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1.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, coronaviruses caused two noteworthy outbreaks: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), starting in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), starting in 2012. We aimed to assess the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases (from their inception until March 18, 2020), and medRxiv, bioRxiv, and PsyArXiv (between Jan 1, 2020, and April 10, 2020) were searched by two independent researchers for all English-language studies or preprints reporting data on the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations of individuals with suspected or laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection (SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, or SARS coronavirus 2). We excluded studies limited to neurological complications without specified neuropsychiatric presentations and those investigating the indirect effects of coronavirus infections on the mental health of people who are not infected, such as those mediated through physical distancing measures such as self-isolation or quarantine. Outcomes were psychiatric signs or symptoms; symptom severity; diagnoses based on ICD-10, DSM-IV, or the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (third edition) or psychometric scales; quality of life; and employment. Both the systematic review and the meta-analysis stratified outcomes across illness stages (acute vs post-illness) for SARS and MERS. We used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, and the meta-analytical effect size was prevalence for relevant outcomes, I2 statistics, and assessment of study quality. FINDINGS: 1963 studies and 87 preprints were identified by the systematic search, of which 65 peer-reviewed studies and seven preprints met inclusion criteria. The number of coronavirus cases of the included studies was 3559, ranging from 1 to 997, and the mean age of participants in studies ranged from 12·2 years (SD 4·1) to 68·0 years (single case report). Studies were from China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Canada, Saudi Arabia, France, Japan, Singapore, the UK, and the USA. Follow-up time for the post-illness studies varied between 60 days and 12 years. The systematic review revealed that during the acute illness, common symptoms among patients admitted to hospital for SARS or MERS included confusion (36 [27·9%; 95% CI 20·5-36·0] of 129 patients), depressed mood (42 [32·6%; 24·7-40·9] of 129), anxiety (46 [35·7%; 27·6-44·2] of 129), impaired memory (44 [34·1%; 26·2-42·5] of 129), and insomnia (54 [41·9%; 22·5-50·5] of 129). Steroid-induced mania and psychosis were reported in 13 (0·7%) of 1744 patients with SARS in the acute stage in one study. In the post-illness stage, depressed mood (35 [10·5%; 95% CI 7·5-14·1] of 332 patients), insomnia (34 [12·1%; 8·6-16·3] of 280), anxiety (21 [12·3%; 7·7-17·7] of 171), irritability (28 [12·8%; 8·7-17·6] of 218), memory impairment (44 [18·9%; 14·1-24·2] of 233), fatigue (61 [19·3%; 15·1-23·9] of 316), and in one study traumatic memories (55 [30·4%; 23·9-37·3] of 181) and sleep disorder (14 [100·0%; 88·0-100·0] of 14) were frequently reported. The meta-analysis indicated that in the post-illness stage the point prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was 32·2% (95% CI 23·7-42·0; 121 of 402 cases from four studies), that of depression was 14·9% (12·1-18·2; 77 of 517 cases from five studies), and that of anxiety disorders was 14·8% (11·1-19·4; 42 of 284 cases from three studies). 446 (76·9%; 95% CI 68·1-84·6) of 580 patients from six studies had returned to work at a mean follow-up time of 35·3 months (SD 40·1). When data for patients with COVID-19 were examined (including preprint data), there was evidence for delirium (confusion in 26 [65%] of 40 intensive care unit patients and agitation in 40 [69%] of 58 intensive care unit patients in one study, and altered consciousness in 17 [21%] of 82 patients who subsequently died in another study). At discharge, 15 (33%) of 45 patients with COVID-19 who were assessed had a dysexecutive syndrome in one study. At the time of writing, there were two reports of hypoxic encephalopathy and one report of encephalitis. 68 (94%) of the 72 studies were of either low or medium quality. INTERPRETATION: If infection with SARS-CoV-2 follows a similar course to that with SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV, most patients should recover without experiencing mental illness. SARS-CoV-2 might cause delirium in a significant proportion of patients in the acute stage. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of depression, anxiety, fatigue, post-traumatic stress disorder, and rarer neuropsychiatric syndromes in the longer term. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University College London.

2.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; : appineuropsych19080184, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283992

RESUMO

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinically and radiologically diagnosed disorder distinguished by subcortical vasogenic cerebral edema. To date, its presentation has been described through summarized neurological categories, such as seizures, headaches, "confusion," and "altered mental function." This retrospective case series identified all cases of clinically confirmed, radiologically diagnosed PRES resulting in treatment in a large teaching hospital from 2010 to 2019. The authors conducted a search for the term "reversible encephalopathy" in the hospital clinical radiology information system, followed by an audit of scan reports and clinical records. The most common reasons for psychiatric referral were addictions, acute psychosis, depression, suicidality, and treatment refusal. Multidisciplinary staff should consider PRES as a rare, organic differential diagnosis for acute mental state changes. Physicians should be aware of elevated rates of post-PRES psychiatric symptoms and consider whether psychiatric consultation may enhance recovery.

3.
J Psychosom Res ; 132: 109972, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional symptoms are a common mimic of stroke in acute stroke settings, but there are no guidelines on how to manage such patients and scant research on their clinical profile. We explore the presentation of patients with functional stroke symptoms at admission and 2-month follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study across four SE London acute stroke units, with two-month follow-up. Demographic information, clinical data and GP attendances were recorded. Patients completed self-report measures: Cognitive Behavioural Responses Questionnaire short version, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale and Short Form Health Survey. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (mean age: 50.9 years) were recruited at baseline; 40 with isolated functional symptoms, the remaining functional symptoms in addition to stroke. Thirty-one completed self-report follow-up measures. Of 56 participants, 63% were female. Patients presented symptoms across modalities, with unilateral and limb weakness the most frequent. There was inconsistent and ambiguous recording of symptoms on medical records. Approximately 40% of patients reported levels of anxiety and depression above the threshold indicating a probable diagnosis. Higher anxiety was associated with greater resting or all-or-nothing behaviours, embarrassment avoidance and symptom focussing on the CBRQ. Only SF-36 physical functioning improved at follow-up. Less than 50% who responded at follow-up were accessing a treatment, though 82% had ongoing symptoms. CONCLUSION: Patients with functional symptoms in stroke settings report substantial distress, associated with cognitive-behavioural responses to symptoms. Follow-up data suggest recovery can be slow, indicating access to supportive interventions should be improved.

4.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(6): 638-649, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify existing outcome measures for functional neurological disorder (FND), to inform the development of recommendations and to guide future research on FND outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify existing FND-specific outcome measures and the most common measurement domains and measures in previous treatment studies. Searches of Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were conducted between January 1965 and June 2019. The findings were discussed during two international meetings of the FND-Core Outcome Measures group. RESULTS: Five FND-specific measures were identified-three clinician-rated and two patient-rated-but their measurement properties have not been rigorously evaluated. No single measure was identified for use across the range of FND symptoms in adults. Across randomised controlled trials (k=40) and observational treatment studies (k=40), outcome measures most often assessed core FND symptom change. Other domains measured commonly were additional physical and psychological symptoms, life impact (ie, quality of life, disability and general functioning) and health economics/cost-utility (eg, healthcare resource use and quality-adjusted life years). CONCLUSIONS: There are few well-validated FND-specific outcome measures. Thus, at present, we recommend that existing outcome measures, known to be reliable, valid and responsive in FND or closely related populations, are used to capture key outcome domains. Increased consistency in outcome measurement will facilitate comparison of treatment effects across FND symptom types and treatment modalities. Future work needs to more rigorously validate outcome measures used in this population.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(4): 308-317, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the incidence, course, and outcome of psychotic experiences from childhood through early adulthood in the general population and examined prediction of psychotic disorder. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using the semistructured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview at ages 12, 18, and 24 (N=7,900 with any data). Incidence rates were estimated using flexible parametric modeling, and positive predictive values (PPVs), sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were estimated for prediction. RESULTS: The incidence rate of psychotic experiences increased between ages 13 and 24, peaking during late adolescence. Of 3,866 participants interviewed at age 24, 313 (8.1%, 95% CI=7.2, 9.0) had a definite psychotic experience since age 12. A total of 109 individuals (2.8%) met criteria for a psychotic disorder up to age 24, of whom 70% had sought professional help. Prediction of current psychotic disorder at age 24 (N=47, 1.2%), by both self-report and interviewer-rated measures of psychotic experiences at age 18 (PPVs, 2.9% and 10.0%, respectively), was improved by incorporating information on frequency and distress (PPVs, 13.3% and 20.0%, respectively), although sensitivities were low. The PPV of an at-risk mental state at age 18 predicting incident disorder at ages 18-24 was 21.1% (95% CI=6.1, 45.6) (sensitivity, 14.3%, 95% CI=4.0, 32.7). CONCLUSIONS: The study results show a peak in incidence of psychotic experiences during late adolescence as well as an unmet need for care in young people with psychotic disorders. Because of the low sensitivity, targeting individuals in non-help-seeking samples based only on more severe symptom cutoff thresholds will likely have little impact on population levels of first-episode psychosis.


Assuntos
Delusões/epidemiologia , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 30, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) has been associated with positive outcomes, the effect size of previous treatments on insight has been relatively small to date. The metacognitive basis of insight suggests that metacognitive training (MCT) may improve insight and clinical outcomes in SSD, although this remains to be established. METHODS: This single-center, assessor-blind, parallel-group, randomised clinical trial (RCT) aims to investigate the efficacy of MCT for improving insight (primary outcome), including clinical and cognitive insight, which will be measured by the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (Expanded version) (SAI-E) and the Beck Cognitive Scale (BCIS), respectively, in (at least) n = 126 outpatients with SSD at three points in time: i) at baseline (T0); ii) after treatment (T1) and iii) at 1-year follow-up (T2). SSD patients receiving MCT and controls attending a non-intervention support group will be compared on insight level changes and several clinical and cognitive secondary outcomes at T1 and T2, whilst adjusting for baseline data. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) will be piloted to assess functioning in a subsample of participants. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first RCT testing the effect of group MCT on multiple insight dimensions (as primary outcome) in a sample of unselected patients with SSD, including several secondary outcomes of clinical relevance, namely symptom severity, functioning, which will also be evaluated with EMA, hospitalizations and suicidal behaviour. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04104347. Date of registration: 26/09/2019 (Retrospectively registered).

7.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 32(1): 58-66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No gold-standard treatment exists for motor functional neurological disorder (mFND), and limited evidence has been found for the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in treating the disorder. This study examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and treatment dropout among patients with and without mFND who received CBT in a neuropsychiatric outpatient clinic in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Data from a large anonymized psychiatric register were used to identify patients who received outpatient CBT in a neuropsychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2016 and who had either mFND (N=98) or other neuropsychiatric conditions (ONP) (N=76, control group). The study examined sociodemographic characteristics, physical symptom improvement, and changes in clinical outcome and scores on three instruments measuring psychological distress, psychiatric sequelae of brain injury, and depression. RESULTS: The most common mFND symptoms were weakness, pain, and tremors. A logistic regression analysis found no sociodemographic differences between patients with mFND who dropped out early and those who completed CBT. Pre- and post-CBT scores on the three instruments were available for only a small subset of patients; both mFND and ONP patients showed significant improvements in overall scores. A logistic regression analysis found only a single predictor of symptom improvement in the mFND group: acceptance of a psychological explanation of symptoms prior to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in physical and psychological functioning were similar for patients with mFND and patients with ONP who were treated in a specialist CBT clinic. This study provides evidence that CBT is feasible and effective for some patients with mFND.

8.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 32(1): 14-23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726918

RESUMO

Stroke services have been reconfigured in recent years to facilitate early intervention. Throughout stroke settings, some patients present with functional symptoms that cannot be attributed to a structural cause. Emphasis on fast diagnosis and treatment means that a proportion of patients entering the care pathway present with functional symptoms that mimic stroke or have functional symptoms in addition to vascular stroke. There is limited understanding of mechanisms underlying functional stroke symptoms, how the treatment of such patients should be managed, and no referral pathway or treatment. Predisposing factors vary between individuals, and symptoms are heterogeneous: onset can be acute or insidious, and duration can be short-lived or chronic in the context of new or recurrent illness cognitions and behaviors. This article proposes a conceptual model of functional symptoms identified in stroke services and some hypotheses based on a narrative review of the functional neurological disorder literature. Predisposing factors may include illness experiences, stressors, and chronic autonomic nervous system arousal. Following the onset of distressing symptoms, perpetuating factors may include implicit cognitive processes, classical and operant conditioning, illness beliefs, and behavioral responses, which could form the basis of treatment targets. The proposed model will inform the development of theory-based interventions as well as a functional stroke care pathway.

9.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 67: 101504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785723

RESUMO

A person's capacity to process advice is an important aspect of decision making in the real world. For example, in decisions about treatment, the way patients respond to the advice of family, friends and medical professionals may be used (intentionally or otherwise) as a marker of the "use or weigh" requirement of decision-making capacity. Here we explore neuroscientific research on decision-making to identify features of advice-taking that help conceptualize this requirement. We focus on studies of the neural and computational basis of decision-making in laboratory settings. These studies originally investigated simple perceptual decisions about ambiguous stimuli, but have more recently been extended to more complex "value-based" decisions involving the comparison of subjective preferences. Value-based decisions are a useful model system for capacity-related decision-making as they do not have an objectively 'correct' answer and are instead based on subjective preferences. In this context, advice-taking can be seen as a process in which new evidence for one or other option is integrated, leading to altered behaviour or choices. We use this framework to distinguish between different types of advice-taking: private compliance consists of updating one's privately held beliefs based on new evidence, whereas in the case of public compliance, people change their behaviour at a surface level without shifting their privately-held beliefs. Importantly, both types of advice-taking may lead to similar outcomes but rely on different decision processes. We suggest that understanding how multiple mechanisms drive advice-taking holds promise for targeting decision-making support and improving our understanding of the use and weigh requirement in cases of contested capacity.

10.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-3, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685039

RESUMO

Academic interest in the concept of insight in psychosis has increased markedly over the past 30 years, prompting this selective appraisal of the current state of the art. Considerable progress has been made in terms of measurement and confirming a number of clinical associations. More recently, the relationship between insight and involuntary treatment has been scrutinised more closely alongside the link between decision-making capacity and insight. Advances in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences have influenced conceptual development, particularly the field of 'metacognition'. New therapies, including those that are psychologically and neurophysiologically based, are being tested as ways to enhance insight.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairments of contextual processing and theory of mind (ToM) have both been offered as accounts of the deviant language characterising formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. This study investigated these processes in patients' dialogue. We predicted that FTD patients would show a decrement in linguistic alignment, associated with impaired ToM in dialogue. METHODS: Speech samples were elicited via participation in an interactive computer-based task and a semi-structured interview to assess contextual processing abilities and ToM skills in dialogue, respectively, and from an interactive card-sorting task to measure syntactic alignment. Degree of alignment in dialogue and the syntactic task, and evidence of ToM in (i) dialogue and (ii) a traditional ToM task were compared across schizophrenia patients with FTD (n = 21), non-FTD patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 21). RESULTS: FTD patients showed less alignment than the other two groups in dialogue, and than healthy controls on the syntactic task. FTD patients showed poorer performance on the ToM task than the other two groups, but only compared to the healthy controls in dialogue. The FTD group's degree of alignment in dialogue was correlated with ToM performance in dialogue but not with the traditional ToM task or with syntactic alignment. CONCLUSIONS: In dialogue, FTD patients demonstrate an impairment in employing available contextual information to facilitate their own subsequent production, which is associated with a ToM deficit. These findings indicate that a contextual processing deficit impacts on exploiting representations via the production system impoverishing the ability to make predictions about upcoming utterances in dialogue.

14.
Br J Psychiatry ; 215(6): 712-719, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk. AIMS: We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months. RESULTS: Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol). CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.

15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(10): 811-819, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked cognitive impairment that is widely believed to remain stable after illness onset. Yet, to date, 10-year prospective studies of cognitive functioning following the first episode with good methodology are rare. The authors examined whether schizophrenia patients experience cognitive decline after the first episode, whether this decline is generalized or confined to individual neuropsychological functions, and whether decline is specific to schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants were from a population-based case-control study of patients with first-episode psychosis who were followed prospectively up to 10 years after first admission. A neuropsychological battery was administered at index presentation and at follow-up to patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=65) or other psychoses (N=41) as well as to healthy comparison subjects (N=103). RESULTS: The schizophrenia group exhibited declines in IQ and in measures of verbal knowledge and of memory, but not processing speed or executive functions. Processing speed and executive function impairments were already present at the first episode and remained stable thereafter. The magnitude of declines ranged between 0.28 and 0.66 standard deviations. Decline in measures of memory was not specific to schizophrenia and was also apparent in the group of patients with other psychoses. Healthy individuals with low IQ showed no evidence of decline, suggesting that a decline is specific to psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses experience cognitive decline after illness onset, but the magnitude of decline varies across cognitive functions. Distinct mechanisms consequent to the illness and/or psychosocial factors may underlie impairments across different cognitive functions.

16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(7): 620-630, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196793

RESUMO

Catatonia is a psychomotor disorder featuring stupor, posturing, and echophenomena. This Series paper examines the evidence for immune dysregulation in catatonia. Activation of the innate immune system is associated with mutism, withdrawal, and psychomotor retardation, which constitute the neurovegetative features of catatonia. Evidence is sparse and conflicting for acute-phase activation in catatonia, and whether this feature is secondary to immobility is unclear. Various viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections have been associated with catatonia, but it is primarily linked to CNS infections. The most common cause of autoimmune catatonia is N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, which can account for the full spectrum of catatonic features. Autoimmunity appears to cause catatonia less by systemic inflammation than by the downstream effects of specific actions on extracellular antigens. The specific association with NMDAR encephalitis supports a hypothesis of glutamatergic hypofunction in catatonia.


Assuntos
Catatonia/complicações , Catatonia/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Catatonia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia
17.
Psychosomatics ; 60(5): 499-507, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) is characterized by persistent spontaneous contractions of muscle fibers in the absence of a pathological cause. Patients with BFS often have concerns around having motor neuron disease, in some cases fulfilling the criteria for health anxiety disorder. Research on how BFS and health anxiety relate to one another and how they should be optimally managed together is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We report two cases of BFS associated with health anxiety. We also review the literature on the association between BFS and health anxiety. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and OpenGrey for studies investigating benign fasciculations and anxiety up to August 2018. RESULTS: Both cases were successfully treated for health anxiety disorder with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and antidepressant medication. We identified eight studies that met the inclusion criteria, describing a total of 384 patients. Most studies were of moderate quality. Patients with BFS tended to be male and in their 30s or 40s. There was an overrepresentation of clinicians. Anxiety symptoms were common and frequently coexisted alongside fasciculations. Health anxiety was overwhelmingly focused around motor neuron disease. CONCLUSION: A proportion of individuals with BFS experience anxiety around having motor neuron disease-to the point of developing health anxiety disorder. A bidirectional relationship may exist between BFS and health anxiety disorder. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of health anxiety disorder in patients with BFS and have a low threshold to refer for psychiatric assessment. There is support for the role of psychological therapy, especially CBT, as well as pharmacotherapy, in the form of antidepressant medication. In severe or treatment-refractive cases, combined treatment may be indicated.

18.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS) in hospital following first episode psychosis (FEP) is important, yet reliable measures of these outcomes and their moderators are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the proportion of FEP cases who were hospitalised after their first contact with services and the LOS in a hospital during follow-up. METHODS: Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to October 2017. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: 81 longitudinal studies encompassing data for 23 280 FEP patients with an average follow-up length of 7 years were included. 55% (95% CI 50.3-60.5%) of FEP cases were hospitalised at least once during follow-up with the pooled average LOS of 116.7 days (95% CI 95.1-138.3). Older age of illness onset and being in a stable relationship were associated with a lower proportion of people who were hospitalised. While the proportion of hospitalised patients has not decreased over time, LOS has, with the sharpest reduction in the latest time period. The proportion of patients hospitalised during follow-up was highest in Australia and New Zealand (78.4%) compared to Europe (58.1%) and North America (48.0%); and lowest in Asia (32.5%). Black ethnicity and longer duration of untreated psychosis were associated with longer LOS; while less severe psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with shorter LOS. CONCLUSION: One in two FEP cases required hospitalisation at least once during a 7-year follow-up with an average length of hospitalisation of 4 months during this period. LOS has declined over time, particularly in those countries in which it was previously longest.

19.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 58: 94-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study describes medication prescribing patterns in patients with motor functional neurological disorder (mFND) treated in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM), comparing outcomes to a control group of psychiatric patients from the same hospital trust. METHOD: This is a retrospective case-control study using a psychiatric case register. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 322 mFND patients and 644 psychiatry controls who had had contact with SLaM between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2016. RESULTS: A slightly lower proportion of mFND patients received medication compared to controls (76.6% v. 83.4%, OR: 0.59, CI: 0.39-0.89, p < 0.05). Of medication recipients, mFND patients were prescribed a higher number of agents (mean: 4.7 v 2.9, p = 0.001) and had higher prescription rates of antidepressants, anti-epileptics, analgesics, and certain non-psychotropic medications. Higher numbers of prescriptions were associated with co-morbid physical conditions, and previous psychiatric admissions. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe medication prescriptions in a large cohort of mFND patients. Patients were prescribed a wide range of psychiatric and physical health medications, with higher rates of polypharmacy than controls. Psychotropic medication prescription is not necessarily the first line treatment for mFND, where physiotherapy and psychotherapy may be offered initially. There is limited, early-phase evidence for pharmacological therapies for mFND, and as such, the benefit-to-risk ratio of prescribing in this complex and poorly understood disorder should be carefully assessed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Motores/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Somatoformes/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Motores/epidemiologia , Transtornos Motores/psicologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Somatoformes/epidemiologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Reino Unido
20.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 24(1): 1-3, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634892
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