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1.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain cancer types and subsequent treatment can cause or worsen pain and emotional distress, leading to functional limitation, particularly among a growing population of older adults with cancer. METHODS: We constructed a national sample of older adult Medicare beneficiaries with cancer using the 2007-2012 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) database linked to Medicare Part D enrollment and prescription claims data. MHOS survey responses described functional limitations due to pain and emotional distress. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the association between participant characteristics and patient-reported functional limitation due to pain and emotional distress and subsequent prescription medication use. RESULTS: Among 9105 older adults with cancer, aged 66-102 years (y), 68.6% reported moderate to severe functional limitation due to pain, and 48.3% reported moderate to severe functional limitation due to emotional distress. Nearly 10% reported severe functional limitation due to co-occurring symptoms of pain and emotional distress. Significant predictors of severe functional limitation due to co-occurring symptoms included age ≥ 80y (ref: 66-69y, adjusted relative risk (aRR): 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.18, p < .001), stage IV disease at diagnosis (ref: stage I, aRR: 2.08; CI 1.52-2.86, p < .001), and lung cancer (ref: breast cancer, aRR: 1.84; CI 1.30-2.61, p < .001). Among 892 participants reporting co-occurring symptoms, 32.5% received neither pain nor emotional distress prescription medication. CONCLUSIONS: Functional limitation due to pain and emotional distress persist among older adults with cancer, particularly octogenarians. Efforts to identify and target unmet supportive care needs to maintain functional independence are needed.

3.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(2): 397-408, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570040

RESUMO

Population level survival of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) treated with hypomethylating agents (HMA) is inferior to clinical trials. Using SEER-Medicare data, we identified 2086 MDS patients diagnosed in 2004-13, aged ≥66 years at diagnosis, and receiving ≥1 HMA cycle after 2005. We used multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the impact of provider experience on persistent HMA therapy and overall survival (OS), respectively. Median number of HMA cycles was 4 and median OS was 10 months. Thirty-two percent of patients were treated by providers with ≥1 prior HMA initiation in the last 2 years and were more likely to receive ≥4 cycles of HMA therapy (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.06-1.57; p = .01). No significant association was found between MDS or HMA initiation volume and survival. In conclusion, while HMA initiation volume was associated with persistent HMA treatment, neither MDS nor HMA initiation volumes were associated with OS in older MDS patients.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878809

RESUMO

Hypomethylating agents (HMA) showed overall survival (OS) benefits in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (HR-MDS) in clinical trials. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data of patients ≥66 years diagnosed with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), a proxy for HR-MDS, in 01/2001-04/2004 (pre-period) or 01/2006-12/2011 (post-period). Association between post-period diagnosis and OS was examined using propensity scores (PS)-matched samples. Among 1876 RAEB patients, median OS was 9 months and 30.8% received HMAs (3.6% in pre-period; 43.0% in post-period) with no association between post-period diagnosis and OS. In the top PS quartile, post-period diagnosis was associated with a 74% lower risk of death (Hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26, 95%-CI: 0.10-0.69, p = 0.007), while outcomes were worse in the lowest PS quartile (HR = 2.80, 95%-CI: 1.06-7.36, p = 0.037). HMA lead to a 3-month OS benefit for patients most likely to receive HMA but not for unselected RAEB cohort.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778783

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Older adults with advanced lung cancer experience high symptom burden at end of life (EOL), yet hospice enrollment often happens late or not at all. Receipt of medications to manage symptoms in the outpatient setting, outside the Medicare hospice benefit, has not been described. OBJECTIVES: We examined patterns of symptom management medication receipt at EOL for older adults who died of lung cancer. METHODS: This retrospective cohort used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify decedents diagnosed with lung cancer at age 67 years and older between January 2008 and December 2013 who survived six months and greater after diagnosis. Using Medicare Part B and D claims, we identified monthly receipt of outpatient medications for symptomatic management of pain, emotional distress, fatigue, dyspnea, anorexia, and nausea/vomiting. Multivariable logistic regression estimated associations between medication receipt and patient demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and concurrent therapy. RESULTS: Of the 16,246 included patients, large proportions received medications for dyspnea (70.7%), pain (62.5%), and emotional distress (49.4%), with lower prevalence for other symptoms. Medication receipt increased from six months to one month before death. Women and dual Medicaid enrolled were more likely to receive medications for pain, emotional distress, dyspnea, and nausea/vomiting. Receipt of symptom management medications decreased with increasing age and racial/ethnical minorities. CONCLUSION: Symptom management medication receipt was common and increasing toward EOL. Lower use by males, older adults, and nonwhites may reflect poor access or poor patient-provider communication. Further research is needed to understand these patterns and assess adequacy of symptom management in the outpatient setting.

6.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637515

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Concerns about the adequacy of pain management among older adults are increasing, particularly with restrictions on opioid prescribing. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between prescription pain medication receipt and patient-reported pain interference in older adults with and without cancer. METHODS: Using the 2007-2012 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) database linked to Medicare Part D prescription claims, we selected MHOS respondents (N = 15,624) aged ≥ 66 years, ≤ 5 years of a cancer diagnosis (N = 9105), or without cancer (N = 6519). We measured receipt of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antiepileptics, and selected antidepressants within 30 days prior to survey. Patient-reported activity limitation due to pain (pain interference) within the past 30 days was summarized as severe, moderate, or mild/none. Logistic regression using predictive margins estimated associations between pain interference, cancer history, and pain medication receipt, adjusting for socio-demographics, chronic conditions, and Part D low-income subsidy. RESULTS: Severe or moderate pain interference was reported by 21.3% and 46.1%, respectively. Pain medication was received by 21.5%, with 11.6% receiving opioids. Among adults reporting severe pain interference, opioid prescriptions were filled by 27.0% versus 23.8% (p = 0.040) with and without cancer, respectively. Over half (56%) of adults reporting severe pain in both groups failed to receive any prescription pain medication. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with cancer were more likely to receive prescription pain medications compared with adults without cancer; however, many older adults reporting severe pain interference did not receive medications. Improved assessment and management of pain among older adults with and without cancer is urgently needed.

7.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1194-1202, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Provider experience, or clinical volume, is associated with improved outcomes in many complex healthcare settings. Despite increased complexity of anticancer therapies, studies evaluating physician-level experience and cancer treatment outcomes are lacking. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted of older adults (aged ≥66 years) diagnosed with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 2004 through 2011 using SEER-Medicare data. Analysis focused on outcomes in patients receiving rituximab, the first approved monoclonal anticancer immunotherapy. We hypothesized that lower physician experience using rituximab and managing its infusion-related reactions would be associated with early treatment discontinuation. A 12-month look-back from each initiation of rituximab was used to categorize physician volume (0, 1-2, or ≥3 initiations per year). Modified Poisson regression was used to account for provider-level correlation and estimated relative risk (RR) of early rituximab discontinuation (<3 cycles within 180 days of rituximab initiation). Cox proportional hazards were used to measure the impact of rituximab discontinuation on survival. RESULTS: Among 15,110 patients who initiated rituximab with 2,684 physicians, 7.6% experienced early rituximab discontinuation. Approximately one-fourth of patients (26.1%) initiated rituximab with a physician who had no rituximab initiations during the preceding 12 months. Compared with patients treated by physicians who had ≥3 rituximab initiations in the prior year, those treated by physicians without initiations were 57% more likely to experience early discontinuation (adjusted RR [aRR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.82; P<.001 for 0 vs ≥3, and aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37; P=.02 for 1-2 vs ≥3). Additionally, rituximab discontinuation was associated with higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.28-1.52; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Lower oncologist experience with rituximab was associated with increased risk of early rituximab discontinuation in Medicare beneficiaries with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Physician-level volume may be an important factor in providing high-quality cancer care in the modern era.

8.
Cancer ; 125(23): 4241-4251, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are aged >65 years at the time of diagnosis and are not actively treated. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence, temporal trends, and factors associated with no active treatment (NAT) among older patients with AML in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data from 14,089 patients with AML residing in the United States who were diagnosed with AML at age ≥66 years during 2001 through 2013. NAT was defined as not receiving any chemotherapy, including hypomethylating agents. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze sociodemographic, clinical, and provider characteristics associated with NAT. RESULTS: The percentage of patients with NAT decreased over time from 59.7% among patients diagnosed in 2001 to 42.8% among those diagnosed in 2013. The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 82 days from the time of diagnosis. Patients treated with NAT had worse survival compared with those receiving active treatment. Variables found to be associated with higher odds of NAT included older age, certain sociodemographic characteristics (household income within the lowest quartile, residence outside the Northeast region of the United States, and being unmarried), and clinical factors (≥3 comorbidities, the presence of mental disorders, recent hospitalization, and disability). CONCLUSIONS: Greater than one-half of older patients with AML residing in the United States do not receive any active leukemia-directed therapy despite the availability of lower intensity therapies such as hypomethylating agents. Lack of active therapy receipt is associated with inferior survival. Identifying predictors of NAT might improve the quality of care and survival in this patient population, especially as novel therapeutic options with lower toxicity are becoming available.

9.
Cancer ; 125(22): 4084-4095, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With improving survival for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), supportive care that is focused on optimizing quality of life and minimizing treatment-related toxicities is increasingly important. The extent to which patients with MM are receiving recommended supportive care is unknown. METHODS: This study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify older adults (age ≥66 years) diagnosed with MM in 2008-2013 who had received active treatment and survived 1 year or longer after their diagnosis. Outcomes of interest included guideline-recommended supportive care, which was defined as 1) bone-modifying drugs (BMDs) within the 12 months after the diagnosis, 2) influenza vaccination in the first season after the diagnosis, and 3) concomitant use of prophylactic antivirals with proteasome inhibitors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between patient/facility-level characteristics and supportive care use. RESULTS: Among 1996 patients receiving MM-directed therapy, 64%, 52%, and 49% received BMDs, an influenza vaccination, and antiviral prophylaxis, respectively. Non-Hispanic black patients (odds ratio [OR] vs white patients, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.88) and patients with baseline renal impairment (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34-0.54) had lower odds of BMDs. Non-Hispanic blacks (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37-0.73) and those with dual Medicaid enrollment (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99) had lower odds of influenza vaccination. Treatment in a community-based setting was associated with reduced odds of antiviral prophylaxis (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.46-0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial underutilization of guideline-recommended supportive care was observed among older adults with MM in the United States, and this was associated with both patient and facility characteristics. Targeted interventions are needed to improve supportive care for patients with MM.

10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(2): pkz030, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360905

RESUMO

Physician ownership of imaging equipment has been shown to be associated with greater use of low-value imaging. However, it is unclear whether ownership also influences utilization of appropriate imaging. We conducted a cohort study of older adults diagnosed with three non-Hodgkin lymphomas with distinct guideline recommendations concerning the use of positron emission tomography (PET) during staging (recommended, not recommended, or equivocal). We found patients who were treated by oncologists with PET ownership were more likely to receive a staging PET regardless of lymphoma subtype. However, the difference in utilization by ownership status was smallest (6%, 95% confidence interval = 2% to 11%, P = .01) in the setting of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, where consensus guidelines recommend routine use of PET. Overall, removing financial incentives related to imaging self-referral may reduce utilization during cancer care, with the potential for greatest impact on imaging of equivocal or low clinical utility.

11.
Value Health ; 22(7): 762-767, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between cancer history and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) as well as cost-coping strategies, by health insurance coverage. METHODS: We used the 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey to identify adults aged 18 to 64 years with (n = 3599) and without (n = 56 909) a cancer history. Cost-related changes in medication use included (1) CRN, measured as skipping, taking less, or delaying medication because of cost, and (2) cost-coping strategies, measured as requesting lower cost medication or using alternative therapies to save money. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of CRN and cost-coping strategies associated with cancer history, stratified by insurance. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely than adults without a cancer history to report CRN (AOR 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.43) and cost-coping strategies (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.19). Among the privately insured, the difference in CRN by cancer history was the greatest among those enrolled in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) without health savings accounts (HSAs) (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.30-2.44). Among adults with HDHP and HSA, cancer survivors were less likely to report cost-coping strategies (AOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). Regardless of cancer history, CRN and cost-coping strategies were the highest for those uninsured, enrolled in HDHP without HSA, and without prescription drug coverage under their health plan (all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors are prone to CRN and more likely to use cost-coping strategies. Expanding options for health insurance coverage, use of HSAs for those with HDHP, and enhanced prescription drug coverage may effectively address CRN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(13): 3181-3187, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170846

RESUMO

Most patients with lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS) become red blood cell (RBC) transfusion dependent at some time during their disease course. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) are frequently used in this setting; however, reported rates of in RBC transfusion independence (TI) achieved with HMA therapy vary significantly between studies. Here we study the real-life clinical effectiveness of HMA in inducing RBC TI in anemic LR-MDS patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. We find that approximately 40% of LR-MDS patients who were receiving RBC transfusions and 33% who were dependent on RBC transfusions at HMA initiation ultimately achieved TI. The receipt of ≥3 transfusions in the 8-week period before HMA initiation was significantly associated with lower odds of achieving TI. Our study provides important population level estimates of clinical effectiveness of HMAs in LR-MDS.

13.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(3): 211-219, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865915

RESUMO

ABSTRACTBackground: Current guidelines recommend hydroxyurea (HU) as frontline therapy for patients with high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET) to prevent thrombosis. However, little is known about the impact of HU on thrombosis or survival among these patients in the real-world setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of older adults (aged ≥66 years) diagnosed with ET from 2007 through 2013 using the linked SEER-Medicare database. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the effect of HU on overall survival, and multivariable competing risk models were used to assess the effect of HU on the occurrence of thrombotic events. RESULTS: Of 1,010 patients, 745 (73.8%) received HU. Treatment with HU was associated with a significantly lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.64; P<.01). Every 10% increase in HU proportion of days covered was associated with a 12% decreased risk of death (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91; P<.01). Compared with nonusers, HU users also had a significantly lower risk of thrombotic events (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.64; P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although underused in our study population, HU was associated with a reduced incidence of thrombotic events and improved overall survival in older patients with ET.

15.
Cancer ; 125(10): 1737-1747, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study examined medical financial hardship in cancer survivors and those without a cancer history in the United States. METHODS: The 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify cancer survivors (stratified by ages 18-49 years [1424 survivors], ages 50-64 years [2916 survivors], and ages ≥65 years [6014 survivors]) and individuals without a cancer history (ages 18-64 years [66,951 individuals], ages 50-64 years [31,741 individuals], and ages ≥65 years [25,744 individuals]). Medical financial hardship was categorized into 3 domains: 1) material (eg, problems paying medical bills); 2) psychological (eg, worrying about paying medical bills); and 3) behavioral (eg, delaying/forgoing care due to cost). Generalized ordinal logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between cancer history, hardship, and health insurance deductibles/health savings accounts (among privately insured cancer survivors aged 18-64 years only). RESULTS: Compared with those without a cancer history, cancer survivors were more likely to report any material (ages 18-49 years: 43.4% vs 30.1%; ages 50-64 years: 32.8% vs 27.8%; and ages ≥65 years: 17.3% vs 14.7%), psychological (ages 18-49 years: 53.5% vs 47.1%), and behavioral (ages 18-49 years: 30.6% vs 21.8%; and ages 50-64 years: 27.2% vs 23.4%) measure of financial hardship, and multiple domains of hardship (age groups 18-49 years and 50-64 years; all P < .01). Among privately insured survivors, having a high-deductible health plan without a health savings account was found to be associated with greater hardship compared with having low-deductible insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Younger cancer survivors are particularly vulnerable to material, psychological, and behavioral medical financial hardship. Interventions designed to reduce financial hardship should consider multiple domains of hardship as well as insurance benefit design.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 10(1): 60-67, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To characterize functional trajectories in the year before and after a new cancer diagnosis among older adults and to identify risk factors for worsening disability post-diagnosis. METHODS: We identified 170 participants 70+ years with monthly assessments of thirteen basic, instrumental, and mobility activities and with a new cancer diagnosis from 1998 to 2014. A group-based trajectory model identified distinct functional trajectories based on a total disability score during the twelve months pre- and post-diagnosis. We evaluated associations between potential risk factors at the time of cancer diagnosis and worsening disability post-diagnosis, explored functional transitions from pre- to post-diagnosis and identified participants whose functional trajectories worsened. RESULTS: Three pre-diagnosis functional trajectories were identified among 170 participants (mean age at diagnosis: 83 years (range: 73-105 years): mild, moderate, and severe disability. Three post-diagnosis functional trajectories were identified among 158 non-decedents: mild, moderate, and severe disability. Most participants (93.9%) with severe disability pre-diagnosis had severe disability post-diagnosis. Risk factors independently associated with worsening disability post-diagnosis included moderate or severe disability pre-diagnosis (adjusted risk ratio, aRR: moderate: 2.96; 95%CI: 2.11-4.16; severe: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.07-8.52) vs. mild (reference), poor physical capability (aRR: 1.57; 95%CI: 1.07-2.30), and incurable stage (aRR:1.99; 95%CI: 1.41-2.80). 40% of participants with a mild or moderate disability trajectory pre-diagnosis transitioned to a worse functional trajectory post-diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Older adults followed distinct functional trajectories in the twelve months before and after cancer diagnosis. Functional trajectory pre-diagnosis, poor physical capability, and incurable stage were independent risk factors for worsening disability post-diagnosis.

17.
J Cancer Policy ; 17: 51-58, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345223

RESUMO

Background: The Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) reduced reimbursement for many antineoplastics delivered in outpatient settings, altering practice patterns for some cancers. To further evaluate the MMA's effect, we focus on colon cancer, where longstanding fluorouracil-based regimens were augmented in 2004 with 3 newly-approved drugs (oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, and/or cetuximab). Staggered implementation of MMA reimbursement changes (physician offices implemented reimbursement changes in 2005 vs hospital outpatient departments(OPD) in 2006) provide a natural experiment to examine policy effects. Methods: Using the 2000-2009 SEER-Medicare data, we examined antineoplastic use among 59,642 stage II-IV colon cancer patients. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we conducted difference-in-differences analyses to examine an interaction between time (pre-post MMA) and setting (physician offices versus OPDs) on antineoplastic receipt, adjusting for patient and cancer characteristics. A significant interaction indicates different practice patterns in physician offices versus OPD during the staggered implementation. Results: After the reimbursement change in 2007-09 relative to 2000-03, use of fluorouracil-based therapy decreased slightly (Marginal Probability(MP): -0.07 stage II; -0.05 stage III; -0.05 stage IV; p< 0.01), while use of new drugs increased substantially (MP: 0.48 stage II; 0.69 stage III, 0.79 stage IV; p< 0.01). The interaction between MMA implementation and physician office setting was significant when examining use of new agents for Stage IV disease only. Conclusions: Our results indicate that providers responded to reimbursement changes after the MMA by increasing use of newly approved agents, but the magnitude of the response was small and limited to individuals diagnosed with Stage IV disease.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800122, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a recent randomized, open-label trial (ECHELON-1), brentuximab vedotin (BV) combined with doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD+BV) decreased the risk of progression in adults diagnosed with stage III or IV Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) compared with standard bleomycin-containing chemotherapy (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine [ABVD]). However, the cost effectiveness of incorporating BV (US$6,970 per 50-mg vial) into the first-line setting is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We constructed a Markov decision-analytic model to measure the costs and clinical outcomes for AVD+BV compared with ABVD as first-line therapy in a cohort of patients with stage III or IV HL. Transition probabilities were estimated from ECHELON-1 by fitting parametric survival distributions. Lifetime direct health care costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for AVD+BV compared with ABVD from a US payer perspective. Our model was also used to estimate BV price reductions that would achieve more favorable cost effectiveness under indication-specific pricing. RESULTS: AVD+BV was associated with an improvement of 0.56 QALYs compared with treatment with standard ABVD. However, incorporating BV into first-line therapy led to significantly higher lifetime health care costs ($361,137 v $184,291), causing the ICER for AVD+BV to be $317,254 per QALY. If indication-specific pricing were implemented, acquisition costs for BV used in the first-line setting would need to be reduced by 56% to 73% for ICERs of $150,000 to $100,000 per QALY, respectively. CONCLUSION: Substituting BV for bleomycin during first-line therapy for stage III or IV HL is unlikely to be cost effective under current drug pricing. Should indication-specific pricing be implemented, significant price reductions for BV used in the first-line setting would be needed to reduce ICERs to more widely acceptable values.

19.
Blood Adv ; 2(20): 2681-2690, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333100

RESUMO

Current guidelines recommend therapeutic phlebotomy for all polycythemia vera (PV) patients and additional cytoreductive therapy (eg, hydroxyurea [HU]) for high-risk PV patients. Little is known about the impact of these therapies in the real-world setting. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of older adults diagnosed with PV from 2007 to 2013 using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the effect of phlebotomy and HU on overall survival (OS) and the occurrence of thrombotic events. Of 820 PV patients (median age = 77 years), 16.3% received neither phlebotomy nor HU, 23.0% were managed with phlebotomy only, 19.6% with HU only, and 41.1% with both treatments. After a median follow-up of 2.83 years, 37.2% (n = 305) of the patients died. Phlebotomy (yes/no; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.81; P < .01), increasing phlebotomy intensity (HR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.65-0.79; P < .01), and a higher proportion of days covered (PDC) by HU were all significantly associated with lower mortality. When thrombosis was the outcome of interest, phlebotomy (yes/no; HR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42-0.66; P < .01) and increasing phlebotomy intensity (HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.74; P < .01) were significantly associated with a lower risk of thrombotic events, so was a higher HU PDC. In this population-based study of older adults with PV reflecting contemporary clinical practice, phlebotomy and HU were associated with improved OS and decreased risk of thrombosis. However, both treatment modalities were underused in this cohort of older PV patients.


Assuntos
Hidroxiureia/metabolismo , Flebotomia/métodos , Policitemia Vera/complicações , Policitemia Vera/terapia , Trombose/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Policitemia Vera/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombose/patologia
20.
Cancer ; 124(21): 4211-4220, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although provider-level volume is frequently associated with outcomes in cancers requiring complex surgeries, whether similar relations exist for cancers treated primarily with systemic therapy is unknown. METHODS: Using a population-based cohort analysis of older adults diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during the years 2004-2011, we evaluated the association between oncologist volume and 4 clinical outcomes (receipt of any chemotherapy, receipt of an anthracycline-containing or equivalent regimen, early hospitalization, and overall survival). Our primary explanatory variable was lymphoma treatment volume, defined as the number of patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma for which an oncologist initiated therapy during a 12-month look-back period from each incident DLBCL case. RESULTS: We identified 8247 Medicare beneficiaries who were newly diagnosed with DLBCL. Chemotherapy was administered to 6202 (75.2%) beneficiaries, and 71.4% of cytotoxic regimens contained an anthracycline. Beneficiaries who were treated by higher-volume oncologists had increased odds of receiving chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.70; P <.001) and of receiving an anthracycline-containing regimen (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.50; P = .009). Receiving care from a higher-volume provider was also associated with decreased hospitalization (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95; P = .007) and improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92; P < .001). CONCLUSION: In older adults diagnosed with DLBCL, receiving care from a provider with more experience treating lymphoma patients was associated with receipt of guideline-adherent therapy, reduced hospitalizations, and improved survival. Clinical volume may be an important factor in providing high-quality cancer care in the modern era.


Assuntos
Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prognóstico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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