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1.
Physiotherapy ; 113: 107-115, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore physiotherapists' perceptions of how patients' adherence and non-adherence to recommended exercise affects their practice. DESIGN: A qualitative study with a focus group and semi-structured interviews. The focus group and interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. SETTING: MSK physiotherapy services in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Focus group: 8 UK registered physiotherapists (age range=24-48; seven female, one male). Semi-structured interviews: 10 UK registered physiotherapists (age range=28-52; eight female, two male). RESULTS: Participants described how exercise adherence could be a challenging aspect of clinical practice and how they tried to improve it. Four main themes were identified: 1) A challenge but worth it; 2) It's frustrating but you can't win them all; 3) Striving to see the individual; and 4) Striving to help the patient. The importance of establishing a good working relationship with patients was emphasised. This included working collaboratively with the patient, avoiding blaming them for non-adherence and thinking about the language they used in discussing exercises. CONCLUSION: Patient non-adherence to recommended exercise is a challenging aspect of clinical practice. Physiotherapists can acknowledge this difficulty, and the frustrations it may potentially bring, yet remain resilient in the face of it. Clinicians should consider potential approaches and strategies to optimise the potential for behaviour change, and to improve exercise adherence. Robust interventions to help clinicians facilitate better exercise adherence are also needed.

2.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-16, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375545

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To integrate the evidence of gait aid prescription for improving spatiotemporal gait parameters, balance, safety, adherence to gait aid use, and reducing falls in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Seven health databases were searched to June 2021. Experimental studies investigating gait aid prescription (provision and instruction for use) for older people, reporting gait parameters, balance, falls, and safety of or adherence to gait aid use was included. Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals of gait and balance outcomes in participants at the program's last follow-up were analyzed. The safety of and adherence to gait aid use were described. RESULTS: Eight studies were included (N = 555 older people). No meta-analyses could be performed. Five studies used a single gait aid instruction session. Gait aid prescription had inconsistent effects on gait velocity, and no reported benefits in reducing gait variability in older people with mobility problems or fall risks, including Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. No study investigated gait aid prescription on falls and balance performance. Effects on safety and adherence to gait aid use were unclear. CONCLUSION: Research is needed to investigate the benefits of extensive gait aid training in older people with mobility problems, including those with dementia or high falls risk.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONThere is little evidence currently addressing the benefits of gait aid prescription on gait and associated outcomes in older people with mobility problems or fall risks.Gait aid prescription yielded inconsistent effects on increasing gait velocity and did not appear to reduce gait variability in older people with mobility problems or fall risks, nor in those with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease.Clinicians may consider using a more extensive gait aid training approach to optimize learning of safe gait patterns and gait aid use, which may produce better outcomes.

3.
J Crit Care ; 66: 60-66, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the extent to which musculoskeletal (MSK) complications have been reported following critical illness, identifying evidence gaps and providing recommendations for future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched five databases from January 1st 2000 to March 31st 2021. We included published original research reporting MSK complications in patients discharged from hospital following an admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Two reviewers independently screened English language articles for eligibility. Data extracted included the MSK area of investigation and MSK outcome measures. The overall quality of study was evaluated against standardised reporting guidelines. RESULTS: 4512 titles were screened, and 32 met the inclusion criteria. Only one study included was interventional, with the majority being prospective cohort studies (n = 22). MSK complications identified included: muscle weakness or atrophy, chronic pain, neuromuscular dysfunction, peripheral joint impairment and fracture risk. The quality of the overall reporting in the studies was deemed adequate. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a heterogenous body of literature reporting a high prevalence of a variety of MSK complications extending beyond muscle weakness, therefore future investigation should include evaluations of more than one MSK area. Further investigation of MSK complications could inform the development of future post critical illness rehabilitation programs.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hospitalização , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Clin Obes ; 11(5): e12476, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278720

RESUMO

Left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) is an important marker of early cardiovascular remodelling, which has not been well summarized in young people with overweight/obesity. Weighted, random-effects regression was used to determine the strength of associations of both body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with LVDF measures, adjusting for age and sex. Six databases were searched after PROSPERO registration (CRD42020177470) from inception to July 2020 for studies that compared LVDF between overweight/obesity and control groups aged ≤24 years, yielding 70 studies (9983 individuals). Quality and risk of bias were assessed using NHLBI tools, with scores of good, fair, and poor for 6, 48, and 16 studies, respectively. Increased BMI was associated with worse LVDF in all measures except early mitral inflow deceleration time, with septal early diastolic tissue peak velocity to late diastolic tissue peak velocity ratio having the strongest association (n = 13 studies, 1824 individuals; r = -0.69; P < 0.001). Elevated HOMA-IR was also associated with worse LVDF. Although we could not determine the causality of reduced LVDF in young people, our findings should aid the development of paediatric guidelines for the assessment of LVDF and support further work to address the longitudinal consequences of childhood obesity and IR on LVDF.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Diástole , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
5.
Echocardiography ; 38(8): 1319-1326, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185918

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the left ventricular response to exercise in young adults with hypertension, and identify whether this response can be predicted from changes in left atrial function at rest. METHODS: A total of 127 adults aged 18-40 years who completed clinical blood pressure assessment and echocardiography phenotyping at rest and during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, were included. Measurements were compared between participants with suboptimal blood pressure ≥120/80mm Hg (n = 68) and optimal blood pressure <120/80mm Hg (n = 59). Left ventricular systolic function during exercise was obtained from an apical four chamber view, while resting left atrial function was assessed from apical four and two chamber views. RESULTS: Participants with suboptimal blood pressure had higher left ventricular mass (p = 0.031) and reduced mitral E velocity (p = 0.02) at rest but no other cardiac differences. During exercise, their rise in left ventricular ejection fraction was reduced (p = 0.001) and they had higher left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Resting cardiac size predicted left ventricular volumes during exercise but only left atrial booster pump function predicted the left ventricular ejection fraction response ( ß = .29, p = 0.011). This association persisted after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: Young adults with suboptimal blood pressure have a reduced left ventricular systolic response to exercise, which can be predicted by their left atrial booster pump function at rest. Echocardiographic measures of left atrial function may provide an early marker of functionally relevant, subclinical, cardiac remodelling in young adults with hypertension.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Sanguínea , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961198

RESUMO

Fatigue is one of the most debilitating symptoms for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). By consolidating a diverse and conflicting evidence-base, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to gain new insights into the neurobiology of MS fatigue. MEDLINE, ProQuest, CINAHL, Web of Science databases and grey literature were searched using Medical Subject Headings. Eligible studies compared neuroimaging and neurophysiological data between people experiencing high (MS-HF) versus low (MS-LF) levels of perceived MS fatigue, as defined by validated fatigue questionnaire cut-points. Data were available from 66 studies, with 46 used for meta-analyses. Neuroimaging studies revealed lower volumetric measures in MS-HF versus MS-LF for whole brain (-22.74 ml; 95% CI: -37.72 to -7.76 ml; p = 0.003), grey matter (-18.81 ml; 95% CI: -29.60 to -8.03 ml; p < 0.001), putamen (-0.40 ml; 95% CI: -0.69 to -0.10 ml; p = 0.008) and acumbens (-0.09 ml; 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.03 ml; p = 0.003) and a higher volume of T1-weighted hypointense lesions (1.10 ml; 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.73 ml; p < 0.001). Neurophysiological data showed reduced lower-limb maximum voluntary force production (-19.23 N; 95% CI: -35.93 to -2.53 N; p = 0.02) and an attenuation of upper-limb (-5.77%; 95% CI:-8.61 to -2.93%; p < 0.0001) and lower-limb (-2.16%; 95% CI:-4.24 to -0.07%; p = 0.04) skeletal muscle voluntary activation, accompanied by more pronounced upper-limb fatigability (-5.61%; 95% CI: -9.57 to -1.65%; p = 0.006) in MS-HF versus MS-LF. Results suggest that MS fatigue is characterised by greater cortico-subcortical grey matter atrophy and neural lesions, accompanied by neurophysiological decrements, which include reduced strength and voluntary activation. Prospero registration Prospero registration number: CRD42016017934.

7.
Bioact Mater ; 6(12): 4455-4469, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027234

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by chondrocyte apoptosis and disturbance of the balance between catabolism and anabolism of the extracellular matrix (ECM), is the most common age-related degenerative joint disease worldwide. As sleep has been found to be beneficial for cartilage repair, and circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of OA, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and found circRNA3503 was significantly increased after melatonin (MT)-induced cell sleep. Upregulation of circRNA3503 expression completely rescued the effects of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), which was used to simulate OA, on apoptosis, ECM degradation- and synthesis-related genes. Mechanistically, circRNA3503 acted as a sponge of hsa-miR-181c-3p and hsa-let-7b-3p. Moreover, as we previously showed that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from synovium mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can not only successfully deliver nucleic acids to chondrocytes, but also effectively promote chondrocyte proliferation and migration, we assessed the feasibility of sEVs in combination with sleep-related circRNA3503 as an OA therapy. We successfully produced and isolated circRNA3503-loaded sEVs (circRNA3503-OE-sEVs) from SMSCs. Then, poly(D,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,l-lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA, PLEL) triblock copolymer gels were used as carriers of sEVs. Through in vivo and in vitro experiments, PLEL@circRNA3503-OE-sEVs were shown to be a highly-effective therapeutic strategy to prevent OA progression. Through multiple pathways, circRNA3503-OE-sEVs alleviated inflammation-induced apoptosis and the imbalance between ECM synthesis and ECM degradation by acting as a sponge of hsa-miR-181c-3p and hsa-let-7b-3p. In addition, circRNA3503-OE-sEVs promoted chondrocyte renewal to alleviate the progressive loss of chondrocytes. Our results highlight the potential of PLEL@circRNA3503-OE-sEVs for preventing OA progression.

8.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 111, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have co-designed a tailored blended physiotherapy intervention for people with progressive multiple sclerosis (PwPMS) who often struggle to access support for physical activity. Underpinned by self-management principles, the Lifestyle, Exercise and Activity Package for people with Multiple Sclerosis (LEAP-MS) intervention incorporates face-to-face or online physiotherapy coaching sessions with an accompanying online physical activity platform. The LEAP-MS platform is a multi-user system enabling user and physiotherapist to co-create activity plans. The LEAP-MS platform consists of an information and activity suite, interactive components enabling selection of exercises into an activity programme, goal setting and activity logging. The platform also facilitates online remote support from a physiotherapist through an embedded online messaging function. We aim to evaluate the LEAP-MS platform in a feasibility trial. METHODS: LEAP-MS will be evaluated within a single-arm feasibility study with embedded process evaluation. After registration and initial eligible screening, 21 participants will be required to complete baseline self-completion measures. This will be followed by an initial home-based or online coaching session with a physiotherapist (who has received tailored self-management and digital resource training) and access to the online intervention for an initial 3-month period. During this period, participants are given the option to request up to five further home-based or online physiotherapy coaching sessions. Follow-up questionnaires and semi-structured interviews will be administered 3 months after baseline with participants and intervention physiotherapists. The LEAP-MS platform will be available to participants for a further 3 months. Usage of the LEAP-MS platform will be tracked during the full 6-month period and final follow-up will be conducted 6 months after baseline. DISCUSSION: Feasibility outcomes (recruitment, retention, intervention uptake and safety) will be reported. The process evaluation will be undertaken to identify possible mechanisms for any observed effects. The data will inform full-scale evaluations of this co-produced, blended physiotherapy intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03951181 . Registered 15 May 2019.

9.
Clin Rehabil ; 35(11): 1599-1610, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the extent to which initial walking speed influences dual-task performance after walking intervention, hypothesising that slow walking speed affects automatic gait control, limiting executive resource availability. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of a trial of dual-task (DT) and single-task (ST) walking interventions comparing those with good (walking speed ⩾0.8 m s-1, n = 21) and limited (walking speed <0.79 m s-1, n = 24) capacity at baseline. SETTING: Community. SUBJECTS: Adults six-months post stroke with walking impairment. INTERVENTIONS: Twenty sessions of 30 minutes treadmill walking over 10 weeks with (DT) or without (ST) cognitive distraction. Good and limited groups were formed regardless of intervention received. MAIN MEASURES: A two-minute walk with (DT) and without (ST) a cognitive distraction assessed walking. fNIRS measured prefrontal cortex activation during treadmill walking with (DT) and without (ST) Stroop and planning tasks and an fMRI sub-study used ankle-dorsiflexion to simulate walking. RESULTS: ST walking improved in both groups (∆baseline: Good = 8.9 ± 13.4 m, limited = 5.3±8.9 m, Group × time = P < 0.151) but only the good walkers improved DT walking (∆baseline: Good = 10.4 ± 13.9 m, limited = 1.3 ± 7.7 m, Group × time = P < 0.025). fNIRS indicated increased ispilesional prefrontal cortex activation during DT walking following intervention (P = 0.021). fMRI revealed greater DT cost activation for limited walkers, and increased resting state connectivity of contralesional M1 with cortical areas associated with conscious gait control at baseline. After the intervention, resting state connectivity between ipsilesional M1 and bilateral superior parietal lobe, involved in integrating sensory and motor signals, increased in the good walkers compared with limited walkers. CONCLUSION: In individual who walk slowly it may be difficult to improve dual-task walking ability.Registration: ISRCTN50586966.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Caminhada , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Marcha , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Velocidade de Caminhada
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802336

RESUMO

This study aims to assess rehabilitation needs and provision of rehabilitation services for individuals with moderate-to-severe disability and investigate factors influencing the probability of receiving rehabilitation within six months after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Overall, the analyses included 1206 individuals enrolled in the CENTER-TBI study with severe-to-moderate disability. Impairments in five outcome domains (daily life activities, physical, cognition, speech/language, and psychological) and the use of respective rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, cognitive and speech therapies, and psychological counselling) were recorded. Sociodemographic and injury-related factors were used to investigate the probability of receiving rehabilitation. Physiotherapy was the most frequently provided rehabilitation service, followed by speech and occupational therapy. Psychological counselling was the least frequently accessed service. The probability of receiving a rehabilitative intervention increased for individuals with greater brain injury severity (odds ratio (OR) 1.75, CI 95%: 1.27-2.42), physical (OR 1.92, CI 95%: 1.21-3.05) and cognitive problems (OR 4.00, CI 95%: 2.34-6.83) but decreased for individuals reporting psychological problems (OR 0.57, CI 95%: 1.21-3.05). The study results emphasize the need for more extensive prescription of rehabilitation services for individuals with disability. Moreover, targeted rehabilitation programs, which aim to improve outcomes, should specifically involve psychological services to meet the needs of individuals recovering from TBI.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of exercise from structured activity programmes have recently been questioned; as a result, this study examines the impact of an Individualised Activity Program (IAP) on the relationship with cardiovascular, mitochondrial and fatigue parameters. METHODS: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients were assessed using Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ), Fatigue Severity Score (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS). VO2peak, VO2submax and heart rate (HR) were assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Mfn1 and Mfn2 levels in plasma were assessed. A Task Force Monitor was used to assess ANS functioning in supine rest and in response to the Head-Up Tilt Test (HUTT). RESULTS: Thirty-four patients completed 16 weeks of the IAP. The CFQ, FSS and FIS scores decreased significantly along with a significant increase in Mfn1 and Mfn2 levels (p = 0.002 and p = 0.00005, respectively). The relationships between VO2 peak and Mfn1 increase in response to IAP (p = 0.03) and between VO2 at anaerobic threshold and ANS response to the HUTT (p = 0.03) were noted. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that IAP reduces fatigue and improves functional performance along with changes in autonomic and mitochondrial function. However, caution must be applied as exercise was not well tolerated by 51% of patients.

12.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 7(1): e000924, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768961

RESUMO

Objectives: To establish pupil fitness levels, and the relationship to global norms and physical education (PE) enjoyment. To measure and describe physical activity (PA) levels during secondary school PE lessons, in the context of recommended levels, and how levels vary with activity and lesson type. Methods: A cross-sectional design; 10 697 pupils aged 12.5 (SD 0.30) years; pupils who completed a multistage fitness test and wore accelerometers to measure PA during PE lessons. Multilevel models estimated fitness and PE activity levels, accounting for school and class-level clustering. Results: Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys than girls (ß=-0.48; 95% CI -0.56 to -0.39, p<0.001), within absolute terms 51% of boys and 54% of girls above the 50th percentile of global norms. On average, pupils spent 23.8% of PE lessons in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and 7.1% in vigorous PA (VPA). Fitness-focused lessons recorded most VPA in co-educational (ß=1.09; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.74) and boys-only lessons (ß=0.32; 95% CI -0.21 to 0.85). In girls-only lessons, track athletics recorded most VPA (ß=0.13; 95% CI -0.50 to 0.75) and net/wall/racket games (ß=0.97; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.82) the most MVPA. For all lesson types, field athletics was least active (ß=-0.85; 95% CI -1.33 to -0.36). There was a relationship of enjoyment of PE to fitness (ß=1.03; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.23), and this relationship did not vary with sex (ß=-0.14 to 0.23; 95% CI -0.16 to 0.60). Conclusions: PE lessons were inactive compared with current guidelines. We propose that if we are to continue to develop a range of sporting skills in schools at the same time as increasing levels of fitness and PA, there is a need to introduce additional sessions of PE activity focused on increasing physical activity. Trial registration number: NCT03286725.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e045378, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People with progressive multiple sclerosis (PwPMS) report that they recognise the benefits of activity on their physical and psychological health but need support to achieve their physical activity goals. We aimed to systematically develop a theoretically informed intervention that would enable PwPMS to more readily engage in regular physical activity. DESIGN: We used an intervention mapping approach to inform intervention development. SETTING: We conducted semistructured interviews with PwPMS and their families/carers and physiotherapists recruited from secondary care settings. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen PwPMS with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of between 6 and 8 and 7 of their families/carers and 13 physiotherapists and 1 physiotherapy technician participated. RESULTS: Interview data suggested that the development of supportive coaching relationships with physiotherapists could promote the ability of PwPMS to achieve a desirable and achievable physical activity plan. These interview data informed the prototype 'Lifestyle Exercise and Activity Package for Multiple Sclerosis' (LEAP-MS) consisting of a secure multiuser web-based platform (with an education and activity suite, interactive components enabling selection of exercises, goal setting and activity logging), up to six flexible face-to-face or web-based physiotherapy coaching sessions and remote support via an embedded web-based messaging function that all together draw on specific theory-based methods to achieve physical activity behaviour change, namely active learning, reinforcement, modelling, feedback, facilitation, goal setting and guided practice. Implementation is within a multiuser platform accessible to participants, trained physiotherapists and researchers. CONCLUSIONS: We have followed an inclusive, systematic and transparent process to develop the LEAP-MS intervention that enables detailed description of components, context and guiding principles to inform ongoing evaluation. Importantly, PwPMS expressed the need for autonomy in developing physical activity plans. This has been achieved through the embedding of self-management principles in the design and delivery of the LEAP-MS intervention.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Autogestão , Consenso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia
15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 622678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633648

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a need to maintain rehabilitation activities and motivate movement and physical activity during quarantine in individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Objective: This paper sets out to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of using computer serious game in a non-immersive virtual reality (VR) implemented and evaluated completely remotely in participants with CP for Home-Based Telerehabilitation during the quarantine period for COVID-19. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a total of 44 individuals participated in this study between March and June 2020, 22 of which had CP (14 males and 8 females, mean age = 19 years, ranging between 11 and 28 years) and 22 typically developing individuals, matched by age and sex to the individuals with CP. Participants practiced a coincident timing game1 and we measured movement performance and physical activity intensity using the rating of perceived exertion Borg scale. Results: All participants were able to engage with the VR therapy remotely, reported enjoying sessions, and improved performance in some practice moments. The most important result in this cross-sectional study was the significant increasing in rating of perceived exertion (through Borg scale) in both groups during practice and with CP presenting a higher rating of perceived exertion. Conclusion: Children with CP enjoyed participating, were able to perform at the same level as their peers on certain activities and increased both their performance and physical activity intensity when using the game, supporting the use of serious games for this group for home therapy and interactive games. Clinical Trials Registration: https://Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04402034. Registered on May 20, 2020.

16.
J Neurosci ; 41(5): 1092-1104, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436528

RESUMO

The World Health Organization promotes physical exercise and a healthy lifestyle as means to improve youth development. However, relationships between physical lifestyle and human brain development are not fully understood. Here, we asked whether a human brain-physical latent mode of covariation underpins the relationship between physical activity, fitness, and physical health measures with multimodal neuroimaging markers. In 50 12-year old school pupils (26 females), we acquired multimodal whole-brain MRI, characterizing brain structure, microstructure, function, myelin content, and blood perfusion. We also acquired physical variables measuring objective fitness levels, 7 d physical activity, body mass index, heart rate, and blood pressure. Using canonical correlation analysis, we unravel a latent mode of brain-physical covariation, independent of demographics, school, or socioeconomic status. We show that MRI metrics with greater involvement in this mode also showed spatially extended patterns across the brain. Specifically, global patterns of greater gray matter perfusion, volume, cortical surface area, greater white matter extra-neurite density, and resting state networks activity covaried positively with measures reflecting a physically active phenotype (high fit, low sedentary individuals). Showing that a physically active lifestyle is linked with systems-level brain MRI metrics, these results suggest widespread associations relating to several biological processes. These results support the notion of close brain-body relationships and underline the importance of investigating modifiable lifestyle factors not only for physical health but also for brain health early in adolescence.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An active lifestyle is key for healthy development. In this work, we answer the following question: How do brain neuroimaging markers relate with young adolescents' level of physical activity, fitness, and physical health? Combining advanced whole-brain multimodal MRI metrics with computational approaches, we show a robust relationship between physically active lifestyles and spatially extended, multimodal brain imaging-derived phenotypes. Suggesting a wider effect on brain neuroimaging metrics than previously thought, this work underlies the importance of studying physical lifestyle, as well as other brain-body relationships in an effort to foster brain health at this crucial stage in development.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal/tendências
17.
Nutr Res ; 85: 31-39, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444968

RESUMO

To assess the intake of nutrients in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) compared to a control population, and to assess the pro/ anti-inflammatory properties of nutrients/ foods and their relationships with fatigue and quality of life. This was a cross sectional study in which 2410 pwMS (686 men; 1721 women, 3 n/a, mean age 53 (11 years)) provided dietary data using a food frequency questionnaire that was hosted on the MS Register for a period of 3 months and this was compared to a cohort of 24,852 controls (11,250 male, 13,602 female, mean age 59 years). Consent was implied by anonymously filling out the questionnaire. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare intake between pwMS and controls, and a bivariate analyses followed by chi2 test were undertaken to identify significance and the strength of the relationship between pro/anti-inflammatory dietary factors and fatigue and EQ-5D. Compared to controls, all nutrients were significantly lower in the MS group (P < .05). Bivariate associations showed a significant correlation between consuming fish and lower clinical fatigue (χ2(1) = 4.221, P< .05), with a very low association (φ (phi) = -0.051, P = .04. Positive health outcomes on the EQ-5D measures were associated with higher carotene, magnesium oily fish and fruits and vegetable and sodium consumption (P < .05). Fiber, red meat, and saturated fat (women only) consumption was associated with worse outcomes on the EQ-5D measures (P < .05). pwMS have different dietary intakes compared to controls, and this may be associated with worse symptoms.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Inflamação , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Fadiga , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido , Verduras
18.
Disabil Rehabil ; 43(20): 2866-2874, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017641

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an in-depth understanding of how survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI) experience fatigue and how fatigue affects everyday life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 adults with ABI fatigue, recruited from support groups in south east UK. Interviews were analysed using the frameworks method. RESULTS: We developed four themes: experiencing fatigue in the context of everyday activities, struggling to make sense of fatigue, coping with fatigue, and adjusting social participation in the context of fatigue. Fatigue was comprised of mental, physical, generalised, and motivational fatigue. Balancing fatigue against participation in daily activities was influenced by coping strategies and social support. Opportunities to socialize or participate in meaningful activities provided incentives for participants to push through their fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights complex interactions that potentially mitigate the impact of fatigue on everyday life. Educational and self-management approaches to fatigue need to account for different types of fatigue in the contexts of an individual's daily activity. Assessment of fatigue should capture in-the-moment experiences of different types of fatigue and activity. Social support and participation in meaningful activities may help individuals to break the negative cycle of fatigue and inactivity.Implications for rehabilitationAssessment of fatigue after brain injury should capture the multidimensional nature of fatigue as well as contextual information about exacerbating activities and environments.Development of personalised coping strategies that account for perceived triggers of different subtypes of fatigue may help ABI survivors to broaden their activity and social participation.Social support and opportunities to participate in personally meaningful activities may help prevent or break a negative cycle of fatigue and inactivity for some ABI survivors.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Lesões Encefálicas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Fadiga , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; 43(12): 1675-1681, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe physical activity (PA) levels and motivators and barriers to PA amongst haemodialysis (HD) patients and to identify an appropriate approach to increasing their PA. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed methods study conducted in a tertiary and satellite HD unit. One hundred and one participants aged 18 years and over, receiving regular HD for at least four months, were recruited. Patients with recent hospital admission or acute cardiac event were excluded. Participants completed health status (EQ-5D-3L™) and activity (Human Activity Profile (HAP)) questionnaires. A subgroup was invited to wear accelerometers and wearable cameras to measure PA levels and capture PA episodes, to inform subsequent semi-structured interviews on motivators and barriers. Semi-structured interviews were analysed using the framework method informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model. RESULTS: 98/101 completed the study (66 males, 32 females). For 68/98 participants, adjusted activity scores from the HAP indicated "impaired" levels of PA; for 67/98 participants, the EQ-5D-3L indicated problems with mobility. Semi-structured interviews identified general (fear of falls, pain) and disease specific barriers (fatigue) to PA. Motivators included tailored exercise programmes and educational support from health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Participants indicated a need for co-development with healthcare professionals of differentiated, targeted exercise interventions.Implications for rehabilitationHealthcare professionals should encourage and motivate haemodialysis patients to participate in physical activity (PA).As part of this approach, there is a need to increase patient knowledge of safe beneficial exercise activities and help individuals identify and overcome barriers.To allow for individualised approaches, clinical interventions should focus on other community activities that patients can do outside the dialysis clinic setting and utilise existing networks such as the British Renal Society Rehabilitation Network.The dialysis clinic provides professionals the opportunity to monitor and motivate patients.Relevant education is needed for staff about the benefits of PA and how to engage patients and their carers in safe and effective approaches.

20.
J Mot Behav ; 53(6): 707-716, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203325

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine how dual-task (DT) effect on gait differs among adolescents with different fitness and health profiles. The gait performances of 365 adolescents aged 13-14 years were assessed at single and DT walking. The proportional changes in gait parameters from single to dual were regressed against gender, body mass index (BMIz), three components of MABC-2 (balance, aiming &catching and manual dexterity), group (high vs low motor competence), body strength, physical fitness level using multiple regression analyses; and gender and four items of balance subtest of MABC-2 in the secondary analysis. The analyses showed that being female was associated with greater reduction in gait speed and stride length and an increase in double support time and step time; and having lower score in balance was related to greater reduction in gait speed, and cadence, and an increase in step time. Only zig-zag hopping item of the balance subtest was associated with DT effect on gait speed and stride length. No significant relationships were found between DT effect on gait and the rest of the predictors. Females and adolescents with lower level of balance function may be at higher risk of having DT deficit during walking.

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