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2.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109638, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586743

RESUMO

The application of biochar to soil combined with synthetic fertilizers has been proposed for enhancing N availability to plants and crop yields while reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. However, little is known about those interactions for tropical soils. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of sugarcane straw biochar on tropical soil attributes, crop productivity, N2O emissions and N use efficiency. It was conducted a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat cultivation using a15N-labelled source (NH415NO3). The treatments evaluated were: Soil, with N, no biochar; Soil, with N and biochar at rates equivalent to 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.9% (w/w); and a control (soil only). Increasing biochar amendments decreased cumulative N2O emissions by 71% compared to the fertilized, no-biochar soil. Moreover, increasing biochar rates to soil increased available P up to 30% and led to 8-fold higher exchangeable K+ concentrations. Grain yield and shoot biomass increased by 27 and 16%, respectively, with the rate of 1.9% biochar to soil, which also resulted in higher tillering and number of heads compared to fertilized, no-biochar soil. The amount of 15N in grains was 28% higher with 0.8 and 1.9% of biochar compared to no-biochar soil, which correspond to 25% of the total 15N-labelled fertilizer applied to soil. The 15N loss by volatilization did not differ between treatments. Nevertheless, the biochar amended soils produced less N2O than the no-biochar treatment, indicating that biochar amendment to tropical soil led to gaseous N losses in forms other than N2O. The application of biochar to soil improved N utilization and the efficiency with which N is acquired by the plants and converted to grain yield, thereby enhancing crop performance, while simultaneously reducing N2O emissions from N fertilization, thus mitigating GHG emissions to the atmosphere under tropical conditions.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso , Solo , Agricultura , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Estações do Ano , Triticum
3.
Glob Change Biol Bioenergy ; 10(3): 150-164, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497458

RESUMO

Perennial bioenergy crops have significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation by substituting for fossil fuels; yet delivering significant GHG savings will require substantial land-use change, globally. Over the last decade, research has delivered improved understanding of the environmental benefits and risks of this transition to perennial bioenergy crops, addressing concerns that the impacts of land conversion to perennial bioenergy crops could result in increased rather than decreased GHG emissions. For policymakers to assess the most cost-effective and sustainable options for deployment and climate change mitigation, synthesis of these studies is needed to support evidence-based decision making. In 2015, a workshop was convened with researchers, policymakers and industry/business representatives from the UK, EU and internationally. Outcomes from global research on bioenergy land-use change were compared to identify areas of consensus, key uncertainties, and research priorities. Here, we discuss the strength of evidence for and against six consensus statements summarising the effects of land-use change to perennial bioenergy crops on the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and water, in the context of the whole life-cycle of bioenergy production. Our analysis suggests that the direct impacts of dedicated perennial bioenergy crops on soil carbon and nitrous oxide are increasingly well understood and are often consistent with significant life cycle GHG mitigation from bioenergy relative to conventional energy sources. We conclude that the GHG balance of perennial bioenergy crop cultivation will often be favourable, with maximum GHG savings achieved where crops are grown on soils with low carbon stocks and conservative nutrient application, accruing additional environmental benefits such as improved water quality. The analysis reported here demonstrates there is a mature and increasingly comprehensive evidence base on the environmental benefits and risks of bioenergy cultivation which can support the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 563-564: 160-8, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135579

RESUMO

Land use changes (LUC) from pasture to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop are expected to add 6.4Mha of new sugarcane land by 2021 in the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. We assessed the effects of these LUC on the abundance and community structure of animals that inhabit soils belowground through a field survey using chronosequences of land uses comprising native vegetation, pasture, and sugarcane along a 1000-km-long transect across these two major tropical biomes in Brazil. Macrofauna community composition differed among land uses. While most groups were associated with samples taken in native vegetation, high abundance of termites and earthworms appeared associated with pasture soils. Linear mixed effects analysis showed that LUC affected total abundance (X(2)(1)=6.79, p=0.03) and taxa richness (X(2)(1)=6.08, p=0.04) of soil macrofauna. Abundance increased from 411±70individualsm(-2) in native vegetation to 1111±202individualsm(-2) in pasture, but decreased sharply to 106±24individualsm(-2) in sugarcane soils. Diversity decreased 24% from native vegetation to pasture, and 39% from pasture to sugarcane. Thus, a reduction of ~90% in soil macrofauna abundance, besides a loss of ~40% in the diversity of macrofauna groups, can be expected when sugarcane crops replace pasture in Brazilian tropical soils. In general, higher abundances of major macrofauna groups (ants, coleopterans, earthworms, and termites) were associated with higher acidity and low contents of macronutrients and organic matter in soil. This study draws attention for a significant biodiversity loss belowground due to tropical LUC in sugarcane expansion areas. Given that many groups of soil macrofauna are recognized as key mediators of ecosystem processes such as soil aggregation, nutrients cycling and soil carbon storage, our results warrant further efforts to understand the impacts of altering belowground biodiversity and composition on soil functioning and agriculture performance across LUC in the tropics.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Animais , Brasil , Insetos/fisiologia , Oligoquetos/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0150860, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26938642

RESUMO

Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical, physical and biological processes within the soil. Our SQ evaluations also suggest that current approaches for expanding Brazilian sugarcane production by converting degraded pasture land to cropland can be a sustainable strategy for meeting increasing biofuel demand. However, management practices that alleviate negative impacts on soil physical and biological indicators must be prioritized within sugarcane producing areas to prevent unintentional SQ degradation over time.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Algoritmos , Biocombustíveis , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Estatísticos , Dinâmica não Linear , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 515-516: 30-8, 2015 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25688522

RESUMO

Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central-Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1). These findings added to decreases in (15)N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha(-1)yr(-1) totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased (15)N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO2 balance of sugarcane ethanol.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Brasil , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema
7.
Ecol Lett ; 11(12): 1316-27, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19046360

RESUMO

In the short-term heterotrophic soil respiration is strongly and positively related to temperature. In the long-term, its response to temperature is uncertain. One reason for this is because in field experiments increases in respiration due to warming are relatively short-lived. The explanations proposed for this ephemeral response include depletion of fast-cycling, soil carbon pools and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Using a > 15 year soil warming experiment in a mid-latitude forest, we show that the apparent 'acclimation' of soil respiration at the ecosystem scale results from combined effects of reductions in soil carbon pools and microbial biomass, and thermal adaptation of microbial respiration. Mass-specific respiration rates were lower when seasonal temperatures were higher, suggesting that rate reductions under experimental warming likely occurred through temperature-induced changes in the microbial community. Our results imply that stimulatory effects of global temperature rise on soil respiration rates may be lower than currently predicted.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Microbiologia do Solo , Biomassa , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Solo/análise
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 71(4): 1923-30, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15812021

RESUMO

The production of N2 gas via anammox was investigated in sediment slurries at in situ NO2- concentrations in the presence and absence of NO3-. With single enrichment above 10 microM 14NO2- or 14NO3- and 15NH4+, anammox activity was always linear (P < 0.05), in agreement with previous findings. In contrast, anammox exhibited a range of activity below 10 microM NO2- or NO3-, including an elevated response at lower concentrations. With 100 microM NO3-, no significant transient accumulation of NO2- could be measured, and the starting concentration of NO2- could therefore be regulated. With dual enrichment (1 to 20 microM NO2- plus 100 microM NO3-), there was a pronounced nonlinear response in anammox activity. Maximal activity occurred between 2 and 5 microM NO2-, but the amplitude of this peak varied across the study (November 2003 to June 2004). Anammox accounted for as much as 82% of the NO2- added at 1 microM in November 2003 but only for 15% in May 2004 and for 26 and 5% of the NO2- added at 5 microM for these two months, respectively. Decreasing the concentration of NO3- but holding NO2- at 5 microM decreased the significance of anammox as a sink for NO2-. The behavior of anammox was explored by use of a simple anammox-denitrification model, and the concept of a biphasic system for anammox in estuarine sediments is proposed. Overall, anammox is likely to be regulated by the availability of NO3- and NO2- and the relative size or activity of the anammox population.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Anaerobiose , Bactérias Anaeróbias/enzimologia , Bactérias Anaeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrato Redutases/metabolismo , Nitrito Redutases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Rios/química
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