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1.
Matern Child Health J ; 21(6): 1367-1376, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138825

RESUMO

Objective Obesity in adults is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether or not this phenotype is reflected in human milk (HM) composition, or may impact infant growth remains unknown. We investigated whether HM from overweight/obese (OW/Ob) mothers exhibited higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. We also correlated these bioactive components with infant growth patterns. Methods This was an observational cohort of 56 breastfeeding mothers and their infants [33 normal weight (NW) and 23 OW/Ob]. Infants were followed until 6 months of age and HM collected at 2-weeks and 4-months. Results Markers of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenol (HNE), decreased in HM over time (p < 0.001) and did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, were all inter-correlated (p < 0.001) but did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. HM fat, protein, lactose, and total calories did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Infant growth patterns did not differ by group. In a model of infant weight-for-length-Z score trajectory, there was a significant interaction between both lactose and 8OHdG with maternal group: HM lactose and 8OHdG concentrations were both positively associated with increases in WLZ trajectory only among infants breastfed by OW/Ob mothers. Conclusions for Practice HM composition was relatively stable between NW and OW/Ob women. In exclusively breastfed infants, HM concentrations of lactose and 8OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress, may contribute to regulation of infant weight gain, especially among infants of OW/Ob women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(1): 177-184, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27903517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An understudied component of the diet, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are distinctive saturated fatty acids that may have an important influence on health. Human-milk fatty acid composition is known to differ worldwide, but comparative data are lacking on BCFAs. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that concentrations of BCFAs in human milk differ between populations and are associated with maternal diet. DESIGN: We surveyed the BCFA composition of samples collected as part of a standardized, prospective study of human-milk composition. Mothers were enrolled from 3 urban populations with differing diets: Cincinnati, Ohio; Shanghai, China; and Mexico City, Mexico. Enrollment was limited to healthy mothers of term singleton infants. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of milk from all women with samples at postpartum week 4 (n = 359; ∼120 women/site). Fatty acids were extracted from milk by using a modified Bligh-Dyer technique and analyzed by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tobit regression. For Cincinnati mothers, 24-h diet recalls were analyzed in relation to the individual BCFA concentrations measured in milk samples. RESULTS: Total BCFAs in milk differed by site, with the highest concentration in Cincinnati followed by Mexico City and Shanghai (mean ± SE: 7.90 ± 0.41, 6.10 ± 0.36, and 4.27 ± 0.25 mg/100 mL, respectively; P < 0.001). Site differences persisted after delivery mode, maternal age, and body mass index were controlled for. The individual concentrations of iso-14:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0, anteiso-15:0, and anteiso-17:0 also differed between sites. Milk concentrations of iso-14:0 and anteiso-15:0 were associated with maternal intake of dairy; iso-16:0 was associated with maternal intakes of dairy and beef. CONCLUSIONS: BCFA concentrations in milk at 4 wk postpartum differed between mothers from Cincinnati, Shanghai, and Mexico City. Variations in human-milk BCFAs are influenced by diet. The impact of BCFAs on infant health warrants investigation.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , China , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Carne , México , Ohio , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
JAMA Pediatr ; 169(11): 1040-5, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26389824

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: A genetic polymorphism affecting FUT2 secretor status in approximately one-quarter of humans of European descent affects the expression of histo-blood group antigens on the mucosal epithelia of human respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive tracts. These histo-blood group antigens serve as host receptor sites necessary for attachment and infection of some pathogens, including norovirus. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether an association exists between FUT2 secretor status and laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections in US children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter case-control observational study involving active surveillance at 6 US pediatric medical institutions in the inpatient and emergency department clinical settings. We enrolled 1564 children younger than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and/or vomiting) and 818 healthy controls frequency matched by age and month, from December 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Paired fecal-saliva specimens were tested for rotavirus and for secretor status. Comparisons were made between rotavirus test-positive cases and healthy controls stratified by ethnicity and vaccination status. Adjusted multivariable analyses assessed the preventive association of secretor status against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. RESULTS: One (0.5%) of 189 rotavirus test-positive cases was a nonsecretor, compared with 188 (23%) of 818 healthy control participants (P < .001). Healthy control participants of Hispanic ethnicity were significantly less likely to be nonsecretors (13%) compared with healthy children who were not of Hispanic ethnicity (25%) (P < .001). After controlling for vaccination and other factors, children with the nonsecretor FUT2 polymorphism appeared statistically protected (98% [95% CI, 84%-100%]) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was virtually absent among US children who had a genetic polymorphism that inactivates FUT2 expression on the intestinal epithelium. We observed a strong epidemiologic association among children with rotavirus gastroenteritis compared with healthy control participants. The exact cellular mechanism behind this epidemiologic association remains unclear, but evidence suggests that it may be rotavirus genotype specific. The lower prevalence of nonsecretors among Hispanic children may translate to an enhanced burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among this group. Our findings may have bearing on our full understanding of rotavirus infections and the effects of vaccination in diverse populations.


Assuntos
Fucosiltransferases/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/genética , Gastroenterite/virologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Saliva/virologia , Estados Unidos
4.
J Pediatr ; 167(5): 969-74.e1, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26227436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate international differences in the development of minimum dietary diversity (MDD) between 6 and 12 months of age. STUDY DESIGN: Breastfed infants (115, 100, and 109 in Shanghai, Cincinnati, and Mexico City, respectively) were enrolled near birth and dietary intake assessed weekly by 24-hour recall of food frequency. Diet diversity per month from age 6-12 months was assessed as at least 4 of 7 food groups provided on the previous day. RESULTS: Across all cohorts, dietary diversity increased from 6 (31%) to 12 (92%) months of age. Shanghai infants were significantly more likely to achieve MDD than the other cohorts at each month of age. Meat/seafood accounted for a higher proportion of infant feeds in Shanghai compared with the other cohorts, and eggs were only fed in Shanghai, and proportional intake of dairy, grains, and fruit were highest in Cincinnati. Only 28% of Cincinnati infants fed >50% human milk achieved MDD between 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of infants between 6 and 12 months achieving MDD was significantly higher in Shanghai than in Mexico City or Cincinnati at all ages. Of particular concern was low dietary diversity among highly breastfed Cincinnati cohort infants, suggesting a need for greater education of breastfeeding mothers about the need to introduce a diverse complementary food diet.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta , Pão , Aleitamento Materno , China , Laticínios , Registros de Dieta , Ovos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Internacionalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Carne , México , Leite Humano , Alimentos Marinhos , Estados Unidos , Verduras
5.
Matern Child Nutr ; 10(3): 383-97, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22708508

RESUMO

Although exclusively breastfed infants are at increased risk of vitamin D (vit D) deficiency if vit D supplementation is lacking and sun exposure is limited, assessment of both risk factors in the first year of life is lacking. We evaluated the contribution of vit D intake and sunlight exposure to vit D status in 120 healthy, breastfeeding mother-infant dyads, who were followed up for 1 year. Vitamin D intake and skin sunlight exposure were evaluated using questionnaires. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase levels were determined post-natally in mothers at 4 weeks and in infants at 4, 26 and 52 weeks. Vitamin D supplementation was low (<20%) and sunlight exposure was common (93%) in study infants. At 4 weeks, 17% of mothers were vit D deficient (<50 nmol L(-1)) and 49% were insufficient (50-<75 nmol L(-1)), while 18% of infants were severely vit D deficient (<25 nmol L(-1)) and 77% were deficient (<50 nmol L(-1)). At 26 weeks, winter/spring birth season and shorter duration of months of exclusive breastfeeding were protective of vit D deficiency in infants. Vitamin D deficiency in infants decreased to 12% at 52 weeks with sunlight exposure. Serum PTH levels were significantly higher in severely vit D deficient than sufficient infants. Vitamin D deficiency was widespread in early post-partum breastfeeding mothers and infants, and declined to one in eight infants at 52 weeks due mostly to sunshine exposure. When sunlight exposure is limited or restricted, intensified vit D supplementation of breastfeeding mothers and infants is needed to improve vit D status.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Suplementos Nutricionais , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proteomes ; 1(2): 128-158, 2013 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250401

RESUMO

In-depth understanding of the changing functions of human milk (HM) proteins and the corresponding physiological adaptions of the lactating mammary gland has been inhibited by incomplete knowledge of the HM proteome. We analyzed the HM whey proteome (n = 10 women with samples at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) using a quantitative proteomic approach. One thousand three hundred and thirty three proteins were identified with 615 being quantified. Principal component analysis revealed a transition in the HM whey proteome-throughout the first year of lactation. Abundance changes in IgG, sIgA and sIgM display distinct features during the first year. Complement components and other acute-phase proteins are generally at higher levels in early lactation. Proteomic analysis further suggests that the sources of milk fatty acids (FA) shift from more direct blood influx to more de novo mammary synthesis over lactation. The abundances of the majority of glycoproteins decline over lactation, which is consistent with increased enzyme expression in glycoprotein degradation and decreased enzyme expression in glycoprotein synthesis. Cellular detoxification machinery may be transformed as well, thereby accommodating increased metabolic activities in late lactation. The multiple developing functions of HM proteins and the corresponding mammary adaption become more apparent from this study.

7.
J Nutr ; 143(2): 166-74, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23236024

RESUMO

Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P < 0.001), timing of introduction of meat/eggs/legumes (4.8, 9.3, and 7.0 mo, respectively; P < 0.0001), and other feeding practices. By age 1 y, infants in Shanghai were heavier and longer than Cincinnati and Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Saúde da População Urbana , Estatura/etnologia , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/etnologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México , Ohio , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia
8.
J Proteome Res ; 11(7): 3897-907, 2012 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22676802

RESUMO

Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Lactação , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Feminino , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/isolamento & purificação , Leite Humano/imunologia , Leite Humano/fisiologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Matern Child Nutr ; 8(3): 404-18, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22624983

RESUMO

Breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition varies greatly among individual women, including in percentages of the long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFA) 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, AA) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), which are important for infant neurological development. It has been suggested that owing to wide variation in milk LCPUFA and low DHA in Western diets, standards of milk FA composition should be derived from populations consuming traditional diets. We collected breast milk samples from Tsimane women at varying lactational stages (6-82 weeks). The Tsimane are an indigenous, natural fertility, subsistence-level population living in Amazonia Bolivia. Tsimane samples were matched by lactational stage to samples from a US milk bank, and analysed concurrently for FA composition by gas-liquid chromatography. We compared milk FA composition between Tsimane (n = 35) and US (n = 35) mothers, focusing on differences in LCPUFA percentages that may be due to population-typical dietary patterns. Per total FAs, the percentages of AA, DHA, total n-3 and total n-6 LCPUFA were significantly higher among Tsimane mothers. Mean percentages of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid) and trans FAs were significantly higher among US mothers. Tsimane mothers' higher milk n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA percentages may be due to their regular consumption of wild game and freshwater fish, as well as comparatively lower intakes of processed foods and oils that may interfere with LCPUFA synthesis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Leite Humano/química , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolívia , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 54(4): 532-9, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22094897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serum adiponectin (APN) is associated with lower childhood obesity, and APN concentration in human milk is associated with slower growth during active breast-feeding. We examined infant weight gain in the second year of life after exposure to high or low levels of mother's milk APN. METHODS: Breast-feeding mother-infant pairs were recruited in Mexico City and studied for 2 years; 192 infants with at least 12 months' follow-up were analyzed. Monthly milk samples were assayed for APN; mothers were classified as producing high or low levels of milk APN. Infant and maternal serum APN were assessed during year 1. Infant anthropometry was measured monthly (year 1) or bimonthly (year 2), and World Health Organization z scores were calculated. Longitudinal adjusted models assessed weight-for-age and weight-for-length z score trajectories from 1 to 2 years. RESULTS: Maternal serum APN modestly correlated with milk APN (r=0.37, P<0.0001) and infant serum APN (r=0.29, P=0.01). Infants exposed to high milk APN experienced increasing weight-for-age and weight-for-length z scores between age 1 and 2 years in contrast to low milk APN exposure (P for group × time=0.02 and 0.054, respectively), adjusting for growth in the first 6 months and other covariates. In contrast, infant serum APN in year 1 was not associated with the rate of weight gain in year 2. CONCLUSIONS: High human milk APN exposure was associated with accelerated weight trajectory during the second year of life, suggesting its role in catch-up growth after slower weight gain during the first year of life.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/efeitos adversos , Adiponectina/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Leite Humano/química , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Ganho de Peso
11.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 20(12): 1336-43, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16883549

RESUMO

An isocratic HPLC method was developed for the determination of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) in human breast milk. After a single-step liquid-liquid extraction, the milk extract was injected directly into the HPLC system. The analytical method is based on pre-column inline treatment of CoQ(10). Chromatographic separation of CoQ(10) and coenzyme Q(9) (CoQ(9)) internal standard was achieved using a reversed-phase Microsorb-MV C(18) analytical column. CoQ(10) and CoQ(9) were monitored by an electrochemical detector (ECD). An excellent linearity (r = 0.999) was observed for CoQ(10) in the concentration range 0.06-2.5 micromol L(-1) in breast milk. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 60 nmol L(-1). Coefficients of variations (CVs) for intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were less than 5%. A total of 194 breast milk samples were analyzed for the CoQ(10) concentration; the mean value was 0.32 +/- 0.21 micromol L(-1).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Leite Humano/química , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Coenzimas , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Ubiquinona/análise
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 83(5): 1106-11, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16685053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that human milk has a role in the gastrointestinal, neural, and immune development of neonates. If present in milk, adiponectin would be a promising candidate for influencing infant development, given its metabolic functions. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine whether adiponectin is present in human milk and to characterize maternal factors associated with potential variation in milk adiponectin concentrations. DESIGN: We quantified adiponectin concentrations in human milk samples from donors to the Cincinnati Children's Research Human Milk Bank and randomly selected participants in a cohort study in Mexico City funded by the National Institutes of Health. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data, we examined milk adiponectin concentrations in relation to lactation duration, maternal body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and ethnicity. RESULTS: Adiponectin was detected in human skim milk (range: 4.2-87.9 ng/mL). In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, duration of lactation was negatively associated with milk adiponectin concentrations (beta = -0.059 +/- 0.024 and -0.059 +/- 0.007, respectively; P < 0.02 for both). Maternal postpregnancy BMI was positively associated with milk adiponectin concentrations (beta = 0.08 +/- 0.02, P < 0.0001; longitudinal analysis). Mexican mothers had lower median milk adiponectin concentrations at 1 mo than did the non-Hispanic white subjects from Cincinnati (11.5 and 19.8 ng/mL; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Adiponectin is present in human milk and its concentrations are associated with duration of lactation, maternal adiposity, and ethnicity. Given the importance of adiponectin in inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid metabolism, future studies should examine milk adiponectin's role in infant metabolic development.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/análise , Leite Humano/química , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leptina/análise , Estudos Longitudinais , México , Ohio , Período Pós-Parto , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Hum Lact ; 21(1): 59-66, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15681638

RESUMO

Although there are well-established clinical human milk banks in the United States, there are no milk banks specifically intended to foster research on human milk. The authors' goal was to establish a milk bank with a core data set to support exploratory and hypothesis-driven studies on human milk. Donations to the Cincinnati Children's Research Human Milk Bank are accepted within the context of ongoing, hypothesis-driven research or on an ad hoc basis. Donors must give informed consent, and scientists wishing to use the samples must have Institutional review board approval for their use. Development of more research human milk banks can potentially provide resources for multidisciplinary collaboration and advance the study of human milk and lactation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/fisiologia , Pesquisa , Adulto , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Estados Unidos
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