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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401288

RESUMO

Shellfish allergy affects a substantial proportion of US adults, many of whom develop the disease during adulthood. Crustacean and mollusk allergies have different manifestations including differing symptomatology, geographic distribution, and are often not comorbid.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is a rapid-onset, multisystem, and potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction with varied reports of prevalence, incidence, and mortality. There are limited cases reported of severe and/or fatal pediatric anaphylaxis. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the largest cohort of intensive care unit pediatric anaphylaxis admissions with a comprehensive analysis of identified triggers, clinical and demographic information, and probability of death. METHODS: We describe the epidemiology of pediatric anaphylaxis admissions to North American pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) that were prospectively enrolled in the Virtual Pediatric Systems database from 2010 to 2015. One hundred thirty-one PICUs in North America (United States and Canada) were queried for anaphylaxis International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes from the Virtual Pediatric Systems database from 2010 to 2015 in the United States and Canada. One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine patients younger than 18 years were identified out of 604,279 total number of patients admitted to a PICU in the database during this time frame. RESULTS: The primary outcome was mortality, which was compared with patient and admission data using Fisher exact test. Secondary outcomes (intubation, length of stay, mortality risk scores, systolic blood pressure, and pupillary reflex) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as appropriate. One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine patients with an anaphylaxis International Classification of Diseases code were identified in the database. One percent of patients died because of critical anaphylaxis. Identified triggers for fatal cases were peanuts, milk, and blood products. Peanuts were the most common trigger. Children were mostly male when younger than 13 years, and mostly female when 13 years and older. Average length of stay was 2 days. There was a higher proportion of Asian patients younger than 2 years or when the trigger was food. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to describe pediatric critical anaphylaxis cases in North America and identifies food as the most common trigger. Death occurs in 1% of cases, with intubation occurring most commonly in the first hour. The risk for intensive care unit admission in children underscores the serious nature of anaphylaxis in this population.

5.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 122(4): 407-411, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an infrequent non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal allergic disorder that occurs mostly in infants and young children. FPIES food triggers vary among different geographic locations, and the condition is still underdiagnosed and underrecognized. OBJECTIVE: To identify the triggers, characteristics, and management of FPIES in a pediatric US population of 74 children presenting to a tertiary center during a 3-year period. METHODS: We performed a retrospective electronic record review of all pediatric patients with a diagnosis of FPIES who presented to Texas Children's Hospital emergency centers and clinics. RESULTS: Most of our patients were white, and 65% had a positive family history of atopy. The median age at the first FPIES episode was 5 months (interquartile range, 4-6 months), and the median age at diagnosis was 11 months (interquartile range, 7-16 months). Grains (88%), cow's milk (49%), and vegetables (43%) were the most common food triggers in our cohort. Of the fruits, banana (24%) and avocado (16%) were predominantly reported. More than half of our patients experienced FPIES to multiple food triggers. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, rice (53%) was the most common individual food trigger, surpassing cow's milk and soybean, previously reported as the most prevalent FPIES triggers in the United States. Banana (24%) and avocado (16%) rates were also much higher than in other studied populations, likely a reflection of different dietary and weaning habits in our area. Time from disease presentation to diagnosis was delayed, potentially because of difficulties in disease recognition. We noted a significant percentage of multiple-food FPIES in contrast to other populations.

6.
JAMA ; 321(10): 946-955, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794314

RESUMO

Importance: There are currently no approved treatments for peanut allergy. Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse events of epicutaneous immunotherapy with a peanut patch among peanut-allergic children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 31 sites in 5 countries between January 8, 2016, and August 18, 2017. Participants included peanut-allergic children (aged 4-11 years [n = 356] without a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction) developing objective symptoms during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge at an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein. Interventions: Daily treatment with peanut patch containing either 250 µg of peanut protein (n = 238) or placebo (n = 118) for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the percentage difference in responders between the peanut patch and placebo patch based on eliciting dose (highest dose at which objective signs/symptoms of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction developed) determined by food challenges at baseline and month 12. Participants with baseline eliciting dose of 10 mg or less were responders if the posttreatment eliciting dose was 300 mg or more; participants with baseline eliciting dose greater than 10 to 300 mg were responders if the posttreatment eliciting dose was 1000 mg or more. A threshold of 15% or more on the lower bound of a 95% CI around responder rate difference was prespecified to determine a positive trial result. Adverse event evaluation included collection of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: Among 356 participants randomized (median age, 7 years; 61.2% male), 89.9% completed the trial; the mean treatment adherence was 98.5%. The responder rate was 35.3% with peanut-patch treatment vs 13.6% with placebo (difference, 21.7% [95% CI, 12.4%-29.8%; P < .001]). The prespecified lower bound of the CI threshold was not met. TEAEs, primarily patch application site reactions, occurred in 95.4% and 89% of active and placebo groups, respectively. The all-causes rate of discontinuation was 10.5% in the peanut-patch group vs 9.3% in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among peanut-allergic children aged 4 to 11 years, the percentage difference in responders at 12 months with the 250-µg peanut-patch therapy vs placebo was 21.7% and was statistically significant, but did not meet the prespecified lower bound of the confidence interval criterion for a positive trial result. The clinical relevance of not meeting this lower bound of the confidence interval with respect to the treatment of peanut-allergic children with epicutaneous immunotherapy remains to be determined. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02636699.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Arachis/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Adesivo Transdérmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370459

RESUMO

Food allergies are defined as adverse immune responses to food proteins that result in typical clinical symptoms involving the dermatologic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and/or neurologic systems. IgE-mediated food-allergic disease differs from non-IgE-mediated disease because the pathophysiology results from activation of the immune system, causing a T helper 2 response which results in IgE binding to Fcε receptors on effector cells like mast cells and basophils. The activation of these cells causes release of histamine and other preformed mediators, and rapid symptom onset, in contrast with non-IgE-mediated food allergy which is more delayed in onset. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy requires a history of classic clinical symptoms and evidence of food-specific IgE by either skin-prick or serum-specific IgE testing. Symptoms of IgE-mediated food allergies range from mild to severe. The severity of symptoms is not predicted by the level of specific IgE or skin test wheal size, but the likelihood of symptom onset is directly related. Diagnosis is excluded when a patient can ingest the suspected food without clinical symptoms and may require an in-office oral food challenge if testing for food-specific IgE by serum or skin testing is negative or low. Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of the clinical manifestation of IgE-mediated food allergy, and injectable epinephrine is the first-line treatment. Management of food allergies requires strict avoidance measures, counseling of the family about constant vigilance, and prompt treatment of allergic reactions with emergency medications. Guidelines have changed recently to include early introduction of peanuts at 4-6 months of life. Early introduction is recommended to prevent the development of peanut allergy. Future treatments for IgE-mediated food allergy evaluated in clinical trials include epicutaneous, sublingual, and oral immunotherapy.

8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 39(5): 377-383, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergen specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels predictive of shrimp allergy have not been identified, but these may be helpful in identifying patients at risk for shrimp-induced allergic reactions. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify component resolved diagnostic tests useful for diagnosis of shrimp allergy in patients with or without house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization to the major allergen cysteine protease (Der p 1). METHODS: Patients with positive skin-prick test (SPT) results and/or sIgE values were recruited. Shrimp allergy was classified by oral food challenge (OFC) or by a clear history of anaphylaxis after shrimp ingestion. Patients with shrimp allergy and patients who were tolerant were further classified based on HDM sensitivity (Der p 1 > 0.35 kUA/L). Testing for sIgE to total shrimp, and shrimp and HDM components was performed. The Fisher exact test, Wilcoxon sum rank test, and receiver operating characteristics analyses were used to compare sIgE levels in patients with allergy and patients who were tolerant. RESULTS: Of 79 patients recruited, 12 patients with shrimp allergy (7 with positive OFC results and 5 with a history of anaphylaxis) and 18 patients who were shrimp tolerant were enrolled. Of the patients not HDM sensitized, sIgE levels to shrimp (10.5 kUA/L, p = 0.012) and Der p 10 (4.09 kUA/L, p = 0.035) were higher in patients with shrimp allergy. Shrimp sIgE of ≥3.55 kUA/L had 100% diagnostic sensitivity and 85.7% specificity (receiver operating characteristic 0.94 [0.81, 1.0] 95% CI) and Der p 10 sIgE levels of ≥3.98 kUA/L had a diagnostic sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100% (receiver operating characteristic 0.86 [0.57, 1.0] 95% CI) for prediction of clinical reactivity. CONCLUSION: HDM sensitization influences shrimp and HDM component sIgE levels and, consequently, their diagnostic accuracy in shrimp allergy. In our series, in the patients who were non-HDM sensitized, a shrimp sIgE level of >3.55 kUA/L showed 100% sensitivity and, Der p 10 sIgE of >3.98 kUA/L showed 100% specificity for the diagnosis of shrimp allergy. These levels may not be applicable to every patient and, therefore, may not obviate the need for OFC.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 155(4): 1022-1033.e10, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Over the last decade, clinical experiences and research studies raised concerns regarding use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as part of the diagnostic strategy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to clarify the use of PPIs in the evaluation and treatment of children and adults with suspected EoE to develop updated international consensus criteria for EoE diagnosis. METHODS: A consensus conference was convened to address the issue of PPI use for esophageal eosinophilia using a process consistent with standards described in the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II. Pediatric and adult physicians and researchers from gastroenterology, allergy, and pathology subspecialties representing 14 countries used online communications, teleconferences, and a face-to-face meeting to review the literature and clinical experiences. RESULTS: Substantial evidence documented that PPIs reduce esophageal eosinophilia in children, adolescents, and adults, with several mechanisms potentially explaining the treatment effect. Based on these findings, an updated diagnostic algorithm for EoE was developed, with removal of the PPI trial requirement. CONCLUSIONS: EoE should be diagnosed when there are symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and at least 15 eosinophils per high-power field (or approximately 60 eosinophils per mm2) on esophageal biopsy and after a comprehensive assessment of non-EoE disorders that could cause or potentially contribute to esophageal eosinophilia. The evidence suggests that PPIs are better classified as a treatment for esophageal eosinophilia that may be due to EoE than as a diagnostic criterion, and we have developed updated consensus criteria for EoE that reflect this change.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório/normas , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Gastroenterologia/normas , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Algoritmos , Consenso , Esofagite Eosinofílica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos
10.
11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 63(9): 2163-2164, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675661
12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(5): 545-554, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbes have been shown to influence predisposition to atopic disease, including food allergy. The intestinal microbiome of food-allergic children may differ in significant ways from genetically similar non-allergic children and age-matched controls. The aim was to characterize fecal microbiomes to identify taxa that may influence the expression of food allergy. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from children with IgE-mediated food allergies, siblings without food allergy, and non-allergic controls. Stool microbiome characterization was performed via next-generation sequencing (Illumina) of the V1V3 and V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial diversity, evenness, richness, and relative abundance of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were evaluated using QIIME. ANOVA and Welch's t test were utilized to compare groups. RESULTS: Sixty-eight children were included: food-allergic (n = 22), non-food-allergic siblings (n = 25), and controls (n = 21). When comparing fecal microbial communities across groups, differences were noted in Rikenellaceae (P = .035), Actinomycetaceae (P = .043), and Pasteurellaceae (P = .018), and nine other distinct OTUs. Food-allergic subjects had enrichment for specific microbes within the Clostridia class and Firmicutes phylum (Oscillobacter valericigenes, Lachnoclostridium bolteae, Faecalibacterium sp.) compared to siblings and controls. Identification of Clostridium sp. OTUs revealed differences in specific Clostridia drive the separation of the allergic from the siblings and controls. Alistipes sp. were enriched in non-allergic siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons in the fecal microbiome of food-allergic children, siblings, and healthy children point to key differences in microbiome signatures, suggesting the role of both genetic and environmental contributors in the manifestation of food-allergic disease.

15.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 38(1): 53-64, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132674

RESUMO

The management of food allergies requires the cooperation of the food allergic person, physician, family, and social contacts. For children, school management of food allergies is a key component of the overall approach. Recognition of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions and preparation to administer the appropriate treatment of mild and severe symptoms in the event of accidental exposure is necessary. Avoidance of food allergens is facilitated by label reading and dietary guidance is extremely important to minimize nutritional deficiencies. Medications and vaccines with food-derived excipients generally do not need to be avoided because, in most cases, they contain little food protein.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Dietoterapia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Autoadministração
16.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 38(6): 467-473, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobulin E mediated food hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by profuse vomiting and diarrhea, which leads to lethargy, dehydration, and hypotension. Given the potential severity of reactions, resolution of FPIES is confirmed via oral food challenge (OFC) during which intravenous (IV) access is recommended to facilitate IV fluids (IVF) and steroid therapy. Risk factors for IV treatment are not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to analyze predictors for IV treatment during OFC in patients with FPIES. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 558.3 and 558.9, and with OFC who were seen in an allergy and immunology clinic from January 2000 to October 2015. OFC reaction severity was scored (1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe), and demographics, IV treatment frequency, and OFC outcomes were evaluated. The Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of 184 patients, 28 met inclusion criteria, with 39 OFCs performed. The median age of onset of FPIES was 6 months. The median age at OFC was 2.6 years. This was 2.2 years (range, 0.3-8.5 years) from symptom onset. Of 39 OFCs, IV treatment, including IVF and/or steroids, was required in only 7.7%. Thirty-eight OFCs (97.4%) were of equal or lesser severity than historical reactions. The median severity of presenting reaction (3[IV+]:1[IV-]; p = 0.05) was greater in those who required IV treatment. OFCs with IV treatment were in younger patients (15 months [IV+]:32 months [IV-]; p = 0.039) who underwent OFCs earlier relative to the time of diagnosis (8 months [IV+]:28 months [IV-]); p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Although FPIES can potentially elicit severe symptomatology, the patients most commonly experienced only vomiting and diarrhea, which often resolved with minimal treatment. Reactions generally did not worsen over time. Fewer than 10% of the patients challenged required IV treatment, all were young and with severe FPIES. It is reasonable to consider age and length of time from historical reactions when evaluating the necessity of IV placement in patients undergoing FPIES OFC.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Enterocolite/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Administração Intravenosa/normas , Administração Intravenosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/etiologia , Enterocolite/diagnóstico , Enterocolite/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco , Vômito/etiologia
17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 119(4): 339-348.e1, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous single-center studies report the rate of anaphylaxis for oral food challenges (OFCs) as 9% to 11%, little is known regarding the epidemiology of clinical OFCs across multiple centers in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiology, symptoms, and treatment of clinical low-risk OFCs in the nonresearch setting. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2008 to 2013 through a physician survey in 5 food allergy centers geographically distributed across the United States. Allergic reaction rates and the association of reaction rates with year, hospital, and demographics were determined using a linear mixed model. Meta-analysis was used to pool the proportion of reactions and anaphylaxis with inverse-variance weights using a random-effects model with exact confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 6,377 OFCs were performed, and the pooled estimate of anaphylaxis was 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%). The rate of allergic reactions was 14% (95% CI, 13%-16%) and was consistent during the study period (P = .40). Reaction rates ranged from 13% to 33%. Males reacted 16% more frequently than females (95% CI, 4%-37.5%; P = .04). Foods challenged in 2013 varied geographically, with peanut as the most challenged food in the Northeast, Midwest, and West and egg as the most challenged in the South. CONCLUSION: As the largest national survey of allergic reactions of clinical open OFCs in a nonresearch setting in the United States, this study found that performing clinical nonresearch open low-risk OFCs results in few allergic reactions, with 86% of challenges resulting in no reactions and 98% without anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/fisiopatologia , Arachis/química , Arachis/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Prevalência , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Testes Cutâneos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(11): 1698-1707.e7, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A 6-food elimination diet induces remission in most children and adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The effectiveness of empiric elimination of only 4 foods has not been studied in children. We performed a prospective observational outcome study in children with EoE treated with dietary exclusion of cow's milk, wheat, egg, and soy. The objective was to assess the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic efficacy of this treatment in EoE. METHODS: We recruited children (1-18 years old, diagnosed per consensus guidelines) from 4 medical centers. Study participants (n = 78) were given a proton pump inhibitor twice daily and underwent a baseline esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Subjects were instructed on dietary exclusion of cow's milk, wheat, egg, and soy. Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic assessments were made after 8 weeks. Responders had single foods reintroduced for 8 weeks, with repeat endoscopy to assess for recurrence of active disease. The primary endpoint was histologic remission (fewer than 15 eosinophils per high-powered field). Secondary endpoints included symptom and endoscopic improvements and identification of foods associated with active histologic disease. RESULTS: After 8 weeks on 4-food elimination diet, 50 subjects were in histologic remission (64%). The subjects' mean baseline clinical symptoms score was 4.5, which decreased to 2.3 after 8 weeks of 4-food elimination diet (P < .001). The mean endoscopic baseline score was 2.1, which decreased to 1.3 (P < .001). After food reintroduction, the most common food triggers that induced histologic inflammation were cow's milk (85%), egg (35%), wheat (33%), and soy (19%). One food trigger that induced recurrence of esophageal inflammation was identified in 62% of patients and cow's milk-induced EoE was present in 88% of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of children with EoE, 8 weeks of 4-food elimination diet induced clinical, endoscopic, and histologic remission in more than 60% of children with EoE. Although less restrictive than 6-food elimination diet, 4-food elimination diet was nearly as effective, and can be recommended as a treatment for children with EoE.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Adolescente , Animais , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Feminino , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 64(6): 933-938, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disorder characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into the esophagus. Primary treatment approaches include topical corticosteroids and/or food elimination. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of combination therapy (topical corticosteroid plus test-based food elimination [FS]) with single therapy (topical corticosteroid [S] or test-based food elimination [F]). METHODS: Chart review of patients with EoE at Texas Children's Hospital (age <21 years) was performed. Clinical and histological statuses were evaluated after a 3-month treatment with either single or combination therapy. Comparisons were analyzed using Fisher exact test, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 670 charts, 63 patients (1-21 years, median 10.3 years) with clinicopathologic diagnoses of EoE were identified. Combination FS therapy was provided to 51% (n = 32) and single treatment (S, F) to 27% (n = 17) or 22% (n = 14) of patients, respectively. Clinical responses were noted in 91% (n = 29), 71% (n = 12), and 64% (n = 14) of patients in the FS, S, and F groups, respectively. The odds of clinically improving were 4.6 times greater (95% confidence interval: 1.1-18.8) with combination versus single therapy. The median peak number of eosinophils per high-power field after 3-month therapy was not significantly different in the S, F, and FS groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of topical corticosteroids with specific food elimination is as effective in achieving clinical and histological remissions as the single-treatment approaches. Responses were achieved with the combination in patients who had previously failed single-agent therapy. Prospective research of this combination approach in young patients with EoE is needed.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dietoterapia/métodos , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Immunol Methods ; 447: 47-51, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434981

RESUMO

Modern immunologic studies demand increasing complexity because of a need to improve our understanding of the relationship between a cell's phenotype and its function. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been defined by a narrow set of phenotypic markers, however their actual functional capacity has not been determined at the single-cell level. Although the lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3; CD223) is a key marker for the identification of exhausted T cells, it may be useful also in resolving Treg subpopulations by indicating distinct functional breadths. Here we define the experimental conditions necessary for the optimal detection by flow cytometry of LAG-3 expression on activated Tregs. We stimulated human PBMCs with either PMA/ionomycin or Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) and analyzed CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs for LAG-3 expression in concert with other Treg phenotypic markers. We prescribe a 24-hour stimulation period for the optimal detection of LAG-3 on Tregs. Furthermore, we determine LAG-3 protein expression on Tregs is compromised when the cells are treated with brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin. Therefore, the simultaneous assessment of Treg phenotype and function is complicated by the use of protein transport inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Brefeldina A/farmacologia , Monensin/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo , Enterotoxinas/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Transporte Proteico
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