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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(35): 22689-22697, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137070

RESUMO

Lithium imide is a promising new catalyst for the production of hydrogen from ammonia. Its catalytic activity has been reported to be significantly enhanced through its use as a composite with various transition metal nitrides. In this work, two of these composite catalysts (with manganese nitride and iron nitride) were examined using in situ neutron and X-ray powder diffraction experiments in order to explore the bulk phases present during ammonia decomposition. Under such conditions, the iron composite was found to be a mixture of lithium imide and iron metal, while the manganese composite contained lithium imide and manganese nitride at low temperatures, and a mixture of lithium imide and two ternary lithium-manganese nitrides (LixMn2-xN and a small proportion of Li7MnN4) at higher temperatures. The results indicate that the bulk formation of a ternary nitride is not necessary for ammonia decomposition in lithium imide-transition metal catalyst systems.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(13): 8547-8553, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542780

RESUMO

Manganese and its nitrides have recently been shown to co-catalyse the ammonia decomposition reaction. The nitriding reaction of manganese under ammonia decomposition conditions is studied in situ simultaneously by thermogravimetric analysis and neutron diffraction. Combining these complementary measurements has yielded information on the rate of manganese nitriding as well as the elucidation of a gamut of different manganese nitride phases. The neutron diffraction background was shown to be related to the extent of the ammonia decomposition and therefore the gas composition. From this and the sample mass, implications about the rate-limiting steps for nitriding by ammonia and nitriding by nitrogen are discussed.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(40): 27859-27865, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991292

RESUMO

Ammonia decomposition over iron catalysts is known to be affected by whether the iron exists in elemental form or as a nitride. In situ neutron diffraction studies with simultaneous gravimetric analysis were performed on the nitriding and denitriding reactions of iron under ammonia decomposition conditions. The gravimetric analysis agrees well with the Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data, both of which confirm that the form of the iron catalyst is strongly dependent on ammonia decomposition conditions. Use of ammonia with natural isotopic abundance as the nitriding agent means that the incoherent neutron scattering of any hydrogen within the gases present is able to be correlated to how much ammonia had decomposed. This novel analysis reveals that the nitriding of the iron occurred at exactly the same temperature as ammonia decomposition started. The iron nitriding and denitriding reactions are shown to be related to steps that take place during ammonia decomposition and the optimum conditions for ammonia decomposition over iron catalysts are discussed.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(6): 4719-4724, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128832

RESUMO

Ammonia decomposition using 15N labelled ammonia was performed over a lithium imide catalyst with mass spectrometry. The results show that all the nitrogen is released from the bulk of the lithium imide catalyst during the ammonia decomposition reaction, but that the decomposition itself occurs at the catalyst surface; they also indicate that lithium imide decomposes ammonia and does not merely act as a promoter to transition metal catalysts.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(29): 9119-27, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27410670

RESUMO

The key requirement for a portable store of natural gas is to maximize the amount of gas within the smallest possible space. The packing of methane (CH4) in a given storage medium at the highest possible density is, therefore, a highly desirable but challenging target. We report a microporous hydroxyl-decorated material, MFM-300(In) (MFM = Manchester Framework Material, replacing the NOTT designation), which displays a high volumetric uptake of 202 v/v at 298 K and 35 bar for CH4 and 488 v/v at 77 K and 20 bar for H2. Direct observation and quantification of the location, binding, and rotational modes of adsorbed CH4 and H2 molecules within this host have been achieved, using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments, coupled with density functional theory (DFT) modeling. These complementary techniques reveal a very efficient packing of H2 and CH4 molecules within MFM-300(In), reminiscent of the condensed gas in pure component crystalline solids. We also report here, for the first time, the experimental observation of a direct binding interaction between adsorbed CH4 molecules and the hydroxyl groups within the pore of a material. This is different from the arrangement found in CH4/water clathrates, the CH4 store of nature.

6.
Faraday Discuss ; 188: 525-44, 2016 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092374

RESUMO

Lithium-calcium imide is explored as a catalyst for the decomposition of ammonia. It shows the highest ammonia decomposition activity yet reported for a pure light metal amide or imide, comparable to lithium imide-amide at high temperature, with superior conversion observed at lower temperatures. Importantly, the post-reaction mass recovery of lithium-calcium imide is almost complete, indicating that it may be easier to contain than the other amide-imide catalysts reported to date. The basis of this improved recovery is that the catalyst is, at least partially, solid across the temperature range studied under ammonia flow. However, lithium-calcium imide itself is only stable at low and high temperatures under ammonia, with in situ powder diffraction showing the decomposition of the catalyst to lithium amide-imide and calcium imide at intermediate temperatures of 200-460 °C.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(7): 5605-13, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26863512

RESUMO

Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics has been used to model cation diffusion in stoichiometric Li3N over the temperature range 50 < T/K < 800. The resulting diffusion coefficients are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. We present a detailed atomistic account of the diffusion process. Contrary to the conclusions drawn from previous studies, our calculations show that it is unnecessary to invoke the presence of a small concentration of intrinsic defects in order to initiate diffusion. The structure can be considered to consist of alternating layers of composition Li2N and Li. As the temperature increases an increasing number of cations leave the Li2N layers and migrate either to the interlayer space or to the Li layer. Those that move into the interlayer space form Li2 dimers with cations in the Li2N layers and those that move into the neighboring layer form dimers with cations therein. The two types of dimer are aligned parallel and perpendicular to [001], respectively and have lifetimes of ∼3 ps. The vacancies so created facilitate rapid diffusion in the Li2N layers and the interlayer cation motion results in slower diffusion perpendicular to the layers.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(35): 22999-3006, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26271016

RESUMO

We demonstrate that the ammonia decomposition reaction catalysed by sodium amide proceeds under a different mechanism to ammonia decomposition over transition metal catalysts. Isotopic variants of ammonia and sodium amide reveal a significant kinetic isotope effect in contrast to the nickel-catalysed reaction where there is no such effect. The bulk composition of the catalyst is also shown to affect the kinetics of the ammonia decomposition reaction.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(33): 21470-5, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26220674

RESUMO

The use of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics facilitates the calculation of the cation diffusion constant of Li2O at temperatures too low to be accessible by other methods. Excellent agreement with experimental diffusion coefficients has been obtained over the temperature range 873 < T/K < 1603. Diffusion below 1200 K was shown to be dominated by a concerted nearest-neighbour hopping process, whereas in the high-temperature superionic region an additional mechanism involving a six-coordinate interstitial cation site in the anti-fluorite structure becomes increasingly dominant. Our model thus accounts for the transition from the superionic regime to the non-superionic regime.

10.
Chem Sci ; 6(7): 3805-3815, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218150

RESUMO

We demonstrate that non-stoichiometric lithium imide is a highly active catalyst for the production of high-purity hydrogen from ammonia, with superior ammonia decomposition activity to a number of other catalyst materials. Neutron powder diffraction measurements reveal that the catalyst deviates from pure imide stoichiometry under ammonia flow, with active catalytic behaviour observed across a range of stoichiometry values near the imide. These measurements also show that hydrogen from the ammonia is exchanged with, and incorporated into, the bulk catalyst material, in a significant departure from existing ammonia decomposition catalysts. The efficacy of the lithium imide-amide system not only represents a more promising catalyst system, but also broadens the range of candidates for amide-based ammonia decomposition to include those that form imides.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(31): 16563-72, 2014 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24984893

RESUMO

The location of hydrogen within Ti-Cr-V-Mo alloys has been investigated during hydrogen absorption and desorption using in situ neutron powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering. Neutron powder diffraction identifies a low hydrogen equilibration pressure body-centred tetragonal phase that undergoes a martensitic phase transition to a face-centred cubic phase at high hydrogen equilibration pressures. The average location of the hydrogen in each phase has been identified from the neutron powder diffraction data although inelastic neutron scattering combined with density functional theory calculations show that the local structure is more complex than it appears from the average structure. Furthermore the origin of the change in dissociation pressure and hydrogen trapping on cycling in Ti-Cr-V-Mo alloys is discussed.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(38): 13082-5, 2014 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24972299

RESUMO

This paper presents a new type of process for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts. Effecting the decomposition of NH3 using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na), this represents a significant departure in reaction mechanism compared with traditional surface catalysts. In variable-temperature NH3 decomposition experiments, using a simple flow reactor, the Na/NaNH2 system shows superior performance to supported nickel and ruthenium catalysts, reaching 99.2% decomposition efficiency with 0.5 g of NaNH2 in a 60 sccm NH3 flow at 530 °C. As an abundant and inexpensive material, the development of NaNH2-based NH3 cracking systems may promote the utilization of NH3 for sustainable energy storage purposes.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Amônia/química , Hidrogênio/química , Sódio/química , Catálise , Modelos Moleculares , Níquel/química , Rutênio/química , Temperatura
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(9): 4061-70, 2014 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24449151

RESUMO

We report the experimental investigation of hydrogen storage and release in the lithium amide-lithium hydride composite (Li-N-H) system. Investigation of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions of the system through in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments allowed for the observation of the formation and evolution of non-stoichiometric intermediate species of the form Li1+xNH2-x. This result is consistent with the proposed Frenkel-defect mechanism for these reactions. We observed capacity loss with decreasing temperature through decreased levels of lithium-rich (0.7 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) non-stoichiometric phases in the dehydrogenated material, but only minor changes due to multiple cycles at the same temperature. Annealing of dehydrogenated samples reveals the reduced stability of intermediate stoichiometry values (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.7) compared with the end member species: lithium amide (LiNH2) and lithium imide (Li2NH). Our results highlight the central role of ionic mobility in understanding temperature limitations, capacity loss and facile reversibility of the Li-N-H system.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(21): 8081-7, 2013 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403780

RESUMO

The crystal structure of the hexagonal phase of solid lithium borohydride (LiBH4) is studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of both the low and high-temperature phases. A temperature range of 200-535 K is simulated with the aim of characterising the disorder in the high-temperature structure in detail. The mechanism and kinetics of the reorientational motion of the borohydride units (BH4(-)) are determined and are consistent with published neutron scattering experiments; it is found that rotational diffusivity increases by an order of magnitude at the phase transition temperature. The average equilibrium orientation is characterised by a broad distribution of orientations, and reorientational jumps do not occur between sharply defined orientations. In addition, split positions with partial occupancy for the lithium and boron atoms are found (in agreement with previous theoretical studies), which, together with the disordered BH4(-) orientational distribution in equilibrium, lead to the conclusion that the correct crystallographic space group of the high-temperature phase is P63/mmc rather than P63mc.

15.
Nat Chem ; 4(11): 887-94, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23089862

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanism by which porous solids trap harmful gases such as CO(2) and SO(2) is essential for the design of new materials for their selective removal. Materials functionalized with amine groups dominate this field, largely because of their potential to form carbamates through H(2)N(δ(-))···C(δ(+))O(2) interactions, thereby trapping CO(2) covalently. However, the use of these materials is energy-intensive, with significant environmental impact. Here, we report a non-amine-containing porous solid (NOTT-300) in which hydroxyl groups within pores bind CO(2) and SO(2) selectively. In situ powder X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering studies, combined with modelling, reveal that hydroxyl groups bind CO(2) and SO(2) through the formation of O=C(S)=O(δ(-))···H(δ(+))-O hydrogen bonds, which are reinforced by weak supramolecular interactions with C-H atoms on the aromatic rings of the framework. This offers the potential for the application of new 'easy-on/easy-off' capture systems for CO(2) and SO(2) that carry fewer economic and environmental penalties.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(9): 095901, 2012 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22463649

RESUMO

The color-diffusion algorithm is applied to ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of hexagonal LiBH(4) to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient and diffusion mechanisms. Even in the best solid lithium ion conductors, the time scale of ion diffusion is too long to be readily accessible by ab initio molecular dynamics at a reasonable computational cost. In our nonequilibrium method, rare events are accelerated by the application of an artificial external field acting on the mobile species; the system response to this perturbation is accurately described in the framework of linear response theory and is directly related to the diffusion coefficient, thus resulting in a controllable approximation. The calculated lithium ionic conductivity of LiBH(4) closely matches published measurements, and the diffusion mechanism can be elucidated directly from the generated trajectory.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(37): 14574-7, 2011 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21851115

RESUMO

The first examples of a new class of gallium hydride clusters with direct Ga-Ga bonds and common hydrocarbon structures are reported. Neutron powder diffraction was used to find a Ga[GaH(3)](4)(5-) cluster ion with a neopentane structure in a novel cubic structure type of Rb(8)Ga(5)H(15). Another cluster ion with a polyethylene structure, [GaH(2)](n)(n-), was found in a second novel (RbGaH(2))(n) hydride. These hydrocarbon-like clusters in gallium hydride materials have significant implications for the discovery of hydrides for hydrogen storage as well as for interesting electronic properties.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(26): 12249-53, 2011 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21637868

RESUMO

A combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy with periodic density functional theory calculations is used to provide a complete assignment of the vibrational spectra of α-lithium amidoborane (α-LiNH(2)BH(3)). The Born charge density and the atomic motion up to the decomposition temperature have been modelled. These models not only explain the nature of bonding in α-LiNH(2)BH(3) but also provide an insight into the atomic mechanisms of its decomposition. The (INS) measurements were performed in the range of 0-4000 cm(-1) on the high-resolution time-of-flight TOSCA INS spectrometer at the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(24): 246402, 2011 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22243014

RESUMO

Lead dioxide has been used for over a century in the lead-acid battery. Many fundamental questions concerning PbO2 remain unanswered, principally: (i) is the bulk material a metal or a semiconductor, and (ii) what is the source of the high levels of conductivity? We calculate the electronic structure and defect physics of PbO2, using a hybrid density functional, and show that it is an n-type semiconductor with a small indirect band gap of ∼0.2 eV. The origin of electron carriers in the undoped material is found to be oxygen vacancies, which forms a donor state resonant in the conduction band. A dipole-forbidden band gap combined with a large carrier induced Moss-Burstein shift results in a large effective optical band gap. The model is supported by neutron diffraction, which reveals that the oxygen sublattice is only 98.4% occupied, thus confirming oxygen substoichiometry as the electron source.

20.
Faraday Discuss ; 151: 19-36; discussion 95-115, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22455060

RESUMO

A range of anionic metal-organic framework (MOF) materials has been prepared by combination of In(III) with tetracarboxylate isophthalate-based ligands. These materials incorporate organic cations, either H2ppz2+ (ppz = piperazine) or Me2NH2+, that are hydrogen bonded to the pore wall. These cations act as a gate controlling entry of N2 and H2 gas into and out of the porous host. Thus, hysteretic adsorption/desorption for N2 and H2 is observed in these systems, reflecting the role of the bulky hydrogen bonded organic cations in controlling the kinetic trapping of substrates. Post-synthetic cation exchange with Li+ leads to removal of the organic cation and the formation of the corresponding Li+ salts. Replacement of the organic cation with smaller Li+ leads to an increase in internal surface area and pore volume of the framework material, and in some cases to an increase in the isosteric heat of adsorption of H2 at zero coverage, as predicted by theoretical modelling. The structures, characterisation and analysis of these charged porous materials as storage portals for H2 are discussed. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments confirm interaction of H2 with the carboxylate groups of the isophthalate ligands bound to In(III) centres.

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