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Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 399, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409374


BACKGROUND: Sampling methodologies for mosquitoes that are capable of transmitting vector-borne infectious diseases provide critical information on entomological endpoints. Reliable and meaningful field data is vital to the understanding of basic vector biology as well as disease transmission. Various traps take advantage of different vector behaviors and are inevitably subject to sampling biases. This study represents the first comparison of kelambu traps (KT) to barrier screens (BS), barrier screens with eaves (BSE) and indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLCs). METHODS: Two trap comparison studies were undertaken. In the first study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 26 trapping nights to evaluate the kelambu trap relative to indoor and outdoor HLCs. In the second study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 12 trapping nights to compare the kelambu trap, barrier screen, barrier screen with eaves and outdoor HLCs. The kelambu trap, barrier screen and barrier screen with eaves obstruct the flight of mosquitos. HLCs target host-seeking behaviors. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor HLCs for overall Anopheles mosquito abundance. All five of the molecularly identified Anopheles species collected by HLCs, An. aconitus, An. barbirostris, An. peditaeniatus, An. vagus and An. tessellatus, are reported as vectors of malaria in Indonesia. The kelambu trap (n = 2736) collected significantly more Anopheles mosquitoes than indoor HLCs (n = 1286; Z = 3.193, P = 0.004), but not the outdoor HLCs (n = 1580; Z = 2.325, P = 0.053). All traps collected statistically similar abundances for the primary species, An. barbirostris. However, both comparison studies found significantly higher abundances for the kelambu trap for several secondary species compared to all other traps: An. nigerriumus, An. parangensis, An. tessellatus and An. vagus. The kelambu trap retained the highest species richness and Gini-Simpson's diversity index for both comparison studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the kelambu trap collects overall Anopheles abundance and species-specific abundances at statistically similar or higher rates than HLCs in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Therefore, the kelambu trap should be considered as an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for research questions regarding Anopheles species in this malaria endemic region.

Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Indonésia , Especificidade da Espécie
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 385, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370906


BACKGROUND: Population density, dispersion patterns, flight distances, and survival rate of vector mosquitoes are all contributors to vectorial capacity that may be estimated in a single experimental method: mark-release-recapture (MRR). In this study, these key parameters were measured for mosquito populations in Karama, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. METHODS: Two mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments were carried out in Karama village to characterize seasonality differences, if any: wet season (December 2013, MRR1) and dry season (May 2014, MRR2). For both experiments, mosquitoes were marked according to release site/date and were released on four consecutive nights. Four sampling methodologies were utilized to enable recapture: human landing catches (HLCs), kelambu traps and barrier screens. RESULTS: 98.7% of all catches were molecularly confirmed as Anopheles barbirostris. During the wet season, An. barbirostris demonstrated no preference toward endophagy. In the dry season, An. barbirostris demonstrated an endophagic preference. The duration of the feeding cycle for An. barbirostris was determined to be 5 days during the wet season and 3.7 days during the dry season, though an anomaly likely caused the wet season feeding cycle to be overestimated. The largest percentages of recaptured mosquitoes were collected in a single site during both seasons. The only significant relationship with mosquito dispersal was site of release and recapture. Finally, dispersal rates of An. barbirostris frequently ranged up to 800 m (the maximum measurable distance in this study) within a single day of release. CONCLUSIONS: This study estimated key vector parameters for An. barbirostris an understudied species complex, in Karama, West Sulawesi, Indonesia. Despite the length of the feeding cycle, the high indoor biting rates demonstrated by An. barbirostris in Karama suggest that the use of IRSs and LLINs, especially during the dry season, would have a substantial impact on the panmictic An. barbirostris population.

Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Indonésia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 606, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482239


BACKGROUND: Decisions on when vector control can be withdrawn after malaria is eliminated depend on the receptivity or potential of an area to support vector populations. To guide malaria control and elimination programmes, the potential of biting rates, sporozoite rates, entomological inoculation rates and parity rates to estimate malaria receptivity and transmission were compared within and among geographically localised villages of active transmission in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. RESULTS: Malaria transmission and transmission potential was heterogeneous in both time and space both among and within villages as defined by anopheline species composition and biting densities. Biting rates during the peak biting period (from 18:00 to 00:00 h) of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, ranged from less than 0.3 bites per person per half night in low receptivity villages to 26 bites per person in highly receptive villages. Within villages, sites with high anopheline biting rates were significantly clustered. Sporozoite rates provided evidence for continued transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale by An. farauti and for incriminating An. hinesorum, as a minor vector, but were unreliable as indicators of transmission intensity. CONCLUSIONS: In the low transmission area studied, sporozoite, entomological inoculation and parity rates could not be measured with the precision required to provide guidance to malaria programmes. Receptivity and potential transmission risk may be most reliably estimated by the vector biting rate. These results support the meaningful design of operational research programmes to ensure that resources are focused on providing information that can be utilised by malaria control programmes to best understand both transmission, transmission risk and receptivity across different areas.

Anopheles/fisiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 440, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064507


BACKGROUND: Mosquito sampling methods target different aspects of mosquito behavior and are subject to trap and location specific biases. The barrier screen sampling method was developed and tested to sample free-flying, blood-fed, and host-seeking mosquitoes. During a pilot study, this method was useful in obtaining an unbiased sample of mosquitoes flying between outdoor larval habitats, and sites where blood meals were obtained. However, a relatively small number of blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Indonesia during the pilot study. The sampling method was extended in South Lampung, Indonesia, to enable the collection of blood-fed mosquitoes. This study aimed to intercept mosquitoes flying between human habitations and larval habitats with a barrier screen and to characterize mosquito composition, flight characteristics (direction, height and time), abdominal status, and parity. RESULTS: Barrier screens intercepted 15 different mosquito species in South Lampung: eight Anopheles spp. and seven Culex spp. Species compositions varied among the villages in South Lampung. About 15% of Anopheles spp. caught were blood-fed, of which 28.2% of those tested had fed on humans. This is the first time human blood-fed anophelines have been collected in Indonesia using barrier screens. Blood meals identified included cow, dog, goat, and human, as well as mixed blood meals. Activity of unfed An. subpictus, the primary vector collected, flying towards human habitations peaked between 20:00-12:00 h, with a slow decline in activity until 18:00 h. Unfed and fed An. sundaicus, had a different activity profile compared to An. subpictus. Other species demonstrated varied peak activity times, with earlier activity occurring as a general trend. For the Anopheles mosquitoes collected, 55.5% were collected below 0.5 m and 83.9% were captured resting < 1 m from the ground. Parity dissections enabled age structure by species, which revealed species-specific traits such as nulliparous An. subpictus being more active early in the night relative to An. sundaicus. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that barrier screens are an effective mosquito sampling method that can be used to gain insights into local mosquito species composition, flight characteristics (direction, height and time), abdominal status, and parity.

Anopheles/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Culex/fisiologia , Abdome , Animais , Sangue , Feminino , Indonésia , Projetos Piloto , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo