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1.
Nat Genet ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888908

RESUMO

Genetic association results are often interpreted with the assumption that study participation does not affect downstream analyses. Understanding the genetic basis of participation bias is challenging since it requires the genotypes of unseen individuals. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate comparative biases by performing a genome-wide association study contrasting one subgroup versus another. For example, we showed that sex exhibits artifactual autosomal heritability in the presence of sex-differential participation bias. By performing a genome-wide association study of sex in approximately 3.3 million males and females, we identified over 158 autosomal loci spuriously associated with sex and highlighted complex traits underpinning differences in study participation between the sexes. For example, the body mass index-increasing allele at FTO was observed at higher frequency in males compared to females (odds ratio = 1.02, P = 4.4 × 10-36). Finally, we demonstrated how these biases can potentially lead to incorrect inferences in downstream analyses and propose a conceptual framework for addressing such biases. Our findings highlight a new challenge that genetic studies may face as sample sizes continue to grow.

2.
PLoS Med ; 18(3): e1003455, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance predisposes to cardiometabolic disorders, which are commonly comorbid with schizophrenia and are key contributors to the significant excess mortality in schizophrenia. Mechanisms for the comorbidity remain unclear, but observational studies have implicated inflammation in both schizophrenia and cardiometabolic disorders separately. We aimed to examine whether there is genetic evidence that insulin resistance and 7 related cardiometabolic traits may be causally associated with schizophrenia, and whether evidence supports inflammation as a common mechanism for cardiometabolic disorders and schizophrenia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used summary data from genome-wide association studies of mostly European adults from large consortia (Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) featuring up to 108,557 participants; Diabetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) featuring up to 435,387 participants; Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) featuring up to 173,082 participants; Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) featuring up to 339,224 participants; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) featuring up to 105,318 participants; and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium featuring up to 204,402 participants). We conducted two-sample uni- and multivariable mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to test whether (i) 10 cardiometabolic traits (fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides representing an insulin resistance phenotype, and 7 related cardiometabolic traits: low-density lipoprotein, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, leptin, body mass index, glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes) could be causally associated with schizophrenia; and (ii) inflammation could be a shared mechanism for these phenotypes. We conducted a detailed set of sensitivity analyses to test the assumptions for a valid MR analysis. We did not find statistically significant evidence in support of a causal relationship between cardiometabolic traits and schizophrenia, or vice versa. However, we report that a genetically predicted inflammation-related insulin resistance phenotype (raised fasting insulin (raised fasting insulin (Wald ratio OR = 2.95, 95% C.I, 1.38-6.34, Holm-Bonferroni corrected p-value (p) = 0.035) and lower high-density lipoprotein (Wald ratio OR = 0.55, 95% C.I., 0.36-0.84; p = 0.035)) was associated with schizophrenia. Evidence for these associations attenuated to the null in multivariable MR analyses after adjusting for C-reactive protein, an archetypal inflammatory marker: (fasting insulin Wald ratio OR = 1.02, 95% C.I, 0.37-2.78, p = 0.975), high-density lipoprotein (Wald ratio OR = 1.00, 95% C.I., 0.85-1.16; p = 0.849), suggesting that the associations could be fully explained by inflammation. One potential limitation of the study is that the full range of gene products from the genetic variants we used as proxies for the exposures is unknown, and so we are unable to comment on potential biological mechanisms of association other than inflammation, which may also be relevant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a role for inflammation as a common cause for insulin resistance and schizophrenia, which may at least partly explain why the traits commonly co-occur in clinical practice. Inflammation and immune pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid insulin resistance. Future work is needed to understand how inflammation may contribute to the risk of schizophrenia and insulin resistance.

3.
Appetite ; 161: 105124, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482301

RESUMO

Appetitive traits influence food intake and weight gain throughout the life-course. Here, we investigated whether maternal attitudes to following healthy infant feeding guidelines could modify this association. Baseline data from 544 mother-infant formula-feeding dyads recruited to the Baby Milk Trial were included in this observational, cross-sectional analysis. Infant appetitive traits (food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness), maternal attitudes to following healthy infant feeding guidelines (self-efficacy, outcome-expectancy, intentions) and infant milk intakes were reported by mothers through questionnaires. Infant weight was measured using standard procedures. Associations between the maternal attitudes score or infant appetitive traits with infant milk intake and infant weight were evaluated in linear regression models adjusted for infant sex and age. To identify effect modification, the interaction term between the maternal attitudes score and infant appetitive trait was added to the model. Infants' mean age and weight were 2.3 months (SD = 0.9) and 5.5 kg (SD = 0.9), respectively. The mean daily infant milk intake reported by mothers was 895 ml/day (SD = 215). Higher maternal attitudes score was associated with lower infant milk intake (Beta = -68.4 ml/day/unit (95% CI: 96.6, -40.2)) and infant weight (Beta = -0.13 SD/unit (-0.25, -0.02)). The maternal attitudes score showed interactions with infant food responsiveness on infant milk intake (p = 0.049), and with infant satiety responsiveness on infant weight (p = 0.01). In both cases, a higher maternal attitudes score attenuated the associations between infant appetitive traits and those outcomes. This analysis provides evidence that positive maternal attitudes to following healthy infant feeding guidelines attenuate the effects of infant appetitive traits on infant milk intake and body weight.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

5.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 543, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999390

RESUMO

Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual's fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (Pcombined ≤ 5 × 10-8). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.

6.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1536, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210231

RESUMO

The timing of puberty is highly variable and is associated with long-term health outcomes. To date, understanding of the genetic control of puberty timing is based largely on studies in women. Here, we report a multi-trait genome-wide association study for male puberty timing with an effective sample size of 205,354 men. We find moderately strong genomic correlation in puberty timing between sexes (rg = 0.68) and identify 76 independent signals for male puberty timing. Implicated mechanisms include an unexpected link between puberty timing and natural hair colour, possibly reflecting common effects of pituitary hormones on puberty and pigmentation. Earlier male puberty timing is genetically correlated with several adverse health outcomes and Mendelian randomization analyses show a genetic association between male puberty timing and shorter lifespan. These findings highlight the relationships between puberty timing and health outcomes, and demonstrate the value of genetic studies of puberty timing in both sexes.


Assuntos
Cor de Cabelo/genética , Longevidade/genética , Puberdade/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 252-258, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042192

RESUMO

Testosterone supplementation is commonly used for its effects on sexual function, bone health and body composition, yet its effects on disease outcomes are unknown. To better understand this, we identified genetic determinants of testosterone levels and related sex hormone traits in 425,097 UK Biobank study participants. Using 2,571 genome-wide significant associations, we demonstrate that the genetic determinants of testosterone levels are substantially different between sexes and that genetically higher testosterone is harmful for metabolic diseases in women but beneficial in men. For example, a genetically determined 1 s.d. higher testosterone increases the risks of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.22-1.53)) and polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.33-1.72)) in women, but reduces type 2 diabetes risk in men (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76-0.98)). We also show adverse effects of higher testosterone on breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. Our findings provide insights into the disease impacts of testosterone and highlight the importance of sex-specific genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Software , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(1): e1003017, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have investigated the association between puberty timing, particularly age at menarche (AAM), and type 2 diabetes. However, whether this association is independent of adiposity is unclear. We aimed to systematically review published evidence on the association between puberty timing and type 2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with and without adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the potential contribution of puberty timing to the burden of T2D in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases for publications until February 2019 on the timing of any secondary sexual characteristic in boys or girls in relation to T2D/IGT. Inverse-variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool reported estimates, and meta-regression was used to explore sources of heterogeneity. Twenty-eight observational studies were identified. All assessed AAM in women (combined N = 1,228,306); only 1 study additionally included men. In models without adjustment for adult adiposity, T2D/IGT risk was lower per year later AAM (relative risk [RR] = 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.93, p < 0.001, 11 estimates, n = 833,529, I2 = 85.4%) and higher for early versus later menarche (RR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.25-1.55, p < 0.001, 23 estimates, n = 1,185,444, I2 = 87.8%). Associations were weaker but still evident in models adjusted for adiposity (AAM: RR = 0.97 per year, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, p < 0.001, 12 estimates, n = 852,268, I2 = 51.8%; early menarche: RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.11-1.28, p < 0.001, 21 estimates, n = 890,583, I2 = 68.1%). Associations were stronger among white than Asian women, and in populations with earlier average AAM. The estimated population attributable risk of T2D in white UK women due to early menarche unadjusted and adjusted for adiposity was 12.6% (95% CI 11.0-14.3) and 5.1% (95% CI 3.6-6.7), respectively. Findings in this study are limited by residual and unmeasured confounding, and self-reported AAM. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier AAM is consistently associated with higher T2D/IGT risk, independent of adiposity. More importantly, this research has identified that a substantial proportion of T2D in women is related to early menarche, which would be expected to increase in light of global secular trends towards earlier puberty timing. These findings highlight the need to identify the underlying mechanisms linking early menarche to T2D/IGT risk.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Puberdade/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca/metabolismo , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos
10.
Nature ; 575(7784): 652-657, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748747

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in circulating white blood cells is the most common form of clonal mosaicism1-5, yet our knowledge of the causes and consequences of this is limited. Here, using a computational approach, we estimate that 20% of the male population represented in the UK Biobank study (n = 205,011) has detectable LOY. We identify 156 autosomal genetic determinants of LOY, which we replicate in 757,114 men of European and Japanese ancestry. These loci highlight genes that are involved in cell-cycle regulation and cancer susceptibility, as well as somatic drivers of tumour growth and targets of cancer therapy. We demonstrate that genetic susceptibility to LOY is associated with non-haematological effects on health in both men and women, which supports the hypothesis that clonal haematopoiesis is a biomarker of genomic instability in other tissues. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies dysregulated expression of autosomal genes in leukocytes with LOY and provides insights into why clonal expansion of these cells may occur. Collectively, these data highlight the value of studying clonal mosaicism to uncover fundamental mechanisms that underlie cancer and other ageing-related diseases.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Leucócitos/patologia , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Reino Unido
11.
Diabetes ; 68(12): 2315-2326, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506343

RESUMO

Epigenetic changes may contribute substantially to risks of diseases of aging. Previous studies reported seven methylation variable positions (MVPs) robustly associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, their causal roles in T2DM are unclear. In an incident T2DM case-cohort study nested within the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort, we used whole blood DNA collected at baseline, up to 11 years before T2DM onset, to investigate the role of methylation in the etiology of T2DM. We identified 15 novel MVPs with robust associations with incident T2DM and robustly confirmed three MVPs identified previously (near to TXNIP, ABCG1, and SREBF1). All 18 MVPs showed directionally consistent associations with incident and prevalent T2DM in independent studies. Further conditional analyses suggested that the identified epigenetic signals appear related to T2DM via glucose and obesity-related pathways acting before the collection of baseline samples. We integrated genome-wide genetic data to identify methylation-associated quantitative trait loci robustly associated with 16 of the 18 MVPs and found one MVP, cg00574958 at CPT1A, with a possible direct causal role in T2DM. None of the implicated genes were previously highlighted by genetic association studies, suggesting that DNA methylation studies may reveal novel biological mechanisms involved in tissue responses to glycemia.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epigenoma , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Epigenômica , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

13.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cell ; 177(3): 597-607.e9, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002796

RESUMO

The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor whose disruption causes obesity. We functionally characterized 61 MC4R variants identified in 0.5 million people from UK Biobank and examined their associations with body mass index (BMI) and obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases. We found that the maximal efficacy of ß-arrestin recruitment to MC4R, rather than canonical Gαs-mediated cyclic adenosine-monophosphate production, explained 88% of the variance in the association of MC4R variants with BMI. While most MC4R variants caused loss of function, a subset caused gain of function; these variants were associated with significantly lower BMI and lower odds of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Protective associations were driven by MC4R variants exhibiting signaling bias toward ß-arrestin recruitment and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. Harnessing ß-arrestin-biased MC4R signaling may represent an effective strategy for weight loss and the treatment of obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/química , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , beta-Arrestinas/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1060, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837465

RESUMO

Circulating levels of glycine have previously been associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it remains uncertain if glycine plays an aetiological role. We present a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for glycine in 80,003 participants and investigate the causality and potential mechanisms of the association between glycine and cardio-metabolic diseases using genetic approaches. We identify 27 genetic loci, of which 22 have not previously been reported for glycine. We show that glycine is genetically associated with lower CHD risk and find that this may be partly driven by blood pressure. Evidence for a genetic association of glycine with T2D is weaker, but we find a strong inverse genetic effect of hyperinsulinaemia on glycine. Our findings strengthen evidence for a protective effect of glycine on CHD and show that the glycine-T2D association may be driven by a glycine-lowering effect of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glicina/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
JAMA ; 320(24): 2553-2563, 2018 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575882

RESUMO

Importance: Body fat distribution, usually measured using waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is an important contributor to cardiometabolic disease independent of body mass index (BMI). Whether mechanisms that increase WHR via lower gluteofemoral (hip) or via higher abdominal (waist) fat distribution affect cardiometabolic risk is unknown. Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with higher WHR specifically via lower gluteofemoral or higher abdominal fat distribution and estimate their association with cardiometabolic risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for WHR combined data from the UK Biobank cohort and summary statistics from previous GWAS (data collection: 2006-2018). Specific polygenic scores for higher WHR via lower gluteofemoral or via higher abdominal fat distribution were derived using WHR-associated genetic variants showing specific association with hip or waist circumference. Associations of polygenic scores with outcomes were estimated in 3 population-based cohorts, a case-cohort study, and summary statistics from 6 GWAS (data collection: 1991-2018). Exposures: More than 2.4 million common genetic variants (GWAS); polygenic scores for higher WHR (follow-up analyses). Main Outcomes and Measures: BMI-adjusted WHR and unadjusted WHR (GWAS); compartmental fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease risk (follow-up analyses). Results: Among 452 302 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry, the mean (SD) age was 57 (8) years and the mean (SD) WHR was 0.87 (0.09). In genome-wide analyses, 202 independent genetic variants were associated with higher BMI-adjusted WHR (n = 660 648) and unadjusted WHR (n = 663 598). In dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry analyses (n = 18 330), the hip- and waist-specific polygenic scores for higher WHR were specifically associated with lower gluteofemoral and higher abdominal fat, respectively. In follow-up analyses (n = 636 607), both polygenic scores were associated with higher blood pressure and triglyceride levels and higher risk of diabetes (waist-specific score: odds ratio [OR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.83], absolute risk increase per 1000 participant-years [ARI], 4.4 [95% CI, 2.7-6.5], P < .001; hip-specific score: OR, 2.54 [95% CI, 2.17-2.96], ARI, 12.0 [95% CI, 9.1-15.3], P < .001) and coronary disease (waist-specific score: OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.39-1.84], ARI, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5-3.3], P < .001; hip-specific score: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.53-2.02], ARI, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.1-4.0], P < .001), per 1-SD increase in BMI-adjusted WHR. Conclusions and Relevance: Distinct genetic mechanisms may be linked to gluteofemoral and abdominal fat distribution that are the basis for the calculation of the WHR. These findings may improve risk assessment and treatment of diabetes and coronary disease.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal , Adiposidade/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Commun Biol ; 1: 36, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271922

RESUMO

Risk-taking propensity is a trait of significant public health relevance but few specific genetic factors are known. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported risk-taking propensity among 436,236 white European UK Biobank study participants. We identify genome-wide associations at 26 loci (P < 5 × 10-8), 24 of which are novel, implicating genes enriched in the GABA and GABA receptor pathways. Modelling the relationship between risk-taking propensity and body mass index (BMI) using Mendelian randomisation shows a positive association (0.25 approximate SDs of BMI (SE: 0.06); P = 6.7 × 10-5). The impact of individual SNPs is heterogeneous, indicating a complex relationship arising from multiple shared pathways. We identify positive genetic correlations between risk-taking and waist-hip ratio, childhood obesity, ever smoking, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, alongside a negative correlation with women's age at first birth. These findings highlight that behavioural pathways involved in risk-taking propensity may play a role in obesity, smoking and psychiatric disorders.

18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(10): 957-966, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326043

RESUMO

Importance: Pharmacological enhancers of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are in preclinical or early clinical development for cardiovascular prevention. Studying whether these agents will reduce cardiovascular events or diabetes risk when added to existing lipid-lowering drugs would require large outcome trials. Human genetics studies can help prioritize or deprioritize these resource-demanding endeavors. Objective: To investigate the independent and combined associations of genetically determined differences in LPL-mediated lipolysis and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism with risk of coronary disease and diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this genetic association study, individual-level genetic data from 392 220 participants from 2 population-based cohort studies and 1 case-cohort study conducted in Europe were included. Data were collected from January 1991 to July 2018, and data were analyzed from July 2014 to July 2018. Exposures: Six conditionally independent triglyceride-lowering alleles in LPL, the p.Glu40Lys variant in ANGPTL4, rare loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3, and LDL-C-lowering polymorphisms at 58 independent genomic regions, including HMGCR, NPC1L1, and PCSK9. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratio for coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. Results: Of the 392 220 participants included, 211 915 (54.0%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 57 (8) years. Triglyceride-lowering alleles in LPL were associated with protection from coronary disease (approximately 40% lower odds per SD of genetically lower triglycerides) and type 2 diabetes (approximately 30% lower odds) in people above or below the median of the population distribution of LDL-C-lowering alleles at 58 independent genomic regions, HMGCR, NPC1L1, or PCSK9. Associations with lower risk were consistent in quintiles of the distribution of LDL-C-lowering alleles and 2 × 2 factorial genetic analyses. The 40Lys variant in ANGPTL4 was associated with protection from coronary disease and type 2 diabetes in groups with genetically higher or lower LDL-C. For a genetic difference of 0.23 SDs in LDL-C, ANGPTL3 loss-of-function variants, which also have beneficial associations with LPL lipolysis, were associated with greater protection against coronary disease than other LDL-C-lowering genetic mechanisms (ANGPTL3 loss-of-function variants: odds ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; 58 LDL-C-lowering variants: odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.91; P for heterogeneity = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: Triglyceride-lowering alleles in the LPL pathway are associated with lower risk of coronary disease and type 2 diabetes independently of LDL-C-lowering genetic mechanisms. These findings provide human genetics evidence to support the development of agents that enhance LPL-mediated lipolysis for further clinical benefit in addition to LDL-C-lowering therapy.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Idoso , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Lipólise , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética
19.
Genes Nutr ; 13: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123368

RESUMO

Background: Ninety-seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are robustly associated with adult body mass index (BMI kg/m2) in Caucasian populations. The relevance of such variants in African populations at different stages of the life course (such as childhood) is unclear. We tested whether a genetic risk score composed of the aforementioned SNPs was associated with BMI from infancy to early adulthood. We further tested whether this genetic effect was mediated by conditional weight gain at different growth periods. We used data from the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort (Bt20+), for 971 urban South African black children from birth to 18 years. DNA was collected at 13 years old and was genotyped using the Metabochip (Illumina) array. The weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for BMI was constructed based on 71 of the 97 previously reported SNPs. Results: The cross-sectional association between the wGRS and BMI strengthened with age from 5 to 18 years. The significant associations were observed from 11 to 18 years, and peak effect sizes were observed at 13 and 14 years of age. Results from the linear mixed effects models showed significant interactions between the wGRS and age on longitudinal BMI but no such interactions were observed in sex and the wGRS. A higher wGRS was associated with an increased relative risk of belonging to the early onset obese longitudinal BMI trajectory (relative risk = 1.88; 95%CI 1.28 to 2.76) compared to belonging to a normal longitudinal BMI trajectory. Adolescent conditional relative weight gain had a suggestive mediation effect of 56% on the association between wGRS and obesity risk at 18 years. Conclusions: The results suggest that genetic susceptibility to higher adult BMI can be tracked from childhood in this African population. This supports the notion that prevention of adult obesity should begin early in life. The genetic risk score combined with other non-genetic risk factors, such as BMI trajectory membership in our case, has the potential to be used to screen for early identification of individuals at increased risk of obesity and other related NCD risk factors in order to reduce the adverse health risk outcomes later.

20.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Abuso de Maconha/genética , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
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