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1.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719072

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No-reflow (NR) phenomenon is characterised by the failure of myocardial reperfusion despite the absence of mechanical coronary obstruction. NR negatively affects patient outcomes, emphasising the importance of prediction and management. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and independent predictors of NR in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective case-control study. Cases were subjects who suffered NR, and the control comparators were those who did not. Clinical outcomes were documented. Salient variables relating to the patients and their presentation, history and angiographical findings were compared using one-way analysis of variance or χ2 test. Multiple regression determined the independent predictors, and a risk score was established based on the ß coefficient. RESULTS: Of 173 consecutive patients, 24 (13.9%) suffered from NR, with 46% occurring post stent implantation. Patients with NR had increased risk of in-hospital death (OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 36.7, p=0.022). From baseline variables available prior to percutaneous coronary intervention, the independent predictors of NR were increased lesion complexity, admission systolic hypertension, weight of <78 kg and history of hypertension. Continuous data were transformed into best-fit binary variables, and a risk score was defined. Significant difference was demonstrated between the risk score of patients with NR (4.1±1) compared with controls (2.6±1) (p<0.001), and the risk score was considered a good test (area under the curve=0.823). A score of ≥4 had 75% sensitivity and 76.5% specificity. CONCLUSION: Patients with NR have a higher rate of mortality following STEMI. Predictors of NR include lesion complexity, systolic hypertension and low weight. Further validation of this risk model is required.


Assuntos
Fenômeno de não Refluxo/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/mortalidade , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Behav Brain Res ; 387: 112588, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179062

RESUMO

The last two decades have seen a re-emergence of neurosurgery for severe, refractory psychiatric diseases, largely due to the advent of more precise and safe operative techniques. Nevertheless, the optimal targets for these surgeries remain a matter of debate, and are often grandfathered from experiences in the late 20th century. To better explore the rationale for one target in particular - the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) - we comprehensively reviewed all available literature on its role in the pathophysiology and treatment of mental illness. We first provide an overview of its functional anatomy, followed by a discussion on its role in several prevalent psychiatric diseases. Given its structural integration into the limbic system and involvement in a number of cognitive and emotional processes, the ALIC is a robust target for surgical treatment of refractory psychiatric diseases. The advent of novel neuroimaging techniques, coupled with image-guided therapeutics and neuromodulatory treatments, will continue to enable study on the ALIC in mental illness.


Assuntos
Cápsula Interna/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Cápsula Interna/anatomia & histologia , Cápsula Interna/cirurgia , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Transtornos Mentais/cirurgia , Vias Neurais/patologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos
4.
Circ Res ; 126(2): 243-257, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805812

RESUMO

RATIONALE: ENG (endoglin) is a coreceptor for BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) 9/10 and is strongly expressed in endothelial cells. Mutations in ENG lead to the inherited vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia characterized by local telangiectases and larger arteriovenous malformations (AVMs); but how ENG functions to regulate the adult vasculature is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the work was to determine how ENG maintains vessel caliber in adult life to prevent AVM formation and thereby protect heart function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genetic depletion of endothelial Eng in adult mice led to a significant reduction in mean aortic blood pressure. There was no evidence of hemorrhage, anemia, or AVMs in major organs to explain the reduced aortic pressure. However, large AVMs developed in the peripheral vasculature intimately associated with the pelvic cartilaginous symphysis-a noncapsulated cartilage with a naturally high endogenous expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). The increased blood flow through these peripheral AVMs explained the drop in aortic blood pressure and led to increased cardiac preload, and high stroke volumes, ultimately resulting in high-output heart failure. Development of pelvic AVMs in this region of high VEGF expression occurred because loss of ENG in endothelial cells leads to increased sensitivity to VEGF and a hyperproliferative response. Development of AVMs and associated progression to high-output heart failure in the absence of endothelial ENG was attenuated by targeting VEGF signaling with an anti-VEGFR2 (VEGF receptor 2) antibody. CONCLUSIONS: ENG promotes the normal balance of VEGF signaling in quiescent endothelial cells to maintain vessel caliber-an essential function in conditions of increased VEGF expression such as local hypoxia or inflammation. In the absence of endothelial ENG, increased sensitivity to VEGF drives abnormal endothelial proliferation in local regions of high VEGF expression, leading to AVM formation and a rapid injurious impact on heart function.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/metabolismo , Endoglina/genética , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Proliferação de Células , Endoglina/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4311, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541114

RESUMO

Atmospheric warming is increasing surface melting across the Antarctic Peninsula, with unknown impacts upon glacier dynamics at the ice-bed interface. Using high-resolution satellite-derived ice velocity data, optical satellite imagery and regional climate modelling, we show that drainage of surface meltwater to the bed of outlet glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula occurs and triggers rapid ice flow accelerations (up to 100% greater than the annual mean). This provides a mechanism for this sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to respond rapidly to atmospheric warming. We infer that delivery of water to the bed transiently increases basal water pressure, enhancing basal motion, but efficient evacuation subsequently reduces water pressure causing ice deceleration. Currently, melt events are sporadic, so efficient subglacial drainage cannot be maintained, resulting in multiple short-lived (<6 day) ice flow perturbations. Future increases in meltwater could induce a shift to a glacier dynamic regime characterised by seasonal-scale hydrologically-driven ice flow variations.

6.
Cardiovasc Eng Technol ; 9(3): 439-446, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651685

RESUMO

Cardiogoniometry (CGM) is method of 3-dimensional electrocardiographic assessment which has been shown to identify patients with angiographically defined, stable coronary artery disease (CAD). However, angiographic evidence of CAD, does not always correlate to physiologically significant disease. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of CGM to detect physiologically significant coronary stenosis defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR). In a tertiary cardiology centre, elective patients with single vessel CAD were enrolled into a prospective double blinded observational study. A baseline CGM recording was performed at rest. A second CGM recording was performed during the FFR procedure, at the time of adenosine induced maximal hyperaemia. A significant CGM result was defined as an automatically calculated ischaemia score < 0 and a significant FFR ratio was defined as < 0.80. Measures of diagnostic performance (including sensitivity and specificity) were calculated for CGM at rest and during maximal hyperaemia. Forty-five patients were included (aged 61.1 ± 11.0; 60.0% male), of which eighteen (40%) were found to have significant CAD when assessed by FFR. At rest, CGM yielded a sensitivity of 33.3% and specificity of 63.0%. At maximal hyperaemia the sensitivity and specificity of CGM was 71.4 and 50.0% respectively. The diagnostic performance of CGM to detect physiologically significant stable CAD is poor at rest. Although, the diagnostic performance of CGM improves substantially during maximal hyperaemia, it does not reach sufficient levels of accuracy to be used routinely in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Vetorcardiografia/métodos , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
7.
Stem Cell Reports ; 8(5): 1287-1298, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494939

RESUMO

Clinical trials of stem cell therapy to treat ischemic heart disease primarily use heterogeneous stem cell populations. Small benefits occur via paracrine mechanisms that include stimulating angiogenesis, and increased understanding of these mechanisms would help to improve patient outcomes. Cardiosphere-derived-cells (CDCs) are an example of these heterogeneous stem cell populations, cultured from cardiac tissue. CDCs express endoglin, a co-receptor that binds specific transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) family ligands, including bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9). In endothelial cells endoglin regulates angiogenic responses, and we therefore hypothesized that endoglin is required to promote the paracrine pro-angiogenic properties of CDCs. Cre/LoxP technology was used to genetically manipulate endoglin expression in CDCs, and we found that the pro-angiogenic properties of the CDC secretome are endoglin dependent both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, BMP9 pre-treatment of endoglin-depleted CDCs restores their pro-angiogenic paracrine properties. As BMP9 signaling is normally required to maintain endoglin expression, we propose that media containing BMP9 could be critical for therapeutic CDC preparation.


Assuntos
Endoglina/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Comunicação Parácrina , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Endoglina/genética , Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
9.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 11: 29-34, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mice are frequently used in research to examine outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and to investigate therapeutic interventions at an early pre-clinical stage. The MI model is generated by surgically occluding a major coronary artery, but natural variation in murine coronary anatomy can generate variable outcomes that will inevitably affect the accuracy of such investigations. The aim of this study was to use MRI to derive the most sensitive early variable that could be used to predict subsequent adverse cardiac remodelling in a male mouse model of MI. METHODS: Using a longitudinal study design, heart structure and function were evaluated using cardiac MRI at one week following surgical MI to generate the early measurements and again at four weeks, when the scar had matured. The primary variables measured at week one were left ventricular volumes at end systole (LV-ESV) and at end diastole (LV-EDV), infarct size, LV-cardiac mass, and ejection fraction (EF). RESULTS: Univariate and multiple regression analyses showed that LV-ESV at one week following MI could be used to accurately predict various parameters of adverse LV remodelling at four weeks post-MI. However, the highest correlation was between LV-ESV at one week following MI and LV-EDV at four weeks (r = 0.99; p < 0.0001), making LV-ESV at one week a valuable predictor variable of future adverse ventricular remodelling after MI. CONCLUSION: Using MRI to determine LV-ESV at an early stage following MI enables a more robust analysis of potential therapeutic interventions to ameliorate adverse cardiac remodelling.

10.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 15: 4, 2013 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23324314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manganese-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MECMR) can non-invasively assess myocardial calcium influx, and calcium levels are known to be elevated in muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy based on cellular studies. METHODS: Left ventricular functional studies and MECMR were performed in mdx mice (model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 24 and 40 weeks) and Sgcd -/- mice (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2 F, 16 and 32 weeks), compared to wild type controls (C57Bl/10, WT). RESULTS: Both models had left ventricular hypertrophy at the later age compared to WT, though the mdx mice had reduced stroke volumes and the Sgcd -/- mice increased heart rate and cardiac index. Especially at the younger ages, MECMR was significantly elevated in both models (both P < 0.05 versus WT). The L-type calcium channel inhibitor diltiazem (5 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced MECMR in the mdx mice (P < 0.01), though only with a higher dose (10 mg/kg i.p.) in the Sgcd -/- mice (P < 0.05). As the Sgcd -/- mice had increased heart rates, to determine the role of heart rate in MECMR we studied the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel inhibitor ZD 7288 which selectively reduces heart rate. This reduced heart rate and MECMR in all mouse groups. However, when looking at the time course of reduction of MECMR in the Sgcd -/- mice at up to 5 minutes of the manganese infusion when heart rates were matched to the WT mice, MECMR was still significantly elevated in the Sgcd -/- mice (P < 0.01) indicating that heart rate alone could not account for all the increased MECMR. CONCLUSIONS: Despite both mouse models exhibiting increased in-vivo calcium influx at an early stage in the development of the cardiomyopathy before left ventricular hypertrophy, there are distinct phenotypical differences between the 2 models in terms of heart rates, hemodynamics and responses to calcium channel inhibitors.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cloretos , Meios de Contraste , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Genótipo , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Compostos de Manganês , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Camundongos Knockout , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Fenótipo , Sarcoglicanas/deficiência , Sarcoglicanas/genética , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Am J Pathol ; 178(1): 273-83, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21224064

RESUMO

The disease mechanisms underlying dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy are complex, involving not only muscle membrane fragility, but also dysregulated calcium homeostasis. Specifically, it has been proposed that calcium channels directly initiate a cascade of pathological events by allowing calcium ions to enter the cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronically blocking calcium channels with the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin from onset of disease in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Treatment in utero onwards delayed onset of dystrophic symptoms in the limb muscle of young mdx mice, but did not prevent degeneration and regeneration events occurring later in the disease course. Long-term treatment had a positive effect on limb muscle pathology, reduced fibrosis, increased sarcolemmal stability, and promoted muscle regeneration in older mice. However, streptomycin treatment did not show positive effects in diaphragm or heart muscle, and heart pathology was worsened. Thus, blocking calcium channels even before disease onset does not prevent dystrophy, making this an unlikely treatment for DMD. These findings highlight the importance of analyzing several time points throughout the life of the treated mice, as well as analyzing many tissues, to get a complete picture of treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/prevenção & controle , Animais , Diafragma/efeitos dos fármacos , Diafragma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Estreptomicina/uso terapêutico
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