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1.
Neuroscientist ; 22(1): 26-45, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25488850

RESUMO

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the mostly widely used treatment for major depressive disorders and also are prescribed for several anxiety disorders. However, similar to most antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors suffer from two major problems: They only show beneficial effects after 2 to 4 weeks and only about 33% of patients show remission to first-line treatment. Thus, there is a considerable need for development of more effective antidepressants. There is a growing body of evidence supporting critical roles of 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor subtypes in mediating successful depression treatments. In addition, appropriate activation of these receptors may be associated with a faster onset of the therapeutic response. This review will examine the known roles of 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptors in mediating both the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety and the treatment of these mood disorders. At the end of the review, the role of these receptors in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis will also be discussed. Ultimately, we propose that novel antidepressant drugs that selectively target these serotonin receptors could be developed to yield improvements over current treatments for major depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/metabolismo , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/fisiologia
2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(57): 11409-12, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26086853

RESUMO

Vinyliodide reacts chemoselectively under Heck-Mizoroki conditions with terminal alkenes, including vinylboronate esters, to give dienes. The resulting dienylboronates undergo Suzuki-Miyaura couplings with aryl, heteroaryl and alkenyl halides to access dienes and trienes.


Assuntos
Alcenos/síntese química , Alquinos/síntese química , Polienos/síntese química , Compostos de Vinila/química , Alcenos/química , Alquinos/química , Catálise , Paládio/química , Polienos/química , Estereoisomerismo , Compostos de Vinila/síntese química
3.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 130(6): 819e-829e, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23190833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Application of platelet concentrates to wounds could speed healing. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin, a relatively recent development, stands out from the other preparations. This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial studied the rate of healing of postoperative hand wounds after a single application of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin. METHODS: Eligible patients were healthy individuals older than 18 years who had been scheduled for elective McCash (open palm) surgery for Dupuytren disease at the Plastic and Hand Surgery Department of Nice's University Hospital between August of 2007 and February of 2010. The control group received the reference care of petroleum jelly mesh (Vaselitulle), and test patients had leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin applied. The primary endpoint was healing delay measured in postoperative days. Secondary endpoints included pain, bleeding, and wound exudate. The trial was carried out as a single-blind trial. RESULTS: Among the 68 randomized patients, 33 patients in the leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin group and 31 in the Vaselitulle group were analyzed. Primary endpoint analysis showed a median healing delay of 24 days (interquartile range, 18 to 28 days) for the fibrin group and 29 days (interquartile range, 26 to 35 days) for the Vaselitulle group (p = 0.014, log-rank test). Postoperative pain assessment, bleeding, and exudate were always lower for the fibrin group, but not significantly so. CONCLUSION: The authors trial demonstrates that a single leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin application on fresh postoperative hand wounds shows a median improvement of 5 days in comparison with the standard treatment. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Plaquetas , Contratura de Dupuytren/cirurgia , Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Mãos/cirurgia , Leucócitos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Idoso , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 65(9): 1193-8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22534124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many plastic surgeries, a detailed understanding of the pectoral nerve anatomy is often required. However, the information available on the anatomy of pectoral nerves is sparse and unclear. The purpose of this study is to provide detailed anatomical information on the pectoral nerves to allow for their easy intra-operative localisation and to improve the understanding of the pectoral muscle innervation. METHODS: We dissected 26 brachial plexuses from 15 fresh cadavers. The origins, locations, courses and branches of the pectoral nerves were recorded. RESULTS: We found three constant branches of the pectoral nerve. The superior branch travelled in a straight course to the pectoralis major to innervate the clavicular aspect. The middle branch coursed on the under-surface of the pectoralis major near the pectoral branch of the thoraco-acromial artery to innervate the muscle's sternal aspect. The inferior branch passed beneath the pectoralis minor muscle to innervate the pectoralis minor muscle and the costal aspect of the pectoralis major muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the pectoral nerves' origins, courses and connections, in addition to understanding the functional consequences of iatrogenically severing these nerves, leads to a better understanding of the pectoral muscle's innervation. Precise anatomical data on the pectoral nerve allow for its easy localisation during axillary breast augmentation, axillary dissection, removal of the pectoralis minor muscle and harvesting the pectoralis major muscle island flap.


Assuntos
Axila/cirurgia , Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Nervos Torácicos/anatomia & histologia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Cadáver , Dissecação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/inervação , Músculos Peitorais/cirurgia , Músculos Peitorais/transplante , Nervos Torácicos/cirurgia
6.
J Hand Surg Am ; 35(1): 92-6, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20117310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted an anatomic study to provide detailed information on the pectoral nerves and anatomic data on the transfer of the pectoral nerves to the axillary nerve. Moreover, we experimentally determined the feasibility of transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury. METHODS: We dissected 26 brachial plexus from 15 fresh cadavers. The origin, location, course, and branching of the pectoral nerves were recorded. The length and the diameter of the pectoral nerves were measured. The diameter of the suprascapular and axillary nerves was recorded. In all dissections, we assessed the feasibility of directly transferring the pectoral nerves to the suprascapular and axillary nerves. RESULTS: We found 3 constant branches of pectoral nerves arising from 3 distinct origins in 20 cases, and 3 constant branches arising from 2 distinct origins in 6 cases. The C7 sent nerve fibers to all 3 branches. The average length and diameter of the superior, middle, and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves were 65 mm, 110 mm, and 105 mm, and 2.0 mm, 2.3 mm, ad 2.4 mm, respectively. The average diameter of the suprascapular and axillary were 2.8 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The superior branch reached the suprascapular and axillary nerves in 17 and 8 cases. The middle and inferior branches reached the suprascapular and axillary nerve in all dissections. CONCLUSIONS: With an adequate length, diameter, and nerve composition, the middle and inferior branches of the pectoral nerves are suitable donor nerves to the axillary nerve and a potential source of reinnervation of the suprascapular nerve in upper brachial plexus injury.


Assuntos
Axila/inervação , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Nervos Torácicos/cirurgia , Nervos Torácicos/transplante , Axila/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Nervos Torácicos/anatomia & histologia
7.
Opt Express ; 16(16): 12278-89, 2008 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18679505

RESUMO

Photonic crystals exhibiting a photonic band gap in both TE and TM polarizations are particularly interesting for a better control of light confinement. The simultaneous achievement of large band gaps in both polarizations requires to reduce the symmetry properties of the photonic crystal lattice. In this letter, we propose two different designs of two-dimensional photonic crystals patterned in high refractive index thin silicon slabs. These slabs are known to limit the opening of photonic band gaps for both polarizations. The proposed designs exhibit large complete photonic band gaps: the first photonic crystal structure is based on the honey-comb lattice with two different hole radii and the second structure is based on a "tri-ellipse" pattern in a triangular lattice. Photonic band gap calculations show that these structures offer large complete photonic band gaps deltaomega/omega larger than 10% between first and second photonic bands. This figure of merit is obtained with single-mode slab waveguides and is not restricted to modes below light cone.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Refratometria/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Fótons
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