnant women) with severe influenza A or B (defined as the presence of hypoxia or tachypnoea) were randomly assigned to receive either two units (or paediatric equivalent) of anti-influenza plasma plus standard care, versus standard care alone, and were followed up for 28 days. The primary endpoint was time to normalisation of patients' respiratory status (respiratory rate of ≤20 breaths per min for adults or age-defined thresholds of 20-38 breaths per min for children) and a room air oxygen saturation of 93% or more. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01052480. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2011, and March 2, 2015, 113 participants were screened for eligibility and 98 were randomly assigned from 20 out of 29 participating sites. Of the participants with confirmed influenza (by PCR), 28 (67%) of 42 in the plasma plus standard care group normalised their respiratory status by day 28 compared with 24 (53%) of 45 participants on standard care alone (p=0·069). The hazard ratio (HR) comparing plasma plus standard care with standard care alone was 1·71 (95% CI 0·96-3·06). Six participants died, one (2%) from the plasma plus standard care group and five (10%) from the standard care group (HR 0·19 [95% CI 0·02-1·65], p=0·093). Participants in the plasma plus standard care group had non-significant reductions in days in hospital (median 6 days [IQR 4-16] vs 11 days [5-25], p=0·13) and days on mechanical ventilation (median 0 days [IQR 0-6] vs 3 days [0-14], p=0·14). Fewer plasma plus standard care participants had serious adverse events compared with standard care alone recipients (nine [20%] of 46 vs 20 [38%] of 52, p=0·041), the most frequent of which were acute respiratory distress syndrome (one [2%] vs two [4%] patients) and stroke (one [2%] vs two [4%] patients). INTERPRETATION: Although there was no significant effect of plasma treatment on the primary endpoint, the treatment seemed safe and well tolerated. A phase 3 randomised trial is now underway to further assess this intervention. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Influenza Humana/terapia , Plasma , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(385)2017 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28404864

RESUMO

The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
15.
J Investig Med ; 65(4): 800-802, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193704

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii can colonize patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To determine if colonization occurs in asthma patients, sputum samples from 10 patients with mild asthma, who were not receiving oral corticosteroids, were evaluated by a sensitive real-time PCR assay that targets a multicopy gene of P. jirovecii. 2 patients (20%) had Pneumocystis DNA detected; 1 patient had 3 positive samples over an 11-day period. Thus, Pneumocystis colonization occurs in asthma patients, and further studies are warranted to evaluate its role in airways disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01113034.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/microbiologia , Pneumocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Administração Oral , Adulto , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
N Engl J Med ; 376(4): 330-341, 2017 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate designed to prevent EVD. METHODS: We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 39 adults at each site (78 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13. At each site, volunteers received one of three doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine (3 million plaque-forming units [PFU], 20 million PFU, or 100 million PFU) or placebo. Volunteers at one of the sites received a second dose at day 28. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. RESULTS: The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, and headache. Transient rVSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients after dose 1. The rates of adverse events and viremia were lower after the second dose than after the first dose. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the groups that received 20 million PFU or 100 million PFU than in the group that received 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA and by pseudovirion neutralization assay. A second dose at 28 days after dose 1 significantly increased antibody titers at day 56, but the effect was diminished at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This Ebola vaccine candidate elicited anti-Ebola antibody responses. After vaccination, rVSV viremia occurred frequently but was transient. These results support further evaluation of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU for preexposure prophylaxis and suggest that a second dose may boost antibody responses. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02269423 and NCT02280408 .).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Ebola/efeitos adversos , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes , Soroconversão , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/isolamento & purificação , Viremia
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(4): ofx212, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308401

RESUMO

Background: Outcome data from prospective follow-up studies comparing infections with different influenza virus types/subtypes are limited. Methods: Demographic, clinical characteristics and follow-up outcomes for adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), or B virus infections were compared in 2 prospective cohorts enrolled globally from 2009 through 2015. Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes among influenza virus type/subtypes. Results: Of 3952 outpatients, 1290 (32.6%) had A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, 1857 (47.0%) had A(H3N2), and 805 (20.4%) had influenza B. Of 1398 inpatients, 641 (45.8%) had A(H1N1)pdm09, 532 (38.1%) had A(H3N2), and 225 (16.1%) had influenza B. Outpatients with A(H1N1)pdm09 were younger with fewer comorbidities and were more likely to be hospitalized during the 14-day follow-up (3.3%) than influenza B (2.2%) or A(H3N2) (0.7%; P < .0001). Hospitalized patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 (20.3%) were more likely to be enrolled from intensive care units (ICUs) than those with A(H3N2) (11.3%) or B (9.8%; P < .0001). However, 60-day follow-up of discharged inpatients showed no difference in disease progression (P = .32) or all-cause mortality (P = .30) among influenza types/subtypes. These findings were consistent after covariate adjustment, in sensitivity analyses, and for subgroups defined by age, enrollment location, and comorbidities. Conclusions: Outpatients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 or influenza B were more likely to be hospitalized than those with A(H3N2). Hospitalized patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 were younger and more likely to have severe disease at study entry (measured by ICU enrollment), but did not have worse 60-day outcomes.

19.
Nat Med ; 22(12): 1439-1447, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27798615

RESUMO

Development of an effective vaccine against Ebola virus is of high priority. However, knowledge about potential correlates of protection and the durability of immune response after vaccination is limited. Here, we elucidate the human antibody repertoire after administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-Ebola vaccine at 3 million, 20 million and 100 million plaque-forming units (PFU) and homologous VSV-Ebola vaccine boost in healthy adult volunteers. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries, expressing linear and conformational epitopes of Ebola glycoprotein (GP), showed higher diversity of antibody epitopes in individuals vaccinated with 20 million PFU than in those vaccinated with 3 million or 100 million PFU. Surface plasmon resonance kinetics showed higher levels of GP-binding antibodies after a single vaccination with 20 million or 100 million PFU than with 3 million PFU, and these correlated strongly with neutralization titers. A second vaccination did not boost antibody or virus neutralization titers, which declined rapidly, and induced only minimal antibody affinity maturation. Isotype analysis revealed a predominant IgM response even after the second vaccination, which contributed substantially to virus neutralization in vitro. These findings may help identify new vaccine targets and aid development and evaluation of effective countermeasures against Ebola.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
20.
N Engl J Med ; 375(15): 1448-1456, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from studies in nonhuman primates suggest that the triple monoclonal antibody cocktail ZMapp is a promising immune-based treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD). METHODS: Beginning in March 2015, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ZMapp plus the current standard of care as compared with the current standard of care alone in patients with EVD that was diagnosed in West Africa by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay. Eligible patients of any age were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the current standard of care or the current standard of care plus three intravenous infusions of ZMapp (50 mg per kilogram of body weight, administered every third day). Patients were stratified according to baseline PCR cycle-threshold value for the virus (≤22 vs. >22) and country of enrollment. Oral favipiravir was part of the current standard of care in Guinea. The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were enrolled at sites in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and the United States. Of the 71 patients who could be evaluated, 21 died, representing an overall case fatality rate of 30%. Death occurred in 13 of 35 patients (37%) who received the current standard of care alone and in 8 of 36 patients (22%) who received the current standard of care plus ZMapp. The observed posterior probability that ZMapp plus the current standard of care was superior to the current standard of care alone was 91.2%, falling short of the prespecified threshold of 97.5%. Frequentist analyses yielded similar results (absolute difference in mortality with ZMapp, -15 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -36 to 7). Baseline viral load was strongly predictive of both mortality and duration of hospitalization in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, controlled trial of a putative therapeutic agent for EVD, although the estimated effect of ZMapp appeared to be beneficial, the result did not meet the prespecified statistical threshold for efficacy. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; PREVAIL II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02363322 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , África Ocidental , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
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