Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 74
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705726

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) comprise a large number of inherited metabolic defects that affect the biosynthesis and attachment of glycans. CDGs manifest as a broad spectrum of disease, most often including neurodevelopmental and skeletal abnormalities and skin laxity. Two patients with biallelic CSGALNACT1 variants and a mild skeletal dysplasia have been described previously. We investigated two unrelated patients presenting with short stature with advanced bone age, facial dysmorphism, and mild language delay, in whom trio-exome sequencing identified novel biallelic CSGALNACT1 variants: compound heterozygosity for c.1294G>T (p.Asp432Tyr) and the deletion of exon 4 that includes the start codon in one patient, and homozygosity for c.791A>G (p.Asn264Ser) in the other patient. CSGALNACT1 encodes CSGalNAcT-1, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. Biochemical studies demonstrated significantly reduced CSGalNAcT-1 activity of the novel missense variants, as reported previously for the p.Pro384Arg variant. Altered levels of chondroitin, dermatan, and heparan sulfate moieties were observed in patients' fibroblasts compared to controls. Our data indicate that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CSGALNACT1 disturb glycosaminoglycan synthesis and cause a mild skeletal dysplasia with advanced bone age, CSGALNACT1-CDG.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 974-986, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668702

RESUMO

The advent of inexpensive, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has led to the accumulation of genetic data from thousands of samples from individuals affected with a wide range of diseases, but for whom the underlying genetic and molecular etiology of their clinical phenotype remains unknown. In many cases, detailed phenotypes are unavailable or poorly recorded and there is little family history to guide study. To accelerate discovery, we integrated ES data from 18,696 individuals referred for suspected Mendelian disease, together with relatives, in an Apache Hadoop data lake (Hadoop Architecture Lake of Exomes [HARLEE]) and implemented a genocentric analysis that rapidly identified 154 genes harboring variants suspected to cause Mendelian disorders. The approach did not rely on case-specific phenotypic classifications but was driven by optimization of gene- and variant-level filter parameters utilizing historical Mendelian disease-gene association discovery data. Variants in 19 of the 154 candidate genes were subsequently reported as causative of a Mendelian trait and additional data support the association of all other candidate genes with disease endpoints.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550240

RESUMO

Inherited optic neuropathies include complex phenotypes, mostly driven by mitochondrial dysfunction. We report an optic atrophy spectrum disorder, including retinal macular dystrophy and kidney insufficiency leading to transplantation, associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion without accumulation of multiple deletions. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations affecting the mitochondrial single-strand binding protein (SSBP1) in 4 families with dominant and 1 with recessive inheritance. We show that SSBP1 mutations in patient-derived fibroblasts variably affect the amount of SSBP1 protein and alter multimer formation, but not the binding to ssDNA. SSBP1 mutations impaired mtDNA, nucleoids, and 7S-DNA amounts as well as mtDNA replication, affecting replisome machinery. The variable mtDNA depletion in cells was reflected in severity of mitochondrial dysfunction, including respiratory efficiency, OXPHOS subunits, and complex amount and assembly. mtDNA depletion and cytochrome c oxidase-negative cells were found ex vivo in biopsies of affected tissues, such as kidney and skeletal muscle. Reduced efficiency of mtDNA replication was also reproduced in vitro, confirming the pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, ssbp1 suppression in zebrafish induced signs of nephropathy and reduced optic nerve size, the latter phenotype complemented by WT mRNA but not by SSBP1 mutant transcripts. This previously unrecognized disease of mtDNA maintenance implicates SSBP1 mutations as a cause of human pathology.

4.
Cell Rep ; 28(13): 3320-3328.e4, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553903

RESUMO

A copy-number variant (CNV) of 16p11.2 encompassing 30 genes is associated with developmental and psychiatric disorders, head size, and body mass. The genetic mechanisms that underlie these associations are not understood. To determine the influence of 16p11.2 genes on development, we investigated the effects of CNV on craniofacial structure in humans and model organisms. We show that deletion and duplication of 16p11.2 have "mirror" effects on specific craniofacial features that are conserved between human and rodent models of the CNV. By testing dosage effects of individual genes on the shape of the mandible in zebrafish, we identify seven genes with significant effects individually and find evidence for others when genes were tested in combination. The craniofacial phenotypes of 16p11.2 CNVs represent a model for studying the effects of genes on development, and our results suggest that the associated facial gestalts are attributable to the combined effects of multiple genes.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158233

RESUMO

Kidney failure occurs in 5-13% of individuals with sickle cell disease and is associated with early mortality. Two APOL1 alleles (G1 and G2) have been identified as risk factors for sickle cell disease nephropathy. Both risk alleles are prevalent in individuals with recent African ancestry and have been associated with nephropathic complications in other diseases. Despite the association of G1 and G2 with kidney dysfunction, the mechanisms by which these variants contribute to increased risk remain poorly understood. Previous work in zebrafish models suggest that the G2 risk allele functions as a dominant negative, whereas the G1 allele is a functional null. To understand better the cellular pathology attributed to APOL1 G2, we investigated the in vivo effects of the G2 risk variant on distinct cell types using RNA sequencing. We surveyed APOL1 G2 associated transcriptomic alterations in podocytes and vascular endothelial cells isolated from zebrafish larvae expressing cell-type specific reporters. Our analysis identified many transcripts (n = 7,523) showing differential expression between APOL1 G0 (human wild-type) and APOL1 G2 exposed podocytes. Conversely, relatively few transcripts (n = 107) were differentially expressed when comparing APOL1 G0 and APOL1 G2 exposed endothelial cells. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed transcripts in podocytes showed enrichment for autophagy associated terms such as "Lysosome" and "Phagosome", implicating these pathways in APOL1 G2 associated kidney dysfunction. This work provides insight into the molecular pathology of APOL1 G2 nephropathy which may offer new therapeutic strategies for multiple disease contexts such as sickle cell nephropathy.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1233-1240, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130285

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by distinctive craniofacial appearance, short stature, and congenital heart disease. Approximately 80% of individuals with NS harbor mutations in genes whose products are involved in the RAS/mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, the underlying genetic causes in nearly 20% of individuals with NS phenotype remain unexplained. Here, we report four de novo RRAS2 variants in three individuals with NS. RRAS2 is a member of the RAS subfamily and is ubiquitously expressed. Three variants, c.70_78dup (p.Gly24_Gly26dup), c.216A>T (p.Gln72His), and c.215A>T (p.Gln72Leu), have been found in cancers; our functional analyses showed that these three changes induced elevated association of RAF1 and that they activated ERK1/2 and ELK1. Notably, prominent activation of ERK1/2 and ELK1 by p.Gln72Leu associates with the severe phenotype of the individual harboring this change. To examine variant pathogenicity in vivo, we generated zebrafish models. Larvae overexpressing c.70_78dup (p.Gly24_Gly26dup) or c.216A>T (p.Gln72His) variants, but not wild-type RRAS2 RNAs, showed craniofacial defects and macrocephaly. The same dose injection of mRNA encoding c.215A>T (p.Gln72Leu) caused severe developmental impairments and low dose overexpression of this variant induced craniofacial defects. In contrast, the RRAS2 c.224T>G (p.Phe75Cys) change, located on the same allele with p.Gln72His in an individual with NS, resulted in no aberrant in vitro or in vivo phenotypes by itself. Together, our findings suggest that activating RRAS2 mutations can cause NS and expand the involvement of RRAS2 proto-oncogene to rare germline disorders.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1073-1087, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079899

RESUMO

Cargo transport along the cytoplasmic microtubular network is essential for neuronal function, and cytoplasmic dynein-1 is an established molecular motor that is critical for neurogenesis and homeostasis. We performed whole-exome sequencing, homozygosity mapping, and chromosomal microarray studies in five individuals from three independent pedigrees and identified likely-pathogenic variants in DYNC1I2 (Dynein Cytoplasmic 1 Intermediate Chain 2), encoding a component of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 complex. In a consanguineous Pakistani family with three affected individuals presenting with microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, simplification of cerebral gyration, corpus callosum hypoplasia, and dysmorphic facial features, we identified a homozygous splice donor site variant (GenBank: NM_001378.2:c.607+1G>A). We report two additional individuals who have similar neurodevelopmental deficits and craniofacial features and harbor deleterious variants; one individual bears a c.740A>G (p.Tyr247Cys) change in trans with a 374 kb deletion encompassing DYNC1I2, and an unrelated individual harbors the compound-heterozygous variants c.868C>T (p.Gln290∗) and c.740A>G (p.Tyr247Cys). Zebrafish larvae subjected to CRISPR-Cas9 gene disruption or transient suppression of dync1i2a displayed significantly altered craniofacial patterning with concomitant reduction in head size. We monitored cell death and cell cycle progression in dync1i2a zebrafish models and observed significantly increased apoptosis, likely due to prolonged mitosis caused by abnormal spindle morphology, and this finding offers initial insights into the cellular basis of microcephaly. Additionally, complementation studies in zebrafish demonstrate that p.Tyr247Cys attenuates gene function, consistent with protein structural analysis. Our genetic and functional data indicate that DYNC1I2 dysfunction probably causes an autosomal-recessive microcephaly syndrome and highlight further the critical roles of the dynein-1 complex in neurodevelopment.

8.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2532-2542, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to characterize the clinical features of a novel cohort of affected individuals with variants in ZNF142, a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. METHODS: Four independent research centers used exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic basis of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in four unrelated families. Following bioinformatic filtering, query of control data sets, and secondary variant confirmation, we aggregated findings using an online data sharing platform. We performed in-depth clinical phenotyping in all affected individuals. RESULTS: We identified seven affected females in four pedigrees with likely pathogenic variants in ZNF142 that segregate with recessive disease. Affected cases in three families harbor either nonsense or frameshifting likely pathogenic variants predicted to undergo nonsense mediated decay. One additional trio bears ultrarare missense variants in conserved regions of ZNF142 that are predicted to be damaging to protein function. We performed clinical comparisons across our cohort and noted consistent presence of intellectual disability and speech impairment, with variable manifestation of seizures, tremor, and dystonia. CONCLUSION: Our aggregate data support a role for ZNF142 in nervous system development and add to the emergent list of zinc finger proteins that contribute to neurocognitive disorders.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 94-111, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609410

RESUMO

The use of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing has been a catalyst for a genotype-first approach to diagnostics. Under this paradigm, we have implemented systematic sequencing of neonates and young children with a suspected genetic disorder. Here, we report on two families with recessive mutations in NCAPG2 and overlapping clinical phenotypes that include severe neurodevelopmental defects, failure to thrive, ocular abnormalities, and defects in urogenital and limb morphogenesis. NCAPG2 encodes a member of the condensin II complex, necessary for the condensation of chromosomes prior to cell division. Consistent with a causal role for NCAPG2, we found abnormal chromosome condensation, augmented anaphase chromatin-bridge formation, and micronuclei in daughter cells of proband skin fibroblasts. To test the functional relevance of the discovered variants, we generated an ncapg2 zebrafish model. Morphants displayed clinically relevant phenotypes, such as renal anomalies, microcephaly, and concomitant increases in apoptosis and altered mitotic progression. These could be rescued by wild-type but not mutant human NCAPG2 mRNA and were recapitulated in CRISPR-Cas9 F0 mutants. Finally, we noted that the individual with a complex urogenital defect also harbored a heterozygous NPHP1 deletion, a common contributor to nephronophthisis. To test whether sensitization at the NPHP1 locus might contribute to a more severe renal phenotype, we co-suppressed nphp1 and ncapg2, which resulted in significantly more dysplastic renal tubules in zebrafish larvae. Together, our data suggest that impaired function of NCAPG2 results in a severe condensinopathy, and they highlight the potential utility of examining candidate pathogenic lesions beyond the primary disease locus.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 55: 139-149, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138887

RESUMO

Cilia are microtubule-based appendages present on almost all vertebrate cell types where they mediate a myriad of cellular processes critical for development and homeostasis. In humans, impaired ciliary function is associated with an ever-expanding repertoire of phenotypically-overlapping yet highly variable genetic disorders, the ciliopathies. Extensive work to elucidate the structure, function, and composition of the cilium is offering hints that the `static' representation of the cilium is a gross oversimplification of a highly dynamic organelle whose functions are choreographed dynamically across cell types, developmental, and homeostatic contexts. Understanding this diversity will require discerning ciliary versus non-ciliary roles for classically-defined `ciliary' proteins; defining ciliary protein-protein interaction networks within and beyond the cilium; and resolving the spatiotemporal diversity of ciliary structure and function. Here, focusing on one evolutionarily conserved ciliary module, the intraflagellar transport system, we explore these ideas and propose potential future studies that will improve our knowledge gaps of the oversimplified cilium and, by extension, inform the reasons that underscore the striking range of clinical pathologies associated with ciliary dysfunction.

12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(8): 2110-2122, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that mutations in the anillin (ANLN) gene cause familial forms of FSGS. ANLN is an F-actin binding protein that modulates podocyte cell motility and interacts with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway through the slit diaphragm adaptor protein CD2-associated protein (CD2AP). However, it is unclear how the ANLN mutations cause the FSGS phenotype. We hypothesized that the R431C mutation exerts its pathogenic effects by uncoupling ANLN from CD2AP. METHODS: We conducted in vivo complementation assays in zebrafish to determine the effect of the previously identified missense ANLN variants, ANLNR431C and ANLNG618C during development. We also performed in vitro functional assays using human podocyte cell lines stably expressing wild-type ANLN (ANLNWT ) or ANLNR431C . RESULTS: Experiments in anln-deficient zebrafish embryos showed a loss-of-function effect for each ANLN variant. In human podocyte lines, expression of ANLNR431C increased cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Biochemical characterization of ANLNR431C -expressing podocytes revealed hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/Rac1 signaling axis and activation of mTOR-driven endoplasmic reticulum stress in ANLNR431C -expressing podocytes. Inhibition of mTOR, GSK-3ß, Rac1, or calcineurin ameliorated the effects of ANLNR431C . Additionally, inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway reduced the expression of endogenous ANLN and mTOR. CONCLUSIONS: The ANLNR431C mutation causes multiple derangements in podocyte function through hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/Rac1 signaling. Our findings suggest that the benefits of calcineurin inhibition in FSGS may be due, in part, to the suppression of ANLN and mTOR. Moreover, these studies illustrate that rational therapeutic targets for familial FSGS can be identified through biochemical characterization of dysregulated podocyte phenotypes.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10779, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018450

RESUMO

Kabuki Syndrome (KS) is a rare disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, skeletal abnormalities, and neurodevelopmental deficits. Previously, we showed that loss of function of RAP1A, a RAF1 regulator, can activate the RAS/MAPK pathway and cause KS, an observation recapitulated in other genetic models of the disorder. These data suggested that suppression of this signaling cascade might be of therapeutic benefit for some features of KS. To pursue this possibility, we performed a focused small molecule screen of a series of RAS/MAPK pathway inhibitors, where we tested their ability to rescue disease-relevant phenotypes in a zebrafish model of the most common KS locus, kmt2d. Consistent with a pathway-driven screening paradigm, two of 27 compounds showed reproducible rescue of early developmental pathologies. Further analyses showed that one compound, desmethyl-Dabrafenib (dmDf), induced no overt pathologies in zebrafish embryos but could rescue MEK hyperactivation in vivo and, concomitantly, structural KS-relevant phenotypes in all KS zebrafish models (kmt2d, kmd6a and rap1). Mass spectrometry quantitation suggested that a 100 nM dose resulted in sub-nanomolar exposure of this inhibitor and was sufficient to rescue both mandibular and neurodevelopmental defects. Crucially, germline kmt2d mutants recapitulated the gastrulation movement defects, micrognathia and neurogenesis phenotypes of transient models; treatment with dmDf ameliorated all of them significantly. Taken together, our data reinforce a causal link between MEK hyperactivation and KS and suggest that chemical suppression of BRAF might be of potential clinical utility for some features of this disorder.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 993-1001, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691940

RESUMO

Mutations in CASK cause a wide spectrum of phenotypes in humans ranging from mild X-linked intellectual disability to a severe microcephaly (MC) and pontocerebellar hypoplasia syndrome. Nevertheless, predicting pathogenicity and phenotypic consequences of novel CASK mutations through the exclusive consideration of genetic information and population-based data remains a challenge. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified four novel CASK mutations in individuals with syndromic MC. To understand the functional consequences of the different point mutations on the development of MC and cerebellar defects, we established a transient loss-of-function zebrafish model, and demonstrate recapitulation of relevant neuroanatomical phenotypes. Furthermore, we utilized in vivo complementation studies to demonstrate that the three point mutations confer a loss-of-function effect. This work endorses zebrafish as a tractable model to rapidly assess the effect of novel CASK variants on brain development.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 789-802, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100090

RESUMO

Renal agenesis and hypodysplasia (RHD) are major causes of pediatric chronic kidney disease and are highly genetically heterogeneous. We conducted whole-exome sequencing in 202 case subjects with RHD and identified diagnostic mutations in genes known to be associated with RHD in 7/202 case subjects. In an additional affected individual with RHD and a congenital heart defect, we found a homozygous loss-of-function (LOF) variant in SLIT3, recapitulating phenotypes reported with Slit3 inactivation in the mouse. To identify genes associated with RHD, we performed an exome-wide association study with 195 unresolved case subjects and 6,905 control subjects. The top signal resided in GREB1L, a gene implicated previously in Hoxb1 and Shha signaling in zebrafish. The significance of the association, which was p = 2.0 × 10-5 for novel LOF, increased to p = 4.1 × 10-6 for LOF and deleterious missense variants combined, and augmented further after accounting for segregation and de novo inheritance of rare variants (joint p = 2.3 × 10-7). Finally, CRISPR/Cas9 disruption or knockdown of greb1l in zebrafish caused specific pronephric defects, which were rescued by wild-type human GREB1L mRNA, but not mRNA containing alleles identified in case subjects. Together, our study provides insight into the genetic landscape of kidney malformations in humans, presents multiple candidates, and identifies SLIT3 and GREB1L as genes implicated in the pathogenesis of RHD.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Exoma/genética , Nefropatias/congênito , Rim/anormalidades , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Hereditariedade/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Fenótipo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Mol Autism ; 8: 50, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DYRK1A maps to the Down syndrome critical region at 21q22. Mutations in this kinase-encoding gene have been reported to cause microcephaly associated with either intellectual disability or autism in humans. Intellectual disability accompanied by microcephaly was recapitulated in a murine model by overexpressing Dyrk1a which mimicked Down syndrome phenotypes. However, given embryonic lethality in homozygous knockout (KO) mice, no murine model studies could present sufficient evidence to link Dyrk1a dysfunction with autism. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying microcephaly and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we established an in vivo dyrk1aa KO model using zebrafish. METHODS: We identified a patient with a mutation in the DYRK1A gene using microarray analysis. Circumventing the barrier of murine model studies, we generated a dyrk1aa KO zebrafish using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome editing. For social behavioral tests, we have established a social interaction test, shoaling assay, and group behavior assay. For molecular analysis, we examined the neuronal activity in specific brain regions of dyrk1aa KO zebrafish through in situ hybridization with various probes including c-fos and crh which are the molecular markers for stress response. RESULTS: Microarray detected an intragenic microdeletion of DYRK1A in an individual with microcephaly and autism. From behavioral tests of social interaction and group behavior, dyrk1aa KO zebrafish exhibited social impairments that reproduce human phenotypes of autism in a vertebrate animal model. Social impairment in dyrk1aa KO zebrafish was further confirmed by molecular analysis of c-fos and crh expression. Transcriptional expression of c-fos and crh was lower than that of wild type fish in specific hypothalamic regions, suggesting that KO fish brains are less activated by social context. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we established a zebrafish model to validate a candidate gene for autism in a vertebrate animal. These results illustrate the functional deficiency of DYRK1A as an underlying disease mechanism for autism. We also propose simple social behavioral assays as a tool for the broader study of autism candidate genes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Sci Signal ; 10(500)2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29018170

RESUMO

Birth defects of the heart and face are common, and most have no known genetic cause, suggesting a role for environmental factors. Maternal fever during the first trimester is an environmental risk factor linked to these defects. Neural crest cells are precursor populations essential to the development of both at-risk tissues. We report that two heat-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, TRPV1 and TRPV4, were present in neural crest cells during critical windows of heart and face development. TRPV1 antagonists protected against the development of hyperthermia-induced defects in chick embryos. Treatment with chemical agonists of TRPV1 or TRPV4 replicated hyperthermia-induced birth defects in chick and zebrafish embryos. To test whether transient TRPV channel permeability in neural crest cells was sufficient to induce these defects, we engineered iron-binding modifications to TRPV1 and TRPV4 that enabled remote and noninvasive activation of these channels in specific cellular locations and at specific developmental times in chick embryos with radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. Transient stimulation of radio frequency-controlled TRP channels in neural crest cells replicated fever-associated defects in developing chick embryos. Our data provide a previously undescribed mechanism for congenital defects, whereby hyperthermia activates ion channels that negatively affect fetal development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Febre/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Crista Neural/patologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Anormalidades Congênitas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Congênitas/patologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Gravidez , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 503-515, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942966

RESUMO

Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24.2. The BPTF variants were found in unrelated individuals aged between 2.1 and 13 years, who manifest variable degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability (10/10), speech delay (10/10), postnatal microcephaly (7/9), and dysmorphic features (9/10). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of bptf in zebrafish to induce a loss of gene function, we observed a significant reduction in head size of F0 mutants compared to control larvae. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone H3 (PH3) staining to assess apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively, showed a significant increase in cell death in F0 mutants compared to controls. Additionally, we observed a substantial increase of the ceratohyal angle of the craniofacial skeleton in bptf F0 mutants, indicating abnormal craniofacial patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate the pathogenic role of BPTF haploinsufficiency in syndromic neurodevelopmental anomalies and extend the clinical spectrum of human disorders caused by ablation of chromatin remodeling complexes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Haploinsuficiência/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Hum Genomics ; 11(1): 16, 2017 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ciliopathies represent an umbrella group of >50 clinical entities that share both clinical features and molecular etiology underscored by structural and functional defects of the primary cilium. Despite the advances in gene discovery, this group of entities continues to pose a diagnostic challenge, in part due to significant genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and variability. We consulted a pediatric case from asymptomatic, non-consanguineous parents who presented as a suspected ciliopathy due to a constellation of retinal, renal, and skeletal findings. RESULTS: Although clinical panel sequencing of genes implicated in nephrotic syndromes yielded no likely causal mutation, an oligo-SNP microarray identified a ~20-Mb region of homozygosity, with no altered gene dosage, on chromosome 16p13. Intersection of the proband's phenotypes with known disease genes within the homozygous region yielded a single candidate, IFT140, encoding a retrograde intraflagellar transport protein implicated previously in several ciliopathies, including the phenotypically overlapping Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Sanger sequencing yielded a maternally inherited homozygous c.634G>A; p.Gly212Arg mutation altering the exon 6 splice donor site. Functional studies in cells from the proband showed that the locus produced two transcripts: a majority message containing a mis-splicing event that caused a premature termination codon and a minority message homozygous for the p.Gly212Arg allele. Zebrafish in vivo complementation studies of the latter transcript demonstrated a loss of function effect. Finally, we conducted post-hoc trio-based whole exome sequencing studies to (a) test the possibility of other causal loci in the proband and (b) explain the Mendelian error of segregation for the IFT140 mutation. We show that the proband harbors a chromosome 16 maternal heterodisomy, with segmental isodisomy at 16p13, likely due to a meiosis I error in the maternal gamete. CONCLUSIONS: Using clinical phenotyping combined with research-based genetic and functional studies, we have characterized a recurrent IFT140 mutation in the proband; together, these data are consistent with MZSDS. Additionally, we report a rare instance of a uniparental isodisomy unmasking a deleterious mutation to cause a ciliary disorder.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Éxons , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Dissomia Uniparental , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA