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1.
Protist ; 169(4): 466-483, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025232

RESUMO

Reproductive development in Ardissonea crystallina revealed a unique mode of enlargement involving a combination of novel and known structures. In light microscopy, auxospores of this elongated polar centric diatom were superficially similar to the auxospores of pennates. With SEM we found three different components in the auxospore wall. In the youngest, nearly spherical cell-stage, the wall consisted only of a delicate veil containing minute siliceous spherules. Incunabular elements developed underneath this layer. Second, a previously unknown form of specifically modified incunabular scales shaped the subsequent ellipsoidal-capsule auxospore stage. Third, there was a clear contribution of scales to the development of scaly transverse perizonial bands (or scaly bands, for brevity). Such bands, although noted by previous researchers, have not been fully appreciated for the evolutionary information they may convey: possibly common among polar centrics but not pennates. Finally, we propose maintaining the term transverse perizonium to refer to these bands in polar diatoms, but to introduce the differentiation of scaly bands described here from pinnate bands (currently known as typical of pennates). Further research into band types among polar centrics may provide new insights into the relationship between the groups within polar centrics that are currently unresolved by molecular methods.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos/citologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14670, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116153

RESUMO

Molecular phylogenetic analyses place Ardissonea crystallina (C. Agardh) Grunow and all Toxariids among the bi- and multipolar centric diatoms, almost always recovered as a derived lineage sister to Lampriscus. In all centrics where sexual reproduction has been documented, oogamy, with larger immobile eggs and smaller flagellated sperm has been observed. We were able to initiate both homothallic and heterothallic reproduction in A. crystallina. The heterothallic reproduction turned out to be non-oogamous; gametes were more or less equal in size but no flagellated cells were detected. At the same time, two mating types ("male" and "female") were recognized by the distinct morphology and behaviour of the gametes. While no flagella were observed, periodically thin cytoplasmic projections arose on the surface of the "male" gametes. These projections similar to those found in some pennate diatoms facilitated contact with the "female" cells. In each gametangial cell, regardless of the mating type, only one gamete was formed. Thus, the Toxariids may represent a unique evolutionary group, at least in respect to their reproductive biology. The hypothesis discussed is that non-oogamous mode of reproduction could have evolved in Ardissonea (and possibly in other Toxariids) independently of the pennate lineage of diatoms.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Células Germinativas/fisiologia , Células Germinativas/ultraestrutura , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Reprodução/fisiologia
3.
Protist ; 163(3): 480-94, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22104585

RESUMO

During sexual reproduction, araphid pennate diatoms of the genus Tabularia (Kützing) D. M. Williams and Round released male gametes directly into the medium, sometimes at a considerable distance from the female gametes. This raised the question of how male gametes, suspended in water, manage to reach female ones, given that no locomotive organelles have been described in gametes of pennate diatoms. Optical microscopic investigation revealed cytoplasmic projections produced by male gametes of Tabularia tabulata (C. A. Agardh) Snoeijs and T. fasciculata (C. A. Agardh) D. M. Williams and Round. Morphology and behavior of these projections is consistent with pseudopodia, however, which specific type of pseudopodia they may be, remains inconclusive. The growth and retraction of the pseudopodia coincided with gamete motility and so we postulate that it explains the otherwise apparent random movement of male gametes. Spinning, shuffling and chaotic patterns of motility were documented. In theory, gamete mobility increases the probability of gamete encounter thus enhancing the probability of syngamy. This is the first known case where cytoplasmic projections have been described in diatom gametes, and possibly in mature gametes in general.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Diatomáceas/citologia , Células Germinativas/citologia , Água do Mar/parasitologia , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Reprodução
4.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 69(2): 194-201, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19486155

RESUMO

Sexual reproduction is an obligatory phase in the life cycle of most diatoms, as cell size decreases with successive vegetative divisions and the maximal cell size is only restored by a specialized cell, the auxospore, which follows zygote formation as a result of sexual reproduction. While in pennate diatoms the induction of sexual reproduction depends primarily on cell-cell interactions, the importance of different external factors for the induction of sexual reproduction is less well known. Here, we investigated the effects of light on sexualization in the marine benthic pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia (Gaillon) R. Simonsen. Compatible clones were crossed and exposed to different combinations of light levels, qualities, and photoperiods. Light was found to be a key factor for sexualization, and to a certain extent, to control auxosporulation in H. ostrearia. The light conditions most favorable for sexual reproduction were low irradiances (<50 micromolphotons m(-2) s(-1)) and short photoperiods (6-10 h), conditions that prevail during winter, and to a lesser extent, the higher irradiances and longer photoperiods that correspond to the spring and fall, when blooms of this organism form in the natural environment. Auxospore formation was very rare in continuous light, and maximum in presence of red radiation, while it was never observed in darkness or in radiation other than red.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Reprodução
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