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1.
Addiction ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597207

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid used in routine stop smoking services in England. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal Social Services (PSS) perspective for 12 months period and lifetime. Costs, including that of both treatments, other smoking cessation help and healthcare services, and health benefits, estimated from EQ-5D-5L and measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for the 12-month analysis, came from a randomised controlled trial. Lifetime analysis was model-based with input from both trial data and published secondary data sources. Cost-effectiveness was measured by an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). SETTING: Three Stop-Smoking Service sites in England PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers (n=886) who sought help to quit in the participating sites INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: An e-cigarette (EC) starter kit versus provision of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for up to three months, both with standard behavioural support. A total of 886 participants were randomised (439 in EC arm, 447 in NRT arm). Excluding one death in each arm, the one-year quit rate was 18.0% and 9.9%, respectively. MEASUREMENTS: Cost of treatments was estimated from treatment log. Costs of other smoking cessation help and healthcare services, and EQ-5D-5L were collected at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-ups. Incremental costs and incremental QALYs were estimated using regression adjusting for baseline covariates and their respective baseline values. FINDINGS: The ICER was £1,100 per QALY gained at the 12 months after quit date (87% probability below £20,000/QALY). Markov model estimated the lifetime ICER of EC to be £65 per QALY (85% probability below £20,000/QALY). CONCLUSION: Using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid with standard behavioural support in stop-smoking services in England is likely to be more cost-effective than using nicotine replacement therapy in the same setting.

2.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(43): 1-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, a large number of smokers in the UK have stopped smoking with the help of e-cigarettes. So far, UK Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) have been reluctant to include e-cigarettes among their treatment options because data on their efficacy compared with the licensed medications are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the efficacy of refillable e-cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products, when accompanied by weekly behavioural support. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial comparing e-cigarettes and NRT. SETTING: Three sites that provide local SSSs. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 886 smokers seeking help to quit smoking, aged ≥ 18 years, not pregnant or breastfeeding, with no strong preference to use or not to use NRT or e-cigarettes in their quit attempt, and currently not using NRT or e-cigarettes. A total of 886 participants were randomised but two died during the study (one in each study arm) and were not included in the analysis. INTERVENTIONS: The NRT arm (n = 446) received NRT of their choice (single or combination), provided for up to 12 weeks. The e-cigarette arm (n = 438) received an e-cigarette starter pack and were encouraged to buy addtional e-liquids and e-cigarette products of their choice. Both arms received the same standard behavioural support. Participants attended weekly sessions at their SSS and provided outcome data at 4 weeks. They were then followed up by telephone at 6 and 12 months. Participants reporting abstinence or at least 50% reduction in cigarette consumption at 12 months were invited to attend for carbon monoxide (CO) validation. Participants/researchers could not be blinded to the intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was CO-validated sustained abstinence rates at 52 weeks. Participants lost to follow-up or not providing biochemical validation were included as non-abstainers. Secondary outcomes included abstinence at other time points, reduction in smoke intake, treatment adherence and ratings, elicited adverse reactions, and changes in self-reported respiratory health. A cost-efficacy analysis of the intervention was also conducted. RESULTS: The 1-year quit rate was 9.9% in the NRT arm and 18.0% in the e-cigarette arm (risk ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 2.58; p < 0.001). The e-cigarette arm had significantly higher validated quit rates at all time points. Participants in the e-cigarette arm showed significantly better adherence and experienced fewer urges to smoke throughout the initial 4 weeks of their quit attempt than those in the NRT arm, and gave their allocated product more favourable ratings. They were also more likely to be still using their allocated product at 1 year (39.5% vs. 4.3%, χ2 = 161.4; p < 0.001). Participants assigned to e-cigarettes reported significantly less coughing and phlegm at 1 year than those assigned to NRT (controlling for smoking status). A detailed economic analysis confirmed that, because e-cigarettes incur lower NHS costs than NRT and generate a higher quit rate, e-cigarette use is more cost-effective. LIMITATIONS: The results may not be generalisable to other types of smokers or settings, or to cartridge-based e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Within the context of multisession treatment for smokers seeking help, e-cigarettes were significantly more effective than NRT. If SSSs provide e-cigarette starter packs, it is likely to boost their success rates and improve their cost-efficacy. FUTURE WORK: The efficacy of e-cigarettes provided with different levels of support will show whether smokers should be encouraged to switch to vaping within support services or whether e-cigarettes can be recommended with less intensive or no support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60477608. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 43. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The trial was supported by the Cancer Research UK Prevention Trials Unit (grant A16893).

3.
Addict Behav ; 95: 35-40, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a key contributor to health and social inequalities and homeless smoking prevalence rates are 4 times higher than the general population. Research on homelessness and smoking to date has been concentrated predominantly in the US and Australia. This study aimed to describe smoking and quitting behaviour in homeless adult smokers in Great Britain. Data on perceptions of, and willingness to try, e-cigarettes were also gathered. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of 283 adult smokers accessing homeless support services in Kent, the Midlands, London and Edinburgh. Participants answered a four-part survey: i) demographics; ii) current smoking behaviour and dependence (including the Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]); iii) previous quit attempts; and iv) e-cigarettes perceptions. RESULTS: High levels of cigarette dependence were observed (FTCD: M = 7.78, sd ±â€¯0.98). Although desire to quit was high, most had made fewer than 5 quit attempts and 90% of these lasted less than 24 h. 91.5% reported that others around them also smoked. Previous quit methods used included cold turkey (29.7%), NRT (24.7%), varenicline (22.3%) and bupropion (14.5%). 34% were willing or able to spend £20 or more for an e-cigarette and 82% had tried one in the past although 54% reported that they preferred smoking. CONCLUSION: We observed high nicotine dependence, few long-term quit attempts, strong desire to quit and amenability to both traditional cessation methods and e-cigarettes. Community embedded and non-routine approaches to cessation may be promising avenues promoting engagement with the homeless community. Likely barriers to uptake include low affordability, preference for cigarettes and high numbers of smoking acquaintances.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(7): 629-637, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are commonly used in attempts to stop smoking, but evidence is limited regarding their effectiveness as compared with that of nicotine products approved as smoking-cessation treatments. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults attending U.K. National Health Service stop-smoking services to either nicotine-replacement products of their choice, including product combinations, provided for up to 3 months, or an e-cigarette starter pack (a second-generation refillable e-cigarette with one bottle of nicotine e-liquid [18 mg per milliliter]), with a recommendation to purchase further e-liquids of the flavor and strength of their choice. Treatment included weekly behavioral support for at least 4 weeks. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence for 1 year, which was validated biochemically at the final visit. Participants who were lost to follow-up or did not provide biochemical validation were considered to not be abstinent. Secondary outcomes included participant-reported treatment usage and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 886 participants underwent randomization. The 1-year abstinence rate was 18.0% in the e-cigarette group, as compared with 9.9% in the nicotine-replacement group (relative risk, 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 2.58; P<0.001). Among participants with 1-year abstinence, those in the e-cigarette group were more likely than those in the nicotine-replacement group to use their assigned product at 52 weeks (80% [63 of 79 participants] vs. 9% [4 of 44 participants]). Overall, throat or mouth irritation was reported more frequently in the e-cigarette group (65.3%, vs. 51.2% in the nicotine-replacement group) and nausea more frequently in the nicotine-replacement group (37.9%, vs. 31.3% in the e-cigarette group). The e-cigarette group reported greater declines in the incidence of cough and phlegm production from baseline to 52 weeks than did the nicotine-replacement group (relative risk for cough, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9; relative risk for phlegm, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9). There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of wheezing or shortness of breath. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarettes were more effective for smoking cessation than nicotine-replacement therapy, when both products were accompanied by behavioral support. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research and Cancer Research UK; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN60477608 .).


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vaping/efeitos adversos
5.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking in the UK. Although many smokers quit, relapse is common. Historically, the literature has reported strong associations between tobacco smoking lapse and relapse following a quit attempt. This article aims to explore how smoking lapse is experienced by those who vape to quit smoking. DESIGN AND METHODS: A purposive sample of 40 UK vapers were matched to a sampling frame from a representative sample of UK quitters. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were thematically analysed iteratively situating reported experiences of smoking lapse within narrative descriptions of vaping. Iterative categorization was used as a technique to further explore a subset of data specifically focused on smoking lapse. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that smoking lapse is perceived qualitatively differently when using e-cigarettes as compared to past quit attempts. Having the pleasurable alternative of vaping meant that full relapse to smoking was not inevitable. Instead, lapses were perceived as 'permissive' or 'purposive', intentional and contextualised, or for some as unintentional, with the resulting emotional response negatively reinforcing ongoing tobacco smoking abstinence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our novel findings suggest that the role of tobacco smoking lapse in relation to relapse status may be theoretically redefined, drawing on data from vapers. These findings question the utility of previous theories of the role of smoking lapse in the relapse process. For ex-smokers, vaping offers a pleasurable, viable pharmacological, but also social and psychological, substitution option for smoking and potentially powerfully alters the experience and threat of any lapse.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1259, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Article 20 of the EU Tobacco Products Directive [TPD] stipulates that e-cigarette packets and refill products must carry a nicotine addiction health warning. Although previous studies conducted in North America have found that perceived harm, addictiveness and intention to use declined following exposure to e-cigarette health warnings, possible effects of the TPD health warnings on smokers and non-smokers has not been studied. This study will investigate the effects of the EU TPD e-cigarette health warnings and a comparative harm message (COMP; developed specifically for this study) on smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions of harm, addictiveness and social acceptability of e-cigarettes. Additionally, the potential effects of the TPD warnings and the COMP on smokers' intentions to purchase and use e-cigarettes will be explored. METHODS/DESIGN: A sample of 2400 UK residents will be recruited in this experimental, randomised design, with Smoking status (Smoker vs. Non-smoker), TPD presence (TPD1 vs. TPD2 vs. No-TPD) and COMP presence (Presence vs. Absence) as between subjects independent variables, and Time (pre-post exposure of images) as a within subjects factor. Dependent variables comprise self-reported perceived harm, addictiveness, social acceptability, e-cigarettes' effectiveness, intentions to purchase and use e-cigarettes. Cigarette dependence, previous e-cigarette exposure, and baseline intentions to quit will be measured as covariates. DISCUSSION: Health warnings, such as those implemented by the TPD, may help to prevent non-smokers from e-cigarettes use, but it is possible that they may inadvertently deter smokers from initiating use and substituting their tobacco smoking for e-cigarettes use if their content is deemed too negative. It is hoped that this study will help identify the most effective message or combination of messages that encourage use among smokers without promoting use among non-smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN76967031 ; date of registration: 23/10/18.

8.
Addict Behav Rep ; 8: 136-139, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263928

RESUMO

Introduction: Many countries have now mandated warning labels on e-cigarette products. One example, the EU TPD health warning states, "This product contains nicotine which is a highly addictive substance. [It is not recommended for use by non-smokers]". The impact of the EU TPD warning message on intentions to use, has not been explored within an EU population. Aims: Examine the effect of i) the TPD e-cigarette health warning and ii) an alternative relative risk message, on smokers' willingness to use, likelihood of purchase, and intention to use as a quit aid. Methods: Cross-sectional online study. Ninety-five smokers (55 males; 18-55 years old) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions and viewed ten individually presented e-cigarettes images with either no message, TPD message, or relative risk message. Participants rated i) willingness to use, and likelihood of: ii) purchase, iii) using in the next month, and iv) using in a quit attempt, before and after viewing the images. Results: For willingness to use and likelihood of purchase, ANCOVAs showed a significant main effect of Message Type (ps, <.05); ratings were lower in the TPD condition. Message type, however did not significantly change likelihood of using in the next month or using in a quit attempt. Conclusions: Preliminary findings suggest that the TPD e-cigarette health warning may reduce smokers' willingness to use and likelihood of purchasing an e-cigarette. Messages conveying reduced harm or indeed, no message at all, may be more effective in encouraging smokers to switch to these lower risk products.

9.
Harm Reduct J ; 15(1): 37, 2018 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012148

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], the authors noticed an error in the Competing interests section.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is the largest single contributor to poor physical health and increased mortality in people with serious mental illnesses. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a harm reduction intervention in this population. METHOD: Fifty tobacco smokers with a psychotic disorder were enrolled onto a 24-week pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02212041) investigating the efficacy of a 6-week free e-cigarette intervention to reduce smoking. Cigarette and e-cigarette use was self-reported at weekly visits, and verified using carbon monoxide tests. Psychopathology, e-cigarette acceptability and adverse effects were assessed using standardised scales. RESULTS: There was a significant (⩾50%) reduction in cigarettes consumed per day between baseline and week 6 [F(2.596,116.800) = 25.878, p < 0.001], and e-cigarette use was stable during this period [F(2.932,46.504) = 2.023, p = 0.115]. These changes were verified by significant carbon monoxide reductions between these time points [F(3.335,126.633) = 5.063, p = 0.002]. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of e-cigarettes is a potentially useful harm reduction intervention in smokers with a psychotic disorder.

11.
Harm Reduct J ; 15(1): 31, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have little understanding of how vapers use e-cigarettes beyond cessation. E-cigarettes may have a role to play in reducing the health-related harms of tobacco smoking, through not only assisting smoking cessation attempts but also supporting long-term abstinence from smoking. However, there are fears that vaping may lead to the 'renormalisation' of smoking type behaviours. This study aimed to explore patterns of use and reported experiences of vapers quitting smoking using an e-cigarette in relation to long-term smoking status (abstinence or relapse). METHODS: A purposive sample of 40 UK vapers was matched to a sampling frame of demographic characteristics from a representative sample of UK quitters. Following full informed consent, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were thematically analysed by two members of the research team. Final thematic analysis was verified and agreed by consensus. RESULTS: The sample self-reported long histories of tobacco use and multiple previous quit attempts which had eventually resulted in relapse back to smoking, although a small but important group had never before attempted to quit. Initiating e-cigarette use was experienced as a revelation for some, who were quickly able to fully switch to using e-cigarettes as an alternative to tobacco smoking. For others, periods of dual use or smoking relapse combined with attempts at vaping that were not initially satisfactory. Many of these chose a cheaper 'cig-a-like' device which they found to be inadequate. Experimentation with different devices and different setups, over time, resulted in some 'sliding' rather than switching to vaping. This involved periods of 'dual use'. Some settled on patterns of vaping as a direct substitute of previous tobacco smoking, whereas others reported 'grazing' patterns of vaping throughout the day that were perceived to support tobacco smoking abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that e-cigarettes may be a unique harm reduction innovation for smoking relapse prevention. E-cigarettes meet the needs of some ex-smokers by substituting physical, psychological, social, cultural and identity-related aspects of tobacco addiction. Some vapers reported that they found vaping pleasurable and enjoyable-being more than a substitute but actually preferred, over time, to tobacco smoking. This clearly suggests that vaping is a viable long-term substitute for smoking, with substantial implications for tobacco harm reduction.

13.
Addiction ; 113(10): 1874-1882, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882257

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the effects of (i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, (ii) fixed versus adjustable power and (iii) the interaction between the two on: (a) vaping behaviour, (b) subjective effects, (c) nicotine intake and (d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: (i) low nicotine (6 mg/ml)/fixed power; (ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; (iii) high nicotine (18 mg/ml)/fixed power; and (iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. SETTING: London and the South East, England. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over 4 weeks (1 week per condition). MEASUREMENTS: Puffing patterns [daily puff number (PN), puff duration (PD), interpuff interval (IPI)], ml of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted) and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. FINDINGS: There was a significant nicotine concentration × power interaction for PD (P < 0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with (i) high nicotine/fixed power (P < 0.001) and (ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (P < 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, P < 0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: P < 0.01). While acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine × power interaction for formaldehyde (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g. higher number and duration of puffs) and increases in negative affect, urge to vape and formaldehyde exposure.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425117

RESUMO

E-cigarettes are the most popular method of quitting smoking in England and most are purchased in specialist vape shops. This qualitative study explores how the vape shop environment is experienced by quitters to support smoking abstinence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit experiences of e-cigarette use, including experiences of vape shops, in 40 people who had used e-cigarettes in a quit attempt. Observations of six shops in a range of locations were also undertaken. Interview and observation data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and triangulated. At an individual level, smoking abstinence was supported through shop assistants' attempts to understand customers' smoking preferences in order to: (i) tailor advice about the most appropriate product; and (ii) offer an ongoing point of contact for practical help. At an interpersonal level, shops offered opportunity to socialise and reinforce a vaping identity, although the environment was perceived as intimidating for some (e.g., new and female users). At a structural level, shops ensured easy access to products perceived to be good value by customers and had adapted to legislative changes. Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking.


Assuntos
Comércio , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Inglaterra , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(8): 998-1003, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065196

RESUMO

Introduction: Article 20 of the European Tobacco Products Directive (EU-TPD) specifies that e-liquids should not contain nicotine in excess of 20 mg/mL, thus many vapers may be compelled to switch to lower concentrations and in so doing, may engage in more intensive puffing. This study aimed to establish whether more intensive puffing produces higher levels of carbonyl compounds in e-cigarette aerosols. Methods: Using the HPLC-UV diode array method, four carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and acrolein) were measured in liquids and aerosols from nicotine solutions of 24 and 6 mg/mL. Aerosols were generated using a smoking machine configured to replicate puffing topography data previously obtained from 12 experienced e-cigarette users. Results: Carbonyl levels in aerosols from the puffing regimen of 6 mg/mL were significantly higher (p < .05 using independent samples t tests) compared with those of 24 mg/mL nicotine. For the 6 and 24 mg/mL nicotine aerosols respectively, means ± SD for formaldehyde levels were 3.41 ± 0.94, and 1.49 ± 0.30 µg per hour (µg/h) of e-cigarette use. Means ± SD for acetaldehyde levels were 2.17 ± 0.36 and 1.04 ± 0.13 µg/h. Means ± SD for acetone levels were 0.73 ± 0.20 and 0.28 ± 0.14 µg/h. Acrolein was not detected. Conclusions: Higher levels of carbonyls associated with more intensive puffing suggest that vapers switching to lower nicotine concentrations (either due to the EU-TPD implementation or personal choice), may increase their exposure to these compounds. Based on real human puffing topography data, this study suggests that limiting nicotine concentrations to 20 mg/mL may not result in the desired harm minimalization effect. Implications: More intensive puffing regimens associated with the use of low nicotine concentration e-liquids can lead to higher levels of carbonyl generation in the aerosol. Although in need of replication in a larger sample outside a laboratory, this study provides pragmatic empirical data on the potential risks of compensatory puffing behaviors in vapers, and can help to inform future regulatory decisions on nicotine e-liquid concentrations. The cap on nicotine concentration at 20 mg/mL set by the EU-TPD may therefore have the unintended consequence of encouraging use of lower nicotine concentration e-liquid, in turn increasing exposure to carbonyl compounds through compensatory puffing.

16.
J Adolesc Health ; 59(6): 612-619, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693128

RESUMO

Adult electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing globally, and early studies have suggested that similar trends may be observed among the adolescent population, albeit at lower levels. The current literature review presents data collected since 2014 from 21 cross-sectional studies and one cohort study that were all published in English. In particular, it focuses on awareness, ever use, past 30-day use, and regular use of e-cigarettes. The article suggests that adolescents are nearing complete awareness of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, in relation to ever use and past 30-day use, higher prevalence rates continue to be reported across time, especially in the United States. Nonetheless, reported regular use of e-cigarettes remains much lower than past 30-day use, although conclusions are limited due to inconsistencies with measurement and consequent lack of cross-cultural applicability. The majority of studies do not report whether adolescents use non-nicotine e-cigarettes. There is a current absence of longitudinal studies that explore any association between e-cigarettes and tobacco use and little qualitative data that may illuminate how and why adolescents use e-cigarettes. Through addressing these methodological limitations, future research will be able to inform health care and policy more effectively.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 999, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrary to intuition, use of lower strength nicotine e-liquids might not offer reduced health risk if compensatory puffing behaviour occurs. Compensatory puffing (e.g. more frequent, longer puffs) or user behaviour (increasing the wattage) can lead to higher temperatures at which glycerine and propylene glycol (solvents used in e-liquids) undergo decomposition to carbonyl compounds, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. This study aims to document puffing patterns and user behaviour associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid and associated toxicant/carcinogen exposure in experienced e-cigarette users (known as vapers herein). METHODS/DESIGN: A counterbalanced repeated measures design. PARTICIPANTS: Non-tobacco smoking vapers; have used an e-cigarette for ≥3 months; currently using nicotine strength e-liquid ≥12mg/mL and a second or third generation device. INTERVENTION: This study will measure puffing patterns in vapers whilst they use high and low strength nicotine e-liquid under fixed and user-defined settings, each for a week. The 4 counterbalanced conditions are: i) low strength (6mg/mL), fixed settings; ii) low strength user-defined settings; iii) high strength (18mg/mL) fixed settings; iv) high strength user-defined settings. Biomarkers of exposure to toxicants and carcinogens will be measured in urine. In the second phase of this study, toxicant yields will be measured in aerosol generated using a smoking machine operated to replicate the puffing behaviours of each participant. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: i) Puffing patterns (mean puff number, puff duration, inter-puff interval and mL of liquid consumed) and user behaviour (changes to device settings: voltage and air-flow) associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid. ii) Toxicant/carcinogen exposure associated with the puffing patterns/device settings used by our participants. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: i) Subjective effects. ii) comparisons with toxicant exposure from tobacco smoke (using documented evidence) and with recommended safety limits. SAMPLE SIZE: Twenty participants. DISCUSSION: The findings will have important implications for public health messaging regarding the relative risks and subjective effects associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid, and for policy makers regarding regulations on nicotine concentrations in e-liquids.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Biomarcadores/urina , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/psicologia , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Nicotina/urina , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 233(15-16): 2933-41, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235016

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Self-titration is well documented in the tobacco literature. The extent to which e-cigarette users (vapers) self-titrate is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the effects of high and low nicotine strength liquid on puffing topography, nicotine delivery and subjective effects in experienced vapers. METHODS: Eleven experienced male vapers completed 60 min of ad libitum vaping under low (6 mg/mL) and high (24 mg/mL) nicotine liquid conditions in two separate sessions. Measurements included puffing topography (puff number, puff duration, volume of liquid consumed) and changes in plasma nicotine levels, craving, withdrawal symptoms, self-reported hit, satisfaction and adverse effects. RESULTS: Liquid consumption and puff number were higher and puff duration longer, in the low nicotine strength condition (all ps < 0.01). The mean difference in nicotine boost from baseline in the low condition was 8.59 (7.52) ng/mL, 16.99 (11.72) ng/mL and 22.03 (16.19) ng/mL at 10, 30 and 60 min, respectively. Corresponding values for the high condition were 33.77 (34.88) ng/mL, 35.48 (28.31) ng/mL and 43.57 (34.78) ng/mL (ps < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between conditions in self-reported craving, withdrawal symptoms, satisfaction, hit or adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Vapers engaged in compensatory puffing with lower nicotine strength liquid, doubling their consumption. Whilst compensatory puffing was sufficient to reduce craving and withdrawal discomfort, self-titration was incomplete with significantly higher plasma nicotine levels in the high condition.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Tabagismo/fisiopatologia , Vaping , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/sangue , Agonistas Nicotínicos/sangue , Autoadministração , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Subst Use Misuse ; 51(10): 1274-82, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27224893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intentional consumption of alcohol-based hand gels has been reported especially amongst non-UK national, alcohol dependent, homeless individuals in London. Whilst alcohol misuse is known to be associated with impaired cognitive functioning and mental health problems, the effects of additional ingestion of alcohol gel are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore cognitive and psychological functioning in users who intentionally ingest alcohol gel compared with ethyl-alcohol only misusers and controls. METHODS: Male, Central and Eastern European alcohol only misusers, (n = 14; mean age 39 years), alcohol gel users (n = 14; mean age 43 years) and controls (n = 12; mean age 31 years) were recruited from a London Homeless Service during 2013/14. Alcohol misusers, alcohol gel users and controls were compared on the Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Test; Block Design test; Retrospective and Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Alcohol gel users performed significantly worse on the Block Design task (p < .01) and PRMQ (p < .01) relative to both alcohol only and control groups, and significantly worse on the digit span relative to controls (p = .01). Both alcohol misusing groups scored comparatively on digit span backwards (p < .01), with both groups performing significantly worse than controls. The alcohol gel group reported significantly higher levels of anxiety relative to controls (p = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there could be constitutional differences between alcohol misusers who additionally abuse alcohol gel, the findings suggest that alcohol gel ingestion may have a greater impact on psychological functioning than traditional alcohol misuse.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adulto , Cognição , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 30(1): 101-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415054

RESUMO

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming increasing popular among smokers, and there is a plethora of devices available. Nicotine delivery is clearly important for reducing tobacco craving and withdrawal symptoms, but other sensorimotor aspects of e-cigarettes (such as visual appearance) may contribute to this effect. This study explored whether it is important for an e-cigarette to visually resemble a tobacco cigarette in order to reduce craving and withdrawal symptoms. Sixty-three cigarette smokers (40% female, aged 18-65 years) who were not current e-cigarette users were randomly allocated to take ten 3-s puffs from either a white or a red first-generation e-cigarette following overnight abstinence. Current craving (urge to smoke) and nicotine withdrawal symptoms (using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale [MPSS]) were measured before and 10 min after use. Linear regression revealed higher craving and withdrawal symptoms in the red condition versus the white condition, but only among those who were e-cigarette naive (craving: B = .76, p = .009; withdrawal symptoms: B = 2.18, p = .009), not among those with e-cigarette experience (craving: B = -.08, p = .89; withdrawal symptoms: B = .24, p = .81), and these effects differed between groups (p = .04 and 0.01 for craving and withdrawal symptoms, respectively). In conclusion, cigarette-like appearance was associated with lower craving and withdrawal symptoms, but only for those with no prior e-cigarette experience. This effect, putatively mediated via classical conditioning or expectancies, may aid understanding of smokers' initial preferences for "cigalike" e-cigarette devices.


Assuntos
Fissura/fisiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/normas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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