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1.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 39(3): 275-285, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336320

RESUMO

There is growing interest in using observational data to assess the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of medical technologies, but operational, technical, and methodological challenges limit its more widespread use. Common data models and federated data networks offer a potential solution to many of these problems. The open-source Observational and Medical Outcomes Partnerships (OMOP) common data model standardises the structure, format, and terminologies of otherwise disparate datasets, enabling the execution of common analytical code across a federated data network in which only code and aggregate results are shared. While common data models are increasingly used in regulatory decision making, relatively little attention has been given to their use in health technology assessment (HTA). We show that the common data model has the potential to facilitate access to relevant data, enable multidatabase studies to enhance statistical power and transfer results across populations and settings to meet the needs of local HTA decision makers, and validate findings. The use of open-source and standardised analytics improves transparency and reduces coding errors, thereby increasing confidence in the results. Further engagement from the HTA community is required to inform the appropriate standards for mapping data to the common data model and to design tools that can support evidence generation and decision making.

2.
J Comp Eff Res ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274643

RESUMO

The race to find an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still on, with only two treatment options currently authorized for emergency use and/or recommended for patients hospitalized with severe respiratory symptoms: low-dose dexamethasone and remdesivir. The USA decision to stockpile the latter has resulted in widespread condemnation and in similar action being taken by some other countries. In this commentary we discuss whether stockpiling remdesivir is justified in light of the currently available evidence.

3.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269355

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. Design: Multinational network cohort study. Setting: Electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). Participants: All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. Main outcome measures: 30-day complications during hospitalisation and death. Results: We studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged ≥50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%).Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). Conclusions: Patients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. What is already known about this topic: Patients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications.There is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. What this study adds: Most people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities.Patients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19.A variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases.For people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season.

4.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070296

RESUMO

Background Increasing evidence for the use of the aspirin in patients undergoing an orthopaedic surgery for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis has led to a change in the national guidelines substituting anticoagulants with aspirin. Little is known about the impact of such substitution on real-world outcomes from clinical practice. Objective The study was designed to examine clinical outcomes associated with the use of aspirin and apixaban. Setting Two large-scale general hospitals in West Yorkshire region of England. Method A 1-year observational study among adults who underwent elective knee replacements and received venous thromboembolism prophylaxis within the first 14 days post replacements. Main outcome measure The incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism, leaking wounds during the hospital stay, and 30-day any readmission for the two drugs. Results A total of 420 patients were included. There was a significant drop in apixaban prescribing (from 80.37 to 10.51%) and increase in aspirin use (from 19.02 to 81.71%) after the implementation of the revised guidelines. There were 52 (12.38%) cases of leaking wound, 16 (3.81%) cases of postoperative venous thromboembolism, 45 (10.71%) cases of 30-day readmission and no case of 30-day major bleeding. The leaking wounds and 30-day readmissions were almost twice more frequent in obese compared to non-obese patients. Multivariate logistic regression found an increased risk of leaking wound with apixaban and postoperative venous thromboembolism and 30-day readmission with aspirin use but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results suggest aspirin to be as effective as apixaban in preventing venous thromboembolism and readmission. Apixaban usage decreased with a corresponding increase in Aspirin use. The impact of obesity and length of hospital stay need further investigations.

5.
Value Health ; 23(11): 1409-1422, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review published economic evaluations of antiviral treatment for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify economic evaluations of antiviral treatment for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We searched Medline (EBSCOhost), EMBASE (Ovid), EconLit (Ovid), National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (Ovid), and Health Technology Assessment (Ovid). The search was last rerun on July 5, 2020. Citation tracking and reference checking were used. Only full economic evaluations published as peer-reviewed articles in the last 10 years were included. Studies were quality assessed using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence economic evaluation checklist. RESULTS: Overall, 782 records were identified, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies were mostly conducted in high-income countries. All were model-based. Seven (50%) were cost-utility analyses, 4 (28.6%) were cost-effectiveness analyses, 2 (14.3%) were cost-consequences analyses, and 1 (7.1%) was a cost-benefit analysis. Strategies including antiviral treatment were found to be either cost-saving or cost-effective, at the study-specific willingness-to-pay thresholds. Empirical treatment was more cost-effective than test-guided treatment for young adults but less so for older adults. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatment for managing pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses that have very high case fatality rate, similar to COVID-19 pandemic, are likely to be cost-effective either as a standalone intervention or part of a multifaceted strategy. Investing in the development of such curative treatments and promptly evaluating their cost-effectiveness, relative to other strategies in use at the time of their introduction should be the focus going forward to inform resource allocation decisions particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Surtos de Doenças , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
6.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912829

RESUMO

Across the globe, pharmacists on the frontline continue to fight COVID-19 and its continuously evolving physical, mental, and economic consequences armed by their knowledge, professionalism, and dedication. Their need for credible scientific evidence to inform their practice has never been more urgent. Despite the exponentially increasing number of publications since the start of the pandemic, questions remain unanswered, and more are created, than have been resolved by the increasing number of publications. A panel of leading journal editors was convened by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Pharmacy Practice Research Special Interest Group to discuss the current status of COVID-19 related research, provide their recommendations, and identify focal points for pharmacy practice, social pharmacy, and education research moving forward. Key priorities identified spanned a wide range of topics, reflecting the need for good quality research to inform practice and education. The panel insisted that a foundation in theory and use of rigorous methods should continue forming the basis of inquiry and its resultant papers, regardless of topic area. From assessing the clinical and cost effectiveness of COVID-19 therapies and vaccines to assessing different models of pharmaceutical services and education delivery, these priorities will ensure that our practice is informed by the best quality scientific evidence at this very challenging time.

7.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(3): 191-198, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891302

RESUMO

Recent advances in technology show promise in providing greater vascular access options for hemodialysis patients. This review discusses novel methods for creating an anastomosis for arteriovenous (AV) fistulas and new materials for prosthetic AV grafts. Two technologies for endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation, the Ellipsys and WavelinQ endovascular systems, are discussed. When an AV fistula is not possible, an AV graft or devices to augment the AV fistula may be appropriate. New materials that have been developed that show promise as an alternative to the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft are discussed. Such potential conduits include bioengineered vessels and both allogenic or xenogenic biologic grafts. Devices designed to optimize blood flow to reduce maturation failure and improve AV fistula outcomes are explored.

8.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792322

RESUMO

Countries around the globe have responded to pandemic preparedness and developed strategies to cope with the COVID-19 crisis. In this context, the role of healthcare professionals is of paramount importance. Pharmacists are playing a vital role in dealing, preparedness, prevention, protection, promoting access to medicines and to improve health outcomes during this crisis. In this context, "Drive-thru" pharmacy services improve access to medicines while ensuring the preventive measures suggested by the World Health Organization. This commentary provides an overview of opportunities and challenges related to the implementation of "drive-thru pharmacy services" and their role in improving public health during this crisis.

9.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405277

RESUMO

As the world edges towards relaxing the lockdown measures taken to control the spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), governments have started putting in place a variety of measures to avoid a second peak in the number of infections. The implementation of and adherence to such measures will be key components of any successful lockdown exit strategy. Ranging from expanded testing and widespread use of technology to building the public's trust in the post COVID-19 world, there is a role for pharmacists to play. In this commentary, these measures and the potential contribution of pharmacists to their successful implementation are outlined and discussed.

11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(6): 1829-1838, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral isotretinoin is commonly prescribed for acne vulgaris. Several case reports and observational studies have reported serious musculoskeletal side effects; however, the incidence, imaging findings, and longitudinal follow-up data are limited for patients who develop inflammatory back pain (IBP). OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of isotretinoin-triggered axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA) in acne vulgaris patients based on clinical features and MRI findings and to examine clinical and radiological outcomes following drug withdrawal. METHODS: Five hundred thirteen acne patients receiving isotretinoin were screened for IBP; IBP patients were assessed for CRP, plain radiographs, and MRI of the sacroiliac joint. MRI-proven sacroiliitis was scored semi-quantitatively. Patients were followed longitudinally to assess SpA clinical course and longitudinal MRI sacroiliac joints, and CRP levels were reassessed 3 weeks after patients were symptom-free, following isotretinoin discontinuation. RESULTS: Of the 513 patients, 23.98% developed IBP. MRI-proven sacroiliitis was detected in 42.3% of the symptomatic patients or 10.1% of the cohort. Among MRI-proven sacroiliitis cases, 51.9% fulfilled the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society criteria for axial SpA. Mean CRP level was 32.05 ± 17.23 mg/L at pain onset and 3.4 ± 2.7 mg/L after symptom resolution. MRI findings completely resolved within 9 months (mean 6.27 ± 1.7) after isotretinoin discontinuation. MRI scores positively correlated with baseline CRP levels and global acne grading system score, pain, and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score. CONCLUSION: Isotretinoin-induced axial SpA is a prevalent side effect in acne vulgaris patients. Early detection and follow-up of isotretinoin-induced sacroiliitis can be facilitated by MRI. Cessation of isotretinoin resulted in complete resolution in all affected patients.Key Points• Detection of underdiagnosed isotretinoin side effects which are common but not always correctly diagnosed and managed.• Incidence, diagnosis, and management of these side effects in a real-world setting.• This is the first large prospective longitudinal cohort study to report on axial manifestations in patients treated with isotretinoin as well as the effect of drug cessation upon the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041284

RESUMO

Objectives: The SF-6D is a preference-based measure of health developed to generate utility values from the SF-36. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of using the standard gamble (SG) technique to generate preference-based values for the Arabic version of SF-6D in a Lebanese population. Methods: The SF-6D was translated into Arabic using forward and backward translations. Forty-nine states defined by the SF-6D were selected using an orthogonal design and grouped into seven sets. A gender-occupation stratified sample of 126 Lebanese adults from the American University of Beirut were recruited to value seven states and the pits using SG. The sample size is appropriate for a pilot study, but smaller than the sample required for a full valuation study. Both interviewers and interviewees reported their understanding and effort levels in the SG tasks. Mean and individual level multivariate regression models were fitted to estimate preference weights for all SF-6D states. The models were compared with those estimated in the UK. Results: Interviewers reported few problems in completing SG tasks (0.8% with a lot of problems) and good respondent understanding (5.6% with little effort and concentration), and 25% of respondents reported the SG task was difficult. A total of 992 SG valuations were useable for econometric modeling. There was no significant change in the test-retest values from 21 subjects. The mean absolute errors in the mean and individual level models were 0.036 and 0.050, respectively, both of which were lower than the UK results. The random effects model adequately predicts the SG values, with the worst state having a value of 0.322 compared to 0.271 in the UK. Conclusion: This pilot confirmed that it was feasible and acceptable to generate preference values with the SG method for the Arabic SF-6D in a Lebanese population. However, further work is needed to extend this to a more representative population, and to explore why no utility values below zero were observed.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Líbano , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Projetos Piloto , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
13.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(12): 1754-1759, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SF-6D is a generic, six-dimensional health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measure derived from a selection of items from the SF-36. OBJECTIVES: To translate, culturally adapt and validate the SF-6D for use in Arabic-speaking countries. METHODS: The International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) methodology was followed. Two forward translations, one consensus and one backward translation were undertaken. Difficulties encountered were categorized as grammatical, idiomatic, semantic/conceptual, and cultural. The content validity of the final version was tested and Cronbach's alpha test of internal consistency was used for assessing reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), was also used to assess construct validity and to test a pre-specified relationship of observed measures. RESULTS: Minor changes were made to the forward translation to improve cultural appropriateness. The Backward translation did not reveal major problems and equivalence to the original was confirmed following committee review. A total of 470 participants from Jordan, Egypt, UAE, Qatar and Palestine completed the translated SF-6D. All the incremental indices values are ≥0.90 and close to 1. Item loading values ranged from 0.52 to 0.87. The measurement model weight for those with chronic health conditions ranged from 0.68 to 0.91, and from 0.42 to 0.73 for those without. The percentage of variation in self-reported health state was about 55%. The measurement weight of SF-6D on self-reported health state among chronic responders was 0.87 while among responders reporting no chronic disease was 0.61. The t-value for the difference in measurement weight was -8.93 (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: Arabic translation and cultural adaptation of SF-6D has resulted in an acceptable and culturally-adapted version that can be used in Arabic-speaking countries. Reliability and validity have been confirmed as well as ability to assess the difference in quality of life between patients with chronic health conditions and healthy individuals.

14.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 16(2): 261-265, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101458

RESUMO

In spite of concerns about the lack of recognition for its conduct, peer review remains the backbone of scientific evaluation and advancement of scientific knowledge. Given the challenges and evolution in the peer review system, collegiality among authors, reviewers, editors, and even consumers of content is more important than ever. While general guidance has been provided recently in the pharmacy literature, this commentary provides both philosophical underpinnings and specific mechanics for enhancing effectiveness of reviews and improving the quality of writing for authors concurrently, thus examining each major section in an original research contribution. Generosity, courtesy, diligence, thoroughness, and empathy are required of us all to advance the scientific paradigm of our discipline and profession.

15.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(10): e530-e539, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism is a major patient safety concern. Provision of prophylaxis to patients admitted for elective total knee replacement surgery has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism. We aimed to assess the relative efficacy and safety of all available prophylaxis strategies in this setting. METHODS: We did a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials to assess the relative efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies and to populate an economic model that assessed the cost-effectiveness of these strategies and informed the updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommendations for patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Embase, and Medline were last searched on June 19, 2017, with key terms relating to the population (venous thromboembolism and total knee replacement) and the interventions compared, including available pharmacological and mechanical interventions. Outcomes of interest were deep vein thrombosis (symptomatic and asymptomatic), pulmonary embolism, and major bleeding. Risk of bias was assessed, and relevant data extracted from the included randomised controlled trials for the network meta-analyses. Relative risks (RR; with 95% credible intervals [95% CrI]) compared to no prophylaxis, median ranks (with 95% CrI), and the probability of being the best intervention were calculated. The study was done in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. FINDINGS: 25 randomised controlled trials were included in the network meta-analyses. 23 trials (19 interventions; n=15 028) were included in the deep vein thrombosis network, 12 in the pulmonary embolism network (13 interventions; n=15 555), and 19 in the major bleeding network (11 interventions; n=19 797). Risk of bias ranged from very low to high. Rivaroxaban ranked first for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (RR 0·12 [95% CrI 0·06-0·22]). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; standard prophylactic dose, 28-35 days) ranked first in the pulmonary embolism network (RR 0·02 [95% CrI 0·00-3·86]) and LMWH (low prophylactic dose, 10-14 days) ranked first in the major bleeding network (odds ratio 0·08 [95% CrI 0·00-1·76]), but the results for pulmonary embolism and major bleeding are highly uncertain. INTERPRETATION: Single prophylaxis strategies are more effective in prevention of deep vein thrombosis in the elective total knee replacement population than combination strategies, with rivaroxaban being the most effective. The results of the pulmonary embolism and major bleeding meta-analyses are uncertain and no clear conclusion can be made other than what is biologically plausible (eg, that no prophylaxis and mechanical prophylaxis strategies should have the lowest risk of major bleeding). FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho , Hemorragia/etiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
16.
Value Health ; 22(8): 953-969, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in people undergoing elective total hip replacement. METHODS: Systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were conducted for 3 outcomes: deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and major bleeding (MB). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were searched. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias checklist. Fixed- and random-effects models were fitted and compared. The median relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR) compared with no prophylaxis, with their 95% credible intervals (CrIs), rank, and probability of being the best, were calculated. RESULTS: Forty-two (n = 24 374, 26 interventions), 30 (n = 28 842, 23 interventions), and 24 (n = 31 792, 15 interventions) randomized controlled trials were included in the DVT, PE, and MB networks, respectively. Rivaroxaban had the highest probability of being the most effective intervention for DVT (RR 0.06 [95% CrI 0.01-0.29]). Strategy of low-molecular-weight heparin followed by aspirin had the highest probability of reducing the risk of PE and MB (RR 0.0011 [95% CrI 0.00-0.096] and OR 0.37 [95% CrI 0.00-26.96], respectively). The ranking of efficacy estimates across the 3 networks, particularly PE and MB, had very wide CrIs, indicating high degree of uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of low-molecular-weight heparin given for 10 days followed by aspirin for 28 days had the best benefit-risk balance, with the highest probability of being the best on the basis of the results of the PE and MB network meta-analyses. Nevertheless, there is considerable uncertainty around the median ranks of the interventions.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/economia , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Preferência do Paciente , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
17.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(10): 1241-1260, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists working in community and primary care are increasingly developing advanced skills to provide enhanced services, particularly in dealing with minor acute illness. These services can potentially free-up primary care physicians' time; however, it is not clear whether they are sufficiently cost effective to be recommended for wider provision in the UK. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review published economic evaluations of enhanced pharmacy services in the community and primary care settings. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of economic evaluations of enhanced pharmacy services to inform NICE guidelines for emergency and acute care. The review protocol was developed and agreed with the guideline committee. The National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched in December 2016 and the search was updated in March 2018. Studies were assessed for applicability and methodological quality using the NICE Economic Evaluation Checklist. RESULTS: Of 3124 records, 13 studies published in 14 papers were included. The studies were conducted in the UK, Spain, The Netherlands, Australia, Italy and Canada. Settings included community pharmacies, primary care/general practice surgeries and patients' homes. Most of the studies were assessed as partially applicable with potentially serious limitations. Services provided in community and primary care settings were found to be either dominant or cost effective, at a £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold, compared with usual care. Those delivered in the patient's home were not found to be cost effective. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced pharmacy services appear to be cost effective when delivered in community and primary care settings, but not in domiciliary settings. Expansion in the provision of these services in community and primary care can be recommended for wider implementation.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Papel Profissional , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
19.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(7): 973, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850952

RESUMO

The Open Access license, which previously read.

20.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(10): 1212-1222, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists play important role in ensuring timely care delivery at the ward level. The optimal level of pharmacist input, however, is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence that assessed the outcomes of ward pharmacist input for people admitted with acute or emergent illness. METHODS: The protocol and search strategies were developed with input from clinicians. Medline, EMBASE, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, The Cochrane Library, NHS Economic Evaluations, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economic Evaluations databases were searched. Inclusion criteria specified the population as adults and young people (age >16 years) who are admitted to hospital with suspected or confirmed acute or emergent illness. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English were eligible for inclusion in the effectiveness review. Economic studies were limited to full economic evaluations and comparative cost analysis. Included studies were quality-assessed. Data were extracted, summarised. and meta-analysed, where appropriate. RESULTS: Eighteen RCTs and 7 economic studies were included. The RCTs were from USA (n = 3), Sweden (n = 2), Belgium (n = 2), China (n = 2), Australia (n = 2), Denmark (n = 2), Northern Ireland, Norway, Canada, UK and Netherlands. The economic studies were from UK (n = 2), Sweden (n = 2), Belgium and Netherlands. The results showed that regular pharmacist input was most cost effective. It reduced length-of-stay (mean = -1.74 days [95% CI: 2.76, -0.72], and increased patient and/or carer satisfaction (Relative Risk (RR) = 1.49 [1.09, 2.03] at discharge). At £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)-gained cost-effectiveness threshold, it was either cost-saving or cost-effective (Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) = £632/QALY-gained). No evidence was found for 7-day pharmacist presence. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist inclusion in the ward multidisciplinary team improves patient safety and satisfaction and is cost-effective when regularly provided throughout the ward stay. Research is needed to determine whether the provision of 7-day service is cost-effective.


Assuntos
Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Farmacêuticos/economia , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/economia , Papel Profissional , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
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