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Can Urol Assoc J ; 8(11-12): E906-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25553164


INTRODUCTION: We compare percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgery in the treatment of staghorn stones in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic records of children who underwent treatment for staghorn stones between September 2000 and August 2013. They were divided between Group 1 (patients who underwent PCNL) and Group 2 (patients who underwent open surgery). We compared stone-free and complications rates, need for multiple procedures, and hospital stay. RESULTS: The study included 41 patients (35 boys and 6 girls), with mean age 7.4 ± 3.1 years (range: 2-15). Of these 41 patients, 26 had unilateral renal stone and 15 had bilateral renal stones. The total number of treated renal units was 56: 28 underwent PCNL and 28 underwent open surgery. The complication rate was comparable for both groups (32% for open surgery vs. 28.6%, p = 0.771). Multiple procedures were more needed in PCNL group (60.7% vs. 32% in open surgery, p = 0.032). The stone-free rate was 71.4% after PCNL and 78.6% after open surgery (p = 0.537). A significant difference was observed in shorter hospital stay after PCNL (5 vs. 8.8 days, p < 0.001). Our study's limitations include its retrospective design and relatively small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of staghorn stones in children, PCNL was comparable to open surgery in complication and stone-free rates. PCNL had the advantage of a shorter hospital stay and open surgery showed a decreased need for multiple procedures.

J Urol ; 185(6 Suppl): 2491-5, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21555022


PURPOSE: Posterior urethral valves represent the most common obstructive uropathy in children with a broad spectrum of clinical severity. We evaluated prognostic variables affecting the outcome of renal function in such children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1987 and 2004, 120 patients with a mean age of 2 years with posterior urethral valves were treated initially with valve ablation at our center. We studied certain parameters, including age at presentation, serum creatinine (initial and nadir), initial creatinine clearance, renal ultrasound findings (hydronephrosis and renal parenchymal echogenicity), vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram, bladder dysfunction and popoff mechanisms such as the syndrome of large vesical diverticulum, urinoma and ascites. Long-term renal outcome was assessed. RESULTS: Followup was 2 to 16 years (median 3.6). Renal insufficiency developed at the end of followup in 44 patients (36.5%). Serum creatinine at hospital admission, nadir serum creatinine, initial creatinine clearance and renal parenchymal echogenicity were significant predictors of the final renal outcome (p < 0.05). Patient age at diagnosis (2 or less vs greater than 2 years), upper tract dilatation, the presence or absence of vesicoureteral reflux, popoff mechanisms and bladder dysfunction had no significant impact on future renal function. On multivariate analysis nadir serum creatinine was the only independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the high prognostic value of nadir creatinine after primary valve ablation. Also, initial serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal parenchymal echogenicity on initial renal ultrasound correlate significantly with long-term renal function in children with posterior urethral valves.

Uretra/anormalidades , Uretra/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Creatinina/sangue , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento
World J Urol ; 28(2): 199-204, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19517113


PURPOSE: Presentation of bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC) during adulthood is rare. A major surgical challenge encountered in adults with BEEC is the closure of the anterior abdominal wall defect. In this case series we report our experience with the abdominal closure without osteotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five adult male patients with BEEC were managed at our center. None of the patients had any prior attempts of surgical correction. A right renal tumor was incidentally discovered in one patient and a right partial nephrectomy was performed. All patients underwent urinary diversion and abdominal wall closure at the same operative setting except one. Cystectomy was performed in two patients while the vesical plate muscular coat was utilized for providing support to the anterior abdominal wall in the other three patients. One patient underwent an ileal conduit, while the other patients underwent continent cutaneous diversion. None of our patients underwent osteotomy. RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 6 to 52 months (mean = 31). Patients who underwent continent cutaneous diversion were continent by day and night. One patient had wound infection and partial disruption and secondary sutures were performed. One patient developed stomal stenosis and was managed by stomal dilatation. All patients showed marked satisfaction with their body image following surgery. CONCLUSION: Management of BEEC in adults is challenging. Utilization of the vesical plate muscular coat for supporting the anterior abdominal wall is a reliable method for abdominal reconstruction. Urinary diversion and abdominal wall closure in one surgical procedure without osteotomy is feasible.

Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Extrofia Vesical/cirurgia , Epispadia/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Músculos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteotomia , Satisfação do Paciente , Ossos Pélvicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
J Urol ; 173(2): 595-7, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15643267


PURPOSE: We evaluated the long-term results of visual internal urethrotomy for pediatric urethral strictures to evaluate the efficacy and final outcome of this procedure in children and to evaluate the risk factors for stricture recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The computerized surgical records of our hospital were reviewed to identify children who underwent visual internal urethrotomy between 1980 and 2001. Hospital and followup clinical charts were then reviewed. Many variables were analyzed, including age, etiology, length and site of the strictures, and catheter duration. Only patients with a minimum followup of 2 years were included. Regular self-catheterization was not used by any child. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients (mean age 11.2 years, range 2 to 18) were identified. Followup ranged from 2 to 20 years, with a mean of 6.6 years. The most common etiology for stricture formation was failed previous urethroplasty and post instrumentation (35.5% and 32.3%, respectively). The success rate after initial urethrotomy was 35.5% (11 of 31 patients). Mean interval to first recurrence was 26 months. A second urethrotomy improved the success rate of 58.1%. Eight patients required 2 or more urethrotomies, of whom half required open urethroplasty. Among the evaluated variables only stricture length shorter than 1 cm was associated with good results. CONCLUSIONS: Visual internal urethrotomy provides a safe first line therapeutic option for pediatric urethral strictures shorter than 1 cm, independent of etiology and location. For patients with more than 1 recurrence or with strictures longer than 1 cm, who are at high risk for recurrence after internal urethrotomy, open urethroplasty remains the treatment of choice.

Uretra/cirurgia , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
J Urol ; 172(3): 1078-81, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15311042


PURPOSE: We report our experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in children, and evaluate its early and late anatomical and functional results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65 children with renal calculi were treated with PCNL. Patient age at operation ranged from 9 months to 16 years (mean +/- SD of 5.9 +/- 0.9 years), and 27 (41.5%) were younger than 5 years. Seven patients had bilateral renal stones and, therefore, the number of kidneys treated by PCNL was 72. The patients were followed regularly every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months thereafter. Renal scans using technetium dimercapto-succinic acid for detection of renal scarring and technetium diethylenetetramine-pentaacetic acid for determination of selective glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were performed in all patients at least once during followup, which ranged from 6 to 72 months (mean +/- SD 40 +/- 10). RESULTS: Early complications included significant intraoperative bleeding in 1 case, renal pelvis perforation in 1 and transient fever in 2. Mean hospital stay +/- SD was 3 +/- 1.2 days (range 2 to 21). Of the renal units 62 (86%) were stone-free after a single PCNL, and the remaining 10 with residual stones were treated with a second look PCNL (4) and shock wave lithotripsy (6). Stone-free rates at hospital discharge and at 3 months were 93% and 100%, respectively. During followup 6 patients (9%) had recurrence of small renal stones and were successfully treated with shock wave lithotripsy. None of the kidneys had scarring on dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan. All of the kidneys except 1 showed improvement or stabilization of the corresponding GFR determined by diethylenetetraminepentaacetic acid renal scan. Comparison of the mean preoperative GFR of the corresponding kidney (28.8 +/- 11.2 ml per minute) with mean value at followup (36.1 +/- 9.9) showed an increase of statistical significance (p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of children with renal calculi. At long-term followup the procedure improves renal function without renal scarring.

Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Lactente , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Internação , Litotripsia , Masculino , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Recidiva