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1.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has created a global pandemic. Surgical care has been impacted, with concerns raised around surgical safety, especially in terms of laparoscopic versus open surgery. Due to potential aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2, precautions during aerosol-generating procedures and production of surgical plume are paramount for the safety of surgical teams. METHODS: A rapid review methodology was used with evidence sourced from PubMed, Departments of Health, surgical colleges and other health authorities. From this, a working group of expert surgeons developed recommendations for surgical safety in the current environment. RESULTS: Pre-operative testing of surgical patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction does not guarantee lack of infectivity due to a demonstrated false-negative rate of up to 30%. All bodily tissues and fluids should therefore be treated as a potential source of COVID-19 infection during operative management. Caution must be taken, especially when using an energy source that produces surgical plumes, and an appropriate capture device should also be used. Limiting the use of such devices or using lower energy devices is desirable. To reduce perceived risks association with desufflation of pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery, an appropriate suction irrigator system, attached to a high-efficiency particulate air filter, should be used. Additionally, appropriate use of personal protective equipment by the surgical team is necessary during high-risk aerosol-generating procedures. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the rapid review, evidence-based guidance has been produced to support safe surgical practice.

2.
Microb Genom ; 6(5)2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375974

RESUMO

Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are key factors responsible for dissemination of virulence determinants and antimicrobial-resistance genes amongst pathogenic bacteria. Conjugative MGEs are notable for their high gene loads donated per transfer event, broad host ranges and phylogenetic ubiquity amongst prokaryotes, with the subclass of chromosomally inserted integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) being particularly abundant. The focus on a small number of model systems has biased the study of ICEs towards those conferring readily selectable phenotypes to host cells, whereas the identification and characterization of integrated cryptic elements remains challenging. Even though antimicrobial resistance and horizontally acquired virulence genes are major factors aggravating neisserial infection, conjugative MGEs of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis remain poorly characterized. Using a phenotype-independent approach based on atypical distributions of DNA uptake sequences (DUSs) in MGEs relative to the chromosomal background, we have identified two groups of chromosomally integrated conjugative elements in Neisseria: one found almost exclusively in pathogenic species possibly deriving from the genus Kingella, the other belonging to a group of Neisseria mucosa-like commensals. The former element appears to enable transfer of traditionally gonococcal-specific loci such as the virulence-associated toxin-antitoxin system fitAB to N. meningitidis chromosomes, whilst the circular form of the latter possesses a unique attachment site (attP) sequence seemingly adapted to exploit DUS motifs as chromosomal integration sites. In addition to validating the use of DUS distributions in Neisseriaceae MGE identification, the >170 identified ICE sequences provide a valuable resource for future studies of ICE evolution and host adaptation.

4.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026945

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Although gene set enrichment analysis has become an integral part of high-throughput gene expression data analysis, the assessment of enrichment methods remains rudimentary and ad hoc. In the absence of suitable gold standards, evaluations are commonly restricted to selected datasets and biological reasoning on the relevance of resulting enriched gene sets. RESULTS: We develop an extensible framework for reproducible benchmarking of enrichment methods based on defined criteria for applicability, gene set prioritization and detection of relevant processes. This framework incorporates a curated compendium of 75 expression datasets investigating 42 human diseases. The compendium features microarray and RNA-seq measurements, and each dataset is associated with a precompiled GO/KEGG relevance ranking for the corresponding disease under investigation. We perform a comprehensive assessment of 10 major enrichment methods, identifying significant differences in runtime and applicability to RNA-seq data, fraction of enriched gene sets depending on the null hypothesis tested and recovery of the predefined relevance rankings. We make practical recommendations on how methods originally developed for microarray data can efficiently be applied to RNA-seq data, how to interpret results depending on the type of gene set test conducted and which methods are best suited to effectively prioritize gene sets with high phenotype relevance. AVAILABILITY: http://bioconductor.org/packages/GSEABenchmarkeR. CONTACT: ludwig.geistlinger@sph.cuny.edu.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 333, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949145

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive cancer of melanocytes with a strong propensity to metastasize. We posit that melanoma cells acquire metastatic capability by adopting an embryonic-like phenotype, and that a lineage approach would uncover metastatic melanoma biology. Using a genetically engineered mouse model to generate a rich melanoblast transcriptome dataset, we identify melanoblast-specific genes whose expression contribute to metastatic competence and derive a 43-gene signature that predicts patient survival. We identify a melanoblast gene, KDELR3, whose loss impairs experimental metastasis. In contrast, KDELR1 deficiency enhances metastasis, providing the first example of different disease etiologies within the KDELR-family of retrograde transporters. We show that KDELR3 regulates the metastasis suppressor, KAI1, and report an interaction with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gp78, a regulator of KAI1 degradation. Our work demonstrates that the melanoblast transcriptome can be mined to uncover targetable pathways for melanoma therapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Proteína Kangai-1/genética , Proteína Kangai-1/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Fenótipo , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
6.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 46(1): 110-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561122

RESUMO

The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to develop a deeper understanding of the relational system of married couples and God. We interviewed nine marital couples from Christian denominations that reported having a strong relationship with each other and with God together. We used constructivist grounded theory techniques presented by Charmaz (2006) and analyzed emergent categories of behaviors, emotions, and cognitions to construct a theory and model of Christian marital couples and their shared relationship with God. We then compared and contrasted the results and theory to existing literature on attachment theory and theorized a shared attachment to God. We applied the theological concept of kinship covenant to the results in order to organize and situate the theory into a Christian framework. Finally, we discuss clinical, pastoral, and future research implications.

7.
Science ; 365(6453): 587-590, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395782

RESUMO

In 2017, western Canadian wildfires injected smoke into the stratosphere that was detectable by satellites for more than 8 months. The smoke plume rose from 12 to 23 kilometers within 2 months owing to solar heating of black carbon, extending the lifetime and latitudinal spread. Comparisons of model simulations to the rate of observed lofting indicate that 2% of the smoke mass was black carbon. The observed smoke lifetime in the stratosphere was 40% shorter than calculated with a standard model that does not consider photochemical loss of organic carbon. Photochemistry is represented by using an empirical ozone-organics reaction probability that matches the observed smoke decay. The observed rapid plume rise, latitudinal spread, and photochemical reactions provide new insights into potential global climate impacts from nuclear war.


Assuntos
Fumaça , Ozônio Estratosférico/análise , Incêndios Florestais , Canadá
8.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(12): 1582-1586, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This retrospective, population-based cohort study aims to determine if differences in the regional distribution of procedures or variation in regional mortality contributes to the variable pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) mortality between Australian states and territories. METHODS: De-identified procedural data from public hospitals between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2015 from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare were analysed. The regional distribution of procedures and variation in perioperative mortality rate (POMR) were investigated in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and Queensland (QLD) using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: NSW performed the highest proportion of city-based procedures (93.8%) while QLD performed the highest proportion of regional procedures (15.3%). QLD demonstrated the lowest city mortality (1.9%) and lowest POMR overall (2.0%). City, regional and state-wide mortality was highest in NSW (5.0%, 8.4% and 5.3%). No significant difference in POMR was demonstrated between regional and city hospitals in each of the states (P = 0.46) or across all states (P = 0.50). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates comparable regional PD distribution across Australia. The difference in PD POMR between city and regional areas was not found to be statistically significant. NSW exhibited the highest city, regional and overall PD POMR, potentially warranting further investigation.

9.
Fam Process ; 58(3): 629-640, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334848

RESUMO

The common factors paradigm in couple and family therapy has gained popularity over the past several decades, leading many therapists to refer to themselves as common factors family therapists. Despite this, no consensus exists on what it means to be a common factors family therapist, or if such a designation even makes sense given that the common factors paradigm is not a model. Synthesizing the existing common factors literature, a case is made for the designation "common factors informed family therapist," and the following six core principles are outlined that characterize this designation: (1) sees overlap among theories; (2) passionate about theory, not a theory; (3) client centered; (4) monitors hope and the therapeutic alliance; (5) views clients as people rather than objects; and (6) prioritizes healing over therapy. Each of the concepts is discussed in depth, and clinical implications are provided.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar , Família/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicoterapia Centrada na Pessoa/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Teoria Psicológica
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10887, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350438

RESUMO

Introducing hierarchical pore structure to microporous materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be beneficial for reactions where the rate of reaction is limited by low rates of diffusion or high pressure drop. This advantageous pore structure can be obtained by defect formation, mostly via post-synthetic acid etching, which has been studied extensively on water-stable MOFs. Here we show that a water-unstable HKUST-1 MOF can also be modified in a corresponding manner by using phosphoric acid as a size-selective etching agent and a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol as a dilute solvent. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the etching process which is time- and acidity- dependent, can result in formation of defective HKUST-1 with extra interconnected hexagonal macropores without compromising on the bulk crystallinity. These findings suggest an intelligent scalable synthetic method for formation of hierarchical porosity in MOFs that are prone to hydrolysis, for improved molecular accessibility and diffusion for catalysis.

11.
F1000Res ; 8: 752, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249680

RESUMO

Motivation: The Bioconductor project, a large collection of open source software for the comprehension of large-scale biological data, continues to grow with new packages added each week, motivating the development of software tools focused on exposing package metadata to developers and users. The resulting BiocPkgTools package facilitates access to extensive metadata in computable form covering the Bioconductor package ecosystem, facilitating downstream applications such as custom reporting, data and text mining of Bioconductor package text descriptions, graph analytics over package dependencies, and custom search approaches. Results: The BiocPkgTools package has been incorporated into the Bioconductor project, installs using standard procedures, and runs on any system supporting R. It provides functions to load detailed package metadata, longitudinal package download statistics, package dependencies, and Bioconductor build reports, all in "tidy data" form. BiocPkgTools can convert from tidy data structures to graph structures, enabling graph-based analytics and visualization. An end-user-friendly graphical package explorer aids in task-centric package discovery. Full documentation and example use cases are included. Availability: The BiocPkgTools software and complete documentation are available from Bioconductor ( https://bioconductor.org/packages/BiocPkgTools).

12.
F1000Res ; 8: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828438

RESUMO

Bioconductor's SummarizedExperiment class unites numerical assay quantifications with sample- and experiment-level metadata.  SummarizedExperiment is the standard Bioconductor class for assays that produce matrix-like data, used by over 200 packages.  We describe the restfulSE package, a deployment of  this data model that supports remote storage.  We illustrate use of SummarizedExperiment with remote HDF5 and Google BigQuery back ends, with two applications in cancer genomics.  Our intent is to allow the use of familiar and semantically meaningful programmatic idioms to query genomic data, while abstracting the remote interface from end users and developers.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(18): 5891-5896, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786125

RESUMO

The azafullerene Tb2 @C79 N is found to be a single-molecule magnet with a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 24 K and large coercivity. Tb magnetic moments with an easy-axis single-ion magnetic anisotropy are strongly coupled by the unpaired spin of the single-electron Tb-Tb bond. Relaxation of magnetization in Tb2 @C79 N below 15 K proceeds via quantum tunneling of magnetization with the characteristic time τQTM =16 462±1230 s. At higher temperature, relaxation follows the Orbach mechanism with a barrier of 757±4 K, corresponding to the excited states, in which one of the Tb spins is flipped.

14.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(6): 764-768, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical decision making is a core competency of surgical practice, involving a continuous and evolving process of data interpretation and evaluation. The aim of this article is twofold. First, to recognize patient deaths where a clinical incident arose following unsatisfactory clinical decision making, determining where in the clinical decision-making process each failure occurred. Second, to discuss and explore individual incidents to provide lessons from which the surgical community can learn. METHODS: Using the Australian and New Zealand Audit of Surgical Mortality database, all deaths from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 were analysed. All deaths in which the surgeon or assessor identified an aspect of patient management that was inadequate were recognized. Clinical incidents deemed by the assessor to be an area of concern or an adverse event were individually reviewed to determine if a clinical decision-making incident (CDMI) occurred. CDMIs were categorized into various themes depending on the nature of the incident. RESULTS: A total of 3422 fully audited deaths occurred throughout the study period; from these cases, 226 individual CDMIs were identified. Decision to operate was the most commonly identified CDMI (n = 99, 43.8%), followed by diagnostic error (n = 49, 21.7%). The least common CDMI identified was inadequate post-operative assessment (n = 14, 6.2%). CONCLUSION: This paper demonstrates thought-provoking examples of clinical decision-making failure implicated in patient death. Clinical decision-making failures most commonly occur around the decision to operate with increased discussion of complex cases possibly required. Further CDMI evaluation should be considered to complement more traditional methods of surgical mortality evaluation.

15.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 45(1): 176-185, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417592

RESUMO

Much has been written about the systemic effects of families and culture on individual well-being. Seldom discussed, however, are the systemic effects of our relationship with the larger ecological system in which all families and cultures are embedded. A case is made for the importance of nature in family therapy. Furthermore, before therapists can effectively address ecological issues in therapy, they need to address various ecological self-of-the-therapist issues that will influence their clinical practice. A series of questions are asked to help guide therapists in this exploration, and practical suggestions for incorporating nature into MFT clinical practice, training, and research are made.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Terapia Familiar , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Terapia Conjugal , Natureza , Autoimagem , Adulto , Humanos
16.
F1000Res ; 7: 1656, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473781

RESUMO

The importance of bioinformatics, computational biology, and data science in biomedical research continues to grow, driving a need for effective instruction and education. A workshop setting, with lectures and guided hands-on tutorials, is a common approach to teaching practical computational and analytical methods. Here, we detail the process we used to produce high-quality, community-authored educational materials that are available for public consumption and reuse. The coordinated efforts of 17 authors over 10 weeks resulted in 15 workshops available as a website and as a 388-page electronic book. We describe how we utilized cloud infrastructure, GitHub, and a literate programming approach to robustly deliver hands-on tutorials to participants of the annual Bioconductor conference. The scripts, raw and published workshop materials, and cloud machine image are all openly available. Our approach uses free services and software and can be adapted by workshop organizers and authors in other contests with appropriate technical backgrounds.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Educação
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 18104-18114, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452254

RESUMO

Self-assembled 1D block copolymer nanoparticles (micelles) are of interest for a range of applications. However, morphologically pure samples are often challenging to access, and precise dimensional control is not possible. Moreover, the development of synthetic protocols that operate on a commercially viable scale has been a major challenge. Herein, we describe the preparation 1D fiber-like micelles with crystalline cores at high concentrations by a one-pot process termed polymerization-induced crystallization-driven self-assembly (PI-CDSA). We also demonstrate the formation of uniform fibers by living PI-CDSA, a process in which block copolymer synthesis, self-assembly, and seeded growth are combined. We have demonstrated that the method is successful for block copolymers that possess the same composition as that of the seed (homoepitaxial growth) and also where the coronal chemistries differ to give segmented 1D fibers known as block co-micelles. We have also shown that heteroepitaxial growth allows the formation of scaled-up block co-micelles where the composition of both the core and corona was varied. These proof-of-concept experiments indicate that PI-CDSA is a promising, scalable route to a variety of polydisperse or uniform 1D nanoparticles based on block copolymers with different crystalline core chemistries and, therefore, functions.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12234, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111806

RESUMO

We report a one-pot, three-minute synthesis of carboxylic acid-decorated fluorescent carbon dots (COOH-FCDs) with tuneable core morphology dependent on the surface passivating agent. Mechanism investigations highlighted the presence of key pyrazine and polyhydroxyl aromatic motifs, which are formed from the degradation of glucosamine in the presence of a bifunctional linker bearing acid and amine groups. The novel COOH-FCDs are selective Fe3+ and hemin sensors. Furthermore, the FCDs are shown to be non-toxic, fluorescent bioimaging agents for cancer cells.

19.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(7): 4597-4615, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008736

RESUMO

A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model are analyzed in order to assess interannual and sub-decadal variability in the tropical lower stratosphere over the past 35 years. The impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on temperature and water vapor in this region is nonlinear in boreal spring. While moderate El Niño events lead to cooling in this region, strong El Niño events lead to warming, even as the response of the large scale Brewer Dobson Circulation appears to scale nearly linearly with El Niño. This nonlinearity is shown to arise from the response in the Indo-West Pacific to El Niño: strong El Niño events lead to tropospheric warming extending into the tropical tropopause layer and up to the cold point in this region, where it allows for more water vapor to enter the stratosphere. The net effect is that both strong La Niña and strong El Niño events lead to enhanced entry water vapor and stratospheric moistening in boreal spring and early summer. These results lead to the following interpretation of the contribution of sea surface temperatures to the decline in water vapor from the late 1990s to the early 2000s: the very strong El Niño event in 1997/1998, followed by more than two consecutive years of La Niña, led to enhanced lower stratospheric water vapor. As this period ended in early 2001, entry water vapor concentrations declined. This effect accounts for approximately one-quarter of the observed drop.

20.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 47(3): 377-385, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024644

RESUMO

A 7-year-old female neutered Jack Russell Terrier was presented to Langford Vets, the University of Bristol, with a history of chronic intermittent lethargy. Investigations and clinical course were compatible with hereditary hemolysis due to a red blood cell membrane defect. Proteomics was used to explore protein alterations in the presence of a hypothesized red blood cell membrane protein deficiency. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of the band 3, and alpha- and beta-adducin proteins, and alterations in the red blood cell proteome consistent with previous reports of changes due to the presence of reticulocytosis and ongoing hemolysis. The spectrum of protein alterations identified in the affected dog may be homologous to a band 3 protein deficiency secondary to hereditary spherocytosis, as described in people.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica/veterinária , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Eritrócitos/química , Anemia Hemolítica/sangue , Animais , Cães , Eritrócitos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Fragilidade Osmótica , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária
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