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1.
Dev Psychol ; 57(12): 2234-2249, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928671

RESUMO

The present study examined longitudinal associations between preschoolers' executive function (EF) and adult educational attainment, impulse control, and general health directly and through its cascading effects on childhood and adolescent EF using a large, national, and prospective longitudinal sample of participants. Data were drawn from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD) and included a diverse sample (52% male at birth; 76% White; 13% Black; 6% Hispanic; and 5% other; 14.23 mean years of maternal education) of 1,364 participants born in 1991 and followed through age 26. Four main findings emerged. First, we observed significant bivariate relations between EF measured at 54 months and adult educational attainment (r = .36, p < .01), and impulse control (r = .11, p = .01). Second, early EF measured during preschool and childhood explained variance in adult educational attainment and impulse control above and beyond adolescent EF. Third, childhood EF mediated the association between preschool EF and adult educational attainment and impulse control but did not operate through adolescent EF. Finally, neither preschool EF nor EF measured at other developmental stages predicted health during adulthood. Together, these findings shed light on the direct and cascading influences of EF across development on important domains of adult functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Early Child Res Q ; 54: 321-331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519062

RESUMO

Among the many factors contributing to the SES-achievement gap, executive function (EF) skills have received a considerable amount of attention, given their role in supporting academic skill development. While recent work has demonstrated that global EF constructs mediate SES-achievement relations, less attention has been paid to unpacking the role of specific EF components in linking SES to achievement. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,273) were analyzed to assess direct and indirect associations between SES indicators, preschool EF skills, and first-grade math and reading achievement. Using path analysis, we found parent education and working memory to be uniquely and most predictive of both achievement domains. Further, after controlling for baseline academic skills, verbal ability, and other child- and family-level covariates, only working memory mediated the association between parent education and children's math achievement. These findings offer a comprehensive look at the specific mechanisms through which socioeconomic disadvantage contributes to children's academic development and provide an initial step towards generating more precise targets for policies and interventions aimed at closing the achievement gap.

3.
Dev Sci ; 24(2): e13034, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881178

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked to the developmental trajectory of vocabulary acquisition in young children. However, the nature of this relationship remains underspecified. In particular, despite an extensive literature documenting young children's reliance on a host of skills and strategies to learn new words, little attention has been paid to whether and how these skills relate to measures of SES and vocabulary acquisition. To evaluate these relationships, we conducted two studies. In Study 1, 205 2.5- to 3.5-year-old children from widely varying socioeconomic backgrounds were tested on a broad range of word-learning skills that tap their ability to resolve cases of ambiguous reference and to extend words appropriately. Children's executive functioning and phonological memory skills were also assessed. In Study 2, 77 of those children returned for a follow-up session several months later, at which time two additional measures of vocabulary were obtained. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and multivariate regression, we provide evidence of the mediating role of word-learning skills on the relationship between SES and vocabulary skill over the course of early development.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Vocabulário , Atenção , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Humanos , Classe Social
4.
Infant Behav Dev ; 57: 101339, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351250

RESUMO

In the last few years, the field of psychology has been challenged with a crisis in the rigor and reproducibility of the science. The focus of these issues has primarily been in social, cognitive, and cognitive neuroscience psychology, however, the area of developmental research is not immune to these issues. This paper provides an overview of the "replication crisis" and the choices made by researchers that are often not noted in methods, thus making the replication of studies more difficult. In this review we discuss issues of researcher flexibility in the data design and selection of sample size, collection, and analysis stages of research. In each of these areas we address examples of bias and how developmental researchers can address these issues in their own research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
Neuroreport ; 29(11): 889-893, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771819

RESUMO

Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks. The second study explored the relation between sharing and emergent math abilities in children (N=53; age range: 4-6 years) using the same sharing task and established math measures. Our findings suggest that social sharing activities might engage similar cognitive mechanisms that support mathematical reasoning. The study informs theories of numerical cognition and highlights the importance of examining gaps in how early life activities support cognitive development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Adulto Jovem
6.
Child Dev ; 89(6): 2196-2214, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925044

RESUMO

This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Matemática , Leitura , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
7.
Monogr Soc Res Child Dev ; 82(2): 31-45, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475252

RESUMO

For decades, developmental science has been based primarily on relatively small-scale data collections with children and families. Part of the reason for the dominance of this type of data collection is the complexity of collecting cognitive and social data on infants and small children. These small data sets are limited in both power to detect differences and the demographic diversity to generalize clearly and broadly. Thus, in this chapter we will discuss the value of using existing large-scale data sets to tests the complex questions of child development and how to develop future large-scale data sets that are both representative and can answer the important questions of developmental scientists.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Projetos de Pesquisa , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra
8.
Child Dev ; 86(6): 1892-907, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332124

RESUMO

Despite research demonstrating a strong association between early and later mathematics achievement, few studies have investigated mediators of this association. Using longitudinal data (n = 1,362), this study tested the extent to which mathematics self-concepts, school placement, executive functioning, and proficiency in fractions and division account for the association between mathematics achievement in first grade and at age 15. As hypothesized, a strong longitudinal association between first-grade and adolescent mathematics achievement was present (ß = .36) even after controlling for a host of background characteristics, including cognitive skills and reading ability. The mediators accounted for 39% of this association, with mathematics self-concept, gifted and talented placement, and knowledge of fractions and division serving as significant mediators.


Assuntos
Logro , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Matemática , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
J Fam Psychol ; 29(6): 873-83, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26236958

RESUMO

This article uses a nationally representative dataset to investigate the extent to which academic-related parenting practices and the home environment during middle childhood (ages 11-13) predict achievement in late adolescence (N = 486; age range: 16-18 years). Results from path analyses indicated that parental endorsement of punitive strategies (e.g., lecture, punish, restrict activities) in response to academic underperformance during middle school predict lower literacy and math achievement 5 years later. In contrast, more cognitively stimulating homes predict higher literacy and math achievement 5 years later. Parenting practices and the home environment indicators, however, did not predict changes in achievement. Socioeconomic and race and ethnicity differences in parenting were also found.


Assuntos
Logro , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
Child Dev Perspect ; 9(4): 256-261, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26819627

RESUMO

Secondary data analysis of large longitudinal and national data sets is a standard method used in many social sciences to answer complex questions regarding behavior. In this article, we detail the advantages of using these data sets to study developmental questions across the lifespan. First, we provide an overview of how using secondary data can increase studies' scientific integrity. Then, we detail where and how data sets can be obtained that answer specific questions. Finally, we discuss methodological issues related to using longitudinal, population data sets. These data sets can enhance science and test theories by increasing the rigor and generalizability of research to the general population, making secondary data analysis an important method to consider.

11.
Educ Res ; 43(7): 352-360, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806961

RESUMO

Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement.

12.
Psychol Sci ; 23(7): 691-7, 2012 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22700332

RESUMO

Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Matemática/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Logro , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Testes Psicológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
13.
Self Identity ; 10(4): 417-444, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22505839

RESUMO

Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk.

14.
Child Dev ; 79(5): 1257-69, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18826524

RESUMO

Many social science theories that examine the connection between beliefs and behaviors assume that belief constructs will predict behaviors similarly across development. Converging research implies that this assumption may not be tenable across all ages or all belief constructs. Thus, to test this implication, the relation between behavior and beliefs about the self was examined in 2 independent data sets with 2 different constructs: aggression and achievement. The respondents were 6-18 years of age and predominately Caucasian. Results using quasi-simplex structural equation models suggest that self-beliefs become more strongly related to behavior as children grow older independent of the reliability of the measures used. Possible limitations in the use of self-report methodology with young children are discussed.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Cultura , Autoeficácia , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem
15.
J Adolesc Res ; 23(2): 206-227, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22837591

RESUMO

Career development theories suggest that social-contextual experiences are influential in individuals' career interests, aspirations, and skill development and may be a source of gender and ethnic differences in certain career fields. In this mixed methods study, we examine the supportive and obstructive career-related experiences of 13 men and 13 women (modal age 25). Interviews focused primarily on the pathway toward or away from an information technology (IT) career. Thematic coding indicated that parents were mostly supportive, while experiences in school and work occasionally made individuals reconsider their career plans. Social influences often changed developmentally as participants entered full-time jobs. Gendered participation in IT was often attributed to women's perception that it is a male-oriented field.

16.
Dev Psychol ; 42(1): 70-83, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16420119

RESUMO

This study addresses the longitudinal associations between youths' out-of-school activities, expectancies-values, and high school course enrollment in the domains of math and science. Data were collected on 227 youth who reported on their activity participation in 5th grade, expectancies-values in 6th and 10th grade, and courses taken throughout high school. Math and science course grades at 5th and 10th grade were gathered through school record data. Results indicated youths' math and science activity participation predicted their expectancies and values, which, in turn, predicted the number of high school courses above the predictive power of grades. Although there were mean-level differences between boys and girls on some of these indicators, relations among indicators did not significantly differ by gender.


Assuntos
Logro , Comportamento de Escolha , Cultura , Matemática , Motivação , Ciência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
J Fam Psychol ; 19(2): 294-304, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15982107

RESUMO

This study examined the process of how socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and income, indirectly relates to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors. Data from a national, cross-sectional study of children were used for this study. The subjects were 868 8-12-year-olds, divided approximately equally across gender (436 females, 433 males). This sample was 49% non-Hispanic European American and 47% African American. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the author found that the socioeconomic factors were related indirectly to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors but that the process of these relations was different by racial group. Parents' years of schooling also was found to be an important socioeconomic factor to take into consideration in both policy and research when looking at school-age children.


Assuntos
Logro , Renda , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Afro-Americanos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Dev Psychol ; 41(2): 401-13, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15769195

RESUMO

This study examined longitudinal relations among adolescents' family relationships, peer relationships, and problem behavior. Participants were 1,357 African American and European American adolescents who were interviewed at 3 time points: 7th grade (mean age = 12.7 years), the summer after 8th grade (mean age = 14.2 years), and 11th grade (mean age = 17.1 years). For all racial and gender groups, 7th-grade family characteristics (youth perceptions of autonomy and warmth) predicted a risky peer context during 8th grade, which in turn predicted problem behavior during 11th grade. Additionally, problem behavior in the 7th grade predicted 11th-grade problem behavior, directly as well as indirectly through the peer context. Racial and gender differences are discussed, as are implications for future research.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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