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1.
Anthropol Med ; 28(2): 188-204, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196238

RESUMO

'Medical iatrogenesis' was first defined by Illich as injuries 'done to patients by ineffective, unsafe, and erroneous treatments'. Following Lokumage's original usage of the term, this paper explores 'obstetric iatrogenesis' along a spectrum ranging from unintentional harm (UH) to overt disrespect, violence, and abuse (DVA), employing the acronym 'UHDVA' for this spectrum. This paper draws attention to the systemic maltreatment rooted in the technocratic model of birth, which includes UH normalized forms of mistreatment that childbearers and providers may not recognize as abusive. Equally, this paper assesses how obstetric iatrogenesis disproportionately impacts Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC), contributing to worse perinatal outcomes for BIPOC childbearers. Much of the work on 'obstetric violence' that documents the most detrimental end of the UHDVA spectrum has focused on low-to-middle income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Based on a dataset of 62 interviews and on our personal observations, this paper shows that significant UHDVA also occurs in the high-income U.S., provide concrete examples, and suggest humanistic solutions.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Doença Iatrogênica/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Antropologia Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estados Unidos , Violência/etnologia
2.
Med Anthropol ; 39(5): 413-427, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406755

RESUMO

How quickly and in what ways are US maternity care practices changing due to the COVID-19 pandemic? Our data indicate that partners and doulas are being excluded from birthing rooms leaving mothers unsupported, while providers face lack of protective equipment and unclear guidelines. We investigate rapidly shifting protocols for in- and out-of-hospital births and the decision making behind them. We ask, will COVID-19 cause women, families, and providers to look at birthing in a different light? And will this pandemic offer a testing ground for future policy changes to generate effective maternity care amidst pandemics and other types of disasters?


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico , Doulas , Medo , Feminino , Parto Domiciliar , Hospitais , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 42(1): 168-72, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18450162

RESUMO

Any effort to make sense of the complexities of contemporary midwifery must deal not only with biomedical and governmental power structures but also with the definitions such structures impose upon midwives and the ramifications of these definitions within and across national and cultural borders. The international definition of a midwife requires graduations from a government-recognized educational program. Those who have not are not considered midwives but are labeled traditional birth attendants. Since there are myriad local names for midwives in myriad languages, the impact of this naming at local levels can be hard to assess. But on the global scale, the ramifications of the distinction between midwives who meet the international definition and those who do not have been profound. Those who do are incorporated into the health care system. Those who do not remain outside of it, and suffer multiple forms of discrimination as a result.


Assuntos
Tocologia/normas , Tocologia/tendências , Características Culturais , México
8.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 42(1): 168-172, mar. 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: lil-479204

RESUMO

Any effort to make sense of the complexities of contemporary midwifery must deal not only with biomedical and governmental power structures but also with the definitions such structures impose upon midwives and the ramifications of these definitions within and across national and cultural borders. The international definition of a midwife requires graduations from a government-recognized educational program. Those who have not are not considered midwives but are labeled traditional birth attendants. Since there are myriad local names for midwives in myriad languages, the impact of this naming at local levels can be hard to assess. But on the global scale, the ramifications of the distinction between midwives who meet the international definition and those who do not have been profound. Those who do are incorporated into the health care system. Those who do not remain outside of it, and suffer multiple forms of discrimination as a result.


Qualquer esforço para dar sentido à complexidade do processo reprodutivo na vida contemporânea se depara não só com o modelo biomédico e as estruturas governamentais de poder, mas também com as definições que tais estruturas impõem às parteiras e obstetrizes e à sua denominação, considerando-se os limites nacionais e culturais. A definição internacional de parteira demanda a formação em instituições de ensino reconhecidas pelo governo. As parteiras tradicionais não podem ser consideradas parteiras, mas são denominadas parteiras tradicionais. Há uma gama enorme de denominações para as parteiras em diversos locais, nas diversas línguas e ao longo do tempo, que torna difícil nomear este profissional. Entretanto, em escala global, pode-se reconhecer que há duas ramificações de parteira: a que está incorporada ao sistema de saúde e a que está fora dele.


Cualquier esfuerzo para dar sentido a la complejidad del proceso reproductivo en la vida contemporánea se depara no solamente con el modelo biomédico y las estructuras gubernamentales de poder, sino con las definiciones que estas estructuras imponen a las parteras y matronas y su denominación considerándose los límites nacionales y culturales. La definición internacional de partera demanda formación en instituciones de enseñanza reconocidas por el gobierno. Las parteras tradicionales no pueden ser consideradas parteras, pero son denominadas parteras tradicionales. Hay una gama enorme de denominaciones para las parteras, en diversos locales, en las diversas lenguas y a lo largo del tiempo, y por eso es difícil nombrar a este profesional. No obstante, en escala global se puede reconocer que hay dos ramificaciones de partera: la que está incorporada al sistema de salud y la que está fuera de él.


Assuntos
Tocologia/normas , Tocologia/tendências , Características Culturais , México
9.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 41(4): 705-710, dez. 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: lil-474752

RESUMO

This article presents the notion of the postmodern midwife, defining her as one who takes a relativistic stance toward bio-medicine and other knowledge systems, alternative and indigenous, moving fluidly between them to serve the women she attends. She is locally and globally aware, culturally competent, and politically engaged, working with the resources at hand to preserve midwifery in the interests of women. Her informed relativism is most accessible to professional midwives but is also beginning to characterize some savvy traditional midwives in various countries. Thus the concept of the postmodern midwife can serve as a bridge across the ethnic, racial, and status gaps that divide the professional from the traditional midwife, and as an analytical focal point for understanding how the members of each group negotiate their identities and their roles in a changing world.


Este artigo busca conceituar a parteira pós-moderna, definindo-a como aquela que tem uma postura realista em relação à bio-medicina e a outros sistemas de conhecimento, movendo-se fluidicamente entre eles para ajudar as mulheres que assiste. É consciente, culturalmente competente e politicamente engajada. Trabalha com recursos do seu conhecimento específico, aliados aos interesses da mulher. Seu relativismo informado é mais acessível para as parteiras profissionais, mas o que se observa, ao redor do mundo, é que esta atitude está atingindo as parteiras tradicionais, em diversos países. Assim, o conceito de parteira pós-moderna representa uma ponte para as brechas étnicas, raciais e de status, que separam as parteiras profissionais das tradicionais, e um ponto focal e analítico para a compreensão da forma de negociação de identidades e papéis de cada um dos membros no grupo, no mundo em transformação.


Este artículo busca conceptuar la partera pos-moderna, definiéndola como aquella que tiene una postura en relación a la biomedicina y a otros sistemas de conocimiento, moviéndose fluidificado entre ellos para ayudar a las mujeres que asiste. Es consciente, culturalmente competente y políticamente enganchada. Trabaja con recursos de su conocimiento específico, aliados a los intereses de la mujer. Su relativismo informado es más accesible para las parteras profesionales, pero lo que se observa, alrededor del mundo, es que esta actitud está atingiendo las parteras tradicionales, en diversos países. Así, el concepto de partera pos-moderna representa una puente para las brechas étnicas, raciales y de status, que separan las parteras profesionales de las tradicionales, y un punto focal y analítico para la comprensión de la forma de negociación de identidades y papeles de cada uno de los miembros en el grupo, en el mundo en transformación.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Tocologia/tendências , México , Mudança Social
10.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 41(4): 705-10, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18193628

RESUMO

This article presents the notion of the postmodern midwife, defining her as one who takes a relativistic stance toward biomedicine and other knowledge systems, alternative and indigenous, moving fluidly between them to serve the women she attends. She is locally and globally aware, culturally competent, and politically engaged, working with the resources at hand to preserve midwifery in the interests of women. Her informed relativism is most accessible to professional midwives but is also beginning to characterize some savvy traditional midwives in various countries. Thus the concept of the postmodern midwife can serve as a bridge across the ethnic, racial, and status gaps that divide the professional from the traditional midwife, and as an analytical focal point for understanding how the members of each group negotiate their identities and their roles in a changing world.


Assuntos
Tocologia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , México , Gravidez , Mudança Social
12.
Birth ; 33(3): 245-50, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16948725

RESUMO

PREFACE: Normal childbirth has become jeopardized by inexorably rising interventions around the world. In many countries and settings, cesarean surgery, labor induction, and epidural analgesia continue to increase beyond all precedent, and without convincing evidence that these actions result in improved outcomes (1,2). Use of electronic fetal monitoring is endemic, despite evidence of its ineffectiveness and consequences for most parturients (1,3); ultrasound examinations are too often done unnecessarily, redundantly, or for frivolous rather than indicated reasons (4); episiotomies are still routine in many settings despite clear evidence that this surgery results in more harm than good (5); and medical procedures, unphysiological positions, pubic shaving and enemas, intravenous lines, enforced fasting, drugs, and early mother-infant separation are used unnecessarily (1). Clinicians write and talk about the ideal of evidence-based obstetrics, but do not practice it consistently, if at all. Why do women go along with this stuff? In this Roundtable Discussion, Part 2, we asked some maternity care professionals and advocates to discuss this question.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Defesa do Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Analgesia Epidural/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Monitorização Fetal/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Gravidez
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 56(9): 1911-31, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12650729

RESUMO

Proponents of the global Safe Motherhood Initiative stress that primary keys to safe home birth include transport to the hospital in cases of need and effective care on arrival. In this article, which is based on interviews with American direct-entry midwives and Mexican traditional midwives, I examine what happens when transport occurs, how the outcomes of prior transports affect future decision-making, and how the lessons derived from the transport experiences of birthing women and midwives in the US and Mexico could be translated into improvements in maternity care. My focus is on home birth in urban areas in Mexico and the US. In both countries, biomedicine and home-birth midwifery exist in separate cultural domains and are based on distinctively different knowledge systems. When a midwife transports a client to the hospital, she brings specific prior knowledge that can be vital to the mother's successful treatment by the hospital system. But the culture of biomedicine in general tends not to understand or recognize as valid the knowledge of midwifery. The tensions and dysfunctions that often result are displayed in midwives' transport stories, which I identify as a narrative genre and analyze to show how reproduction can go unnecessarily awry when domains of knowledge conflict and existing power structures ensure that only one kind of knowledge counts. This article describes: (1) disarticulations that occur when there is no correspondence of information or action between the midwife and the hospital staff; and (2) fractured articulations of biomedical and midwifery knowledge systems that result from partial and incomplete correspondences. These two kinds of disjuncture are contrasted with the smooth articulation of systems that results when mutual accommodation characterizes the interactions between midwife and medical personnel. The conclusion links these American and Mexican transport stories to their international context, describing how they index crosscultural markers, and suggest solutions, for "the trouble with transport."


Assuntos
Cultura , Emergências , Parto Domiciliar , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Tocologia , Obstetrícia/normas , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Sociologia Médica , Transporte de Pacientes , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Imperícia , México , Relações Médico-Enfermeiro , Poder Psicológico , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
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