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1.
J Pediatr Surg ; 53(8): 1461-1463, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To detect whether grafting the incised plate during Snodgrass repair would improve outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with primary distal hypospadias were included. Patients were equally randomized using closed envelop method to either Snodgrass or grafted tubularized incised plate repair (GTIP). All operations were performed by a single surgeon. All intaroperative data were recorded. All patients were followed up for 1 year. Success was defined as slit shaped meatus at the tip of the glans with no stenosis, fistula or diverticulum. RESULTS: All 60 patients were evaluated at 1 year of follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 40±15months. Both groups were comparable as regard to patients' age, meatus location, length and width and depth of urethral plate and glans width. Success was documented in 29/30 patients (96.7%) in the Snodgrass group. The only complication was meatal stenosis in one patient, whereas success was documented in 28/30 patients (93.3%) in the GTIP group. The two failures were secondary to partial glans dehiscence. Success rate was not statistically different. Flow rate data at 1 year showed insignificant difference between both groups as regards Q-max and voiding time. The only statistically significant difference between both groups was a longer operative time 106±12min in the GTIP group compared to only 77±9 for the Snodgrass group (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Snodgrass and GTIP techniques for primary distal hypospadias repair have similar outcome. With a significantly shorter operative time, Snodgrass repair remains the first choice for primary distal hypospadias repair. TYPE OF THE STUDY: Prospective randomized study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I.


Assuntos
Hipospadia/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Uretra/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Fístula/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Urology ; 85(4): 896-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25669733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the predictive value of distal ureteral diameter (UD) on reflux resolution after endoscopic injection in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with primary VUR between 2009 and 2012 who were managed by endoscopic injection. Seventy preoperative and postoperative voiding cystourethrograms were reviewed. The largest UD within the false pelvis was measured. The UD was divided by the L1-L3 vertebral body distance to get the UD ratio (UDR). One radiologist interpreted the findings of voiding cystourethrography in all patients. Clinical outcome was defined as reflux resolution. RESULTS: Seventy patients were enrolled in this series (17 boys and 53 girls). Mean age was 5.9 years (1.2-13 years). Grade III presented in 37 patients (53%), and 33 patients (47%) were of grade IV. Mean distal UD was 5.5 mm (2.5-13 mm). Mean UDR was 37.8% (18%-70%). Macroplastique injection was performed in all. Subureteric injection was performed in 60 patients (86%), whereas intraureteric injection was performed in 10 patients. No postoperative complications were detected. The effect of grade, UD, and UDR on success after endoscopic injection was tested. UD and UDR were significant predictors of reflux resolution on logistic regression analysis (P <.007 and .001, respectively). CONCLUSION: UDR provides an objective measurement of VUR and appears as a predictive tool of success after endoscopic injection.


Assuntos
Dimetilpolisiloxanos/administração & dosagem , Ureter/anatomia & histologia , Agentes Urológicos/administração & dosagem , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vértebras Lombares/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureteroscopia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Urology ; 85(1): 195-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25444630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with different approaches for management of pouch stones in children with ileal-based urinary reservoir. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts of children who underwent ileal-based urinary reservoirs between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who were diagnosed with reservoir calculi were identified; medical records were reviewed for patients' demographics, diversion details, stone criteria, mode of treatment, perioperative complications, and recurrence rate. RESULTS: We identified 26 children with pouch stones after urinary diversion. There were 11 boys (42%) and 15 girls (58%). Mean age was 11 years (range, 4-16 years). Mean time for diagnosis was 42 months (24-120 months). Pouch stones were asymptomatic in 10 patients (38%). Fifteen cases were postbladder augmentation and 11 cases postcontinent cutaneous diversion. The mean stone size was 4 cm (range, 1-10 cm), and mean Hounsfield Unit was 585 (205-1090). Seventeen children (65%) had positive urine culture result, whereas 9 children were sterile. Seven children (27%) required open poucholithotomy, whereas 19 patients (73%) were managed endoscopically. Percutaneous approach was done in 5 children, whereas urethral access was used in 7 children. Mechanical extraction was performed in 12 cases, and stone disintegration was required in 7 cases. Eight children developed stone recurrence. Mean time for recurrence was 11 months (range, 3-19 months). Six children were after endoscopic disintegration, and all required redo endoscopic extraction. Stone analysis was available in 15 patients (struvite stones in 10 cases and calcium phosphate in 5 cases). CONCLUSION: Pouch stones are established long-term complication of urinary diversion. Open and endoscopic approaches are valid treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Íleo/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Cálculos Urinários/terapia , Coletores de Urina , Adolescente , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Urol Int ; 93(4): 406-10, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25139453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the predictive value of 6 ultrasonographic (USG) parameters for early detection of children at risk of recurrent obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective nonrandomized study included all patients who underwent pyeloplasty between 2010 and 2012. All of the patients had completed at least 6 months of follow-up and preoperative and postoperative USG imaging data were available. The primary outcome was the correlation between USG and diuretic scintigraphic parameters. The secondary outcome was the predictive ability of the pelvicalyceal system parameters, measured by USG, of parenchymal growth after surgery. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were evaluated. The mean age was 3.6 years (range 0.1-12). The mean (± standard deviation) differential renal function improved from 37.4 ± 11 ml/min to 37.7 ± 14 ml/min, which was a difference of no statistical significance. On the other hand, the mean (± SD) half-time (T1/2) significantly improved. After constructing a linear regression model of the 4 USG parameters and the parenchymal growth, the model explained 57.2% of the variance in parenchymal growth after pyeloplasty. The calyx-to-parenchyma ratio change was the largest unique contribution for explaining the variance in parenchymal growth, followed by anteroposterior diameter and calyceal dilatation. CONCLUSION: We proved that calyx-to-parenchyma ratio, anteroposterior diameter and calyceal dilatation are independent predictors of early success after pyeloplasty.


Assuntos
Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diurese , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Ureteral/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentação
5.
Urology ; 83(5): 1145-8, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24485997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of perineal anastomotic urethroplasty for post-traumatic pediatric posterior urethral strictures. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 65 boys who had a perineal anastomotic urethroplasty for post-traumatic posterior urethral strictures between 1991 and 2010. Patients were followed up for a mean (range) of 78 (13-210) months by a history, urinary flow rate estimate, retrograde urethrography, and voiding cystourethrography. Regression analysis was done to assess the predictors of success after urethroplasty. RESULTS: The mean (range) age of the patients was 9.3 (3-16) years. The estimated radiographic stricture length before surgery was 2.4 (1-5) cm. All patients presented with a suprapubic cystostomy tube and scheduled for delayed or repeated correction of a urethral stricture. Twenty boys (30%) had failed previous attempts of repair elsewhere. Mean interval between the original trauma and repair in new cases, and since the last repair in recurrent cases, was 7 months. The perineal anastomotic repair was successful in 58 of 65 (89%) patients. All treatment failures were at the anastomosis and were within the first year. Failed repairs were successfully managed endoscopically in 5 patients and by repeat perineal anastomotic repair in the remaining 2. All boys are continent. There was no chordee or urethral diverticula during the follow-up. CONCLUSION: One-stage perineal anastomotic repair of post-traumatic urethral strictures in boys is feasible with minimal morbidity. Denovo cases and surgeon experience are the predictors of success after urethroplasty.


Assuntos
Períneo/cirurgia , Uretra/cirurgia , Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
6.
Urology ; 80(6): 1357-60, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23102440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional and morphologic outcome after open pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in ectopic pelvic kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent open pyeloplasty in ectopic pelvic kidneys was conducted. Records were evaluated with respect to age at presentation, preoperative imaging, surgical details, and postoperative course. Patients were followed up regularly for functional and morphologic outcome. Success was defined as symptomatic relief and radiographic improvement of obstruction at the last follow-up. RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2010, 680 patients with primary UPJO underwent open dismembered pyeloplasty at our center. Of these patients, 43 (6.3%) had UPJO in ectopic pelvic kidneys. No perioperative complications were encountered in the study group. Mean follow-up was 42 months (range, 18-90 months), and 5 patients were lost to follow-up. The overall success rate was 82.6%. Postoperative hydronephrosis was improved in 20 (52.6%), stable in 11 (29%), and worsened in 7 (18.4%). Postoperative renal function was improved in 12 (31.6%), stable in 19 (50%), and deteriorated in 7 (18.4%). Redo pyeloplasty was required in 4 patients and secondary nephrectomy in 3. Preoperative differential renal function and surgeon experience were statistically significant predictors of improvement in renal function after pyeloplasty. CONCLUSION: Open pyeloplasty for UPJO in ectopic pelvic kidneys is feasible, but varying degrees of hydronephrosis and radiologic obstruction persist after pyeloplasty that could be attributed to anatomy-related pelvocaliectasis, and so regular follow-up is warranted in this subpopulation.


Assuntos
Coristoma/complicações , Rim/anormalidades , Rim/cirurgia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Lactente , Pelve Renal/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia
7.
Urology ; 79(2): 428-33, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22196407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and tolerability of tizanidine for the treatment of dysfunctional voiding in children compared with those of doxazosin. METHODS: A total of 40 children with dysfunctional voiding were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, 2-parallel group, flexible-dose study. The evaluations were performed in accordance with the International Children's Continence Society guidelines. The children were followed up after 1 week and then monthly for 6 months for the clinical, urine culture, and urodynamic parameters. The degree of improvement was assessed using a satisfaction scale that ranged from 0 (no improvement at all) to 10 (total improvement). RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with a mean±SD age of 7±2.6 years were enrolled. The clinical and urodynamic parameters were comparable between both groups. At the last follow-up visit, both groups had had similar improvement in the severity of symptoms, satisfaction scale, and noninvasive flowmetry parameters. In the doxazosin group, urge episodes was the only symptom that showed a significant reduction compared with the baseline values (P=.028). However, the incidence of nocturnal enuresis, urgency attacks, and daytime incontinence were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the tizanidine group (P=.003, P=.008, and P=.017, respectively). Adverse effects were recorded in 6 patients (15%). Epigasteric pain was reported in 2 children (10%) who received doxazosin. In the tizanidine group, a loss of appetite was noted in 2 children (10%), epigastric pain in 1 (5%), and headache in 1 (5%). CONCLUSION: Tizanidine could be a safe and effective treatment of children with dysfunctional voiding due to pelvic floor/skeletal sphincter dysfunction. More placebo-controlled trails with larger sample sizes are needed.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Clonidina/análogos & derivados , Doxazossina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Urinários/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos adversos , Anorexia/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clonidina/efeitos adversos , Clonidina/uso terapêutico , Doxazossina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enurese Noturna/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Incontinência Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Urol ; 181(6): 2684-7; discussion 2687-8, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19375100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vesical stones are common in children in developing countries. Cystolithotomy is the traditional treatment but a percutaneous approach has been advocated. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively our experience with percutaneous cystolithotomy, cystolitholapaxy and open cystolithotomy in children with bladder stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 107 children (96 boys and 11 girls) with vesical stones were treated at our center between January 1992 and March 2008. Mean patient age at the time of diagnosis was 5 years (range 2 to 15). The patients were stratified retrospectively into 2 groups according to the procedure of stone removal. Group 1 (53 patients) underwent open cystolithotomy, and group 2 (54) underwent endourological treatment via the transurethral route (27) or the suprapubic approach (27). Stone size ranged from 0.7 to 5 cm (mean 2.8). RESULTS: In all cases the stones were removed successfully. Operative time was comparable in both groups. The hospital stay was significantly shorter after endourological procedures compared to open surgery (2.6 vs 4.8 days, p <0.05). In the open surgery group 1 patient had a small intestinal injury that necessitated repair, while in the endourological group 2 patients had urinary extravasation (1 urethral and 1 vesical). There were no early or late complications in group 1. In comparison, 4 patients (7.4%) in group 2 had early complications in the form of persistent urinary leakage from the suprapubic site and 1 patient had a bulbous urethral stricture 1 year after transurethral stone disintegration. CONCLUSIONS: Open and endourological management of vesical stones in children is efficient, with a low incidence of complications. Endourological management offers a shorter hospital stay compared to open surgery. However, open cystolithotomy seems to be safer.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/métodos , Cistoscopia , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Pediatr Urol ; 5(2): 78-81, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18922741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report our experience with ureterocalyceal anastomosis in children regarding indications and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all cases that underwent open ureterocalyceal anastomosis at our center between 2000 and 2006. Records were reviewed for patient age, history, affected side, indication of surgery and operative details. Clinical and radiological outcome was assessed. Success was defined as both symptomatic relief and radiographic resolution of obstruction at last follow up. RESULTS: There were 10 cases (six males, four females) with a mean age of 6.5 years (range 3-13 years). Follow up ranged from 6 to 46 months (mean 18). The indications for surgery were failed pyeloplasty in six patients and iatrogenic injury of the ureteropelvic junction or the upper ureter in four. No significant perioperative complications were encountered in the study group. Overall success rate was 80%. Relief of obstruction was evident in eight patients as documented by intravenous urography or nuclear renography, while secondary nephrectomy was necessitated in two patients with severely impaired ipsilateral renal function and normal contralateral kidney. In patients with preserved renal units, the differential function on the involved side was stable on comparing the preoperative and postoperative renographic clearance (26 vs 24 ml/min). CONCLUSION: Ureterocalyceal anastomosis in children is still indicated in some difficult situations. Excellent functional results can be achieved in properly selected cases. Nephrectomy may be indicated in cases with impaired renal function and inability to perform salvage procedure.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidronefrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidronefrose/cirurgia , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Nefrectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/diagnóstico por imagem , Ureter/cirurgia , Obstrução Ureteral/diagnóstico por imagem
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