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1.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 40(8): 1210-1231, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862700

RESUMO

Endophytic microbes are present in nearly all of the plant species known to date but how they enter and flourish inside a host plant and display multiple benefits like plant growth promotion (PGP), biodegradation, and stress alleviation are still unexplored. Until now, the majority of the research has been conducted assuming that the host-endophyte interaction is analogous to the PGP microbes, although, studies related to the mechanisms of their infection, colonization as well as conferring important traits to the plants are limited. It would be fascinating to explore the role of these endophytic microbes in host gene expression, metabolism, and the modulation of phenotypic traits, under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. In this review, we critically focused on the following areas: (i) endophytic lifestyle and the mechanism of their entry into plant tissues, (ii) how endophytes modulate the immune system of plants and affect the genotypic and phenotypic expression of host plants under abiotic and biotic stress condition, and (iii) the role of omics and other integrated genomic approaches in unraveling complex host-endophyte signaling crosstalk. Furthermore, we discussed their role in phytoremediation of heavy metal stress and whole genomic analysis based on an understanding of different metabolic pathways these endophytes utilize to combat stress.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bioprospecção/métodos , Endófitos/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Resistência a Medicamentos , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/genética , Genômica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Metabolismo Secundário , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13444, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778785

RESUMO

Tropical forests are rich in biodiversity with great potential for carbon (C) storage. We estimated ecosystem-level C stock using data from 70 forest plots in three major forest types: tropical dry deciduous (TDD I and TDD II), tropical semi-evergreen (TSE I and TSE II) and tropical evergreen forests (TEF I, TEF II and TEF III) of Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. The average C stock in these forests was 336.8 Mg C/ha, of which 231.3, 3.0, 2.4, 15.2 and 84.9 Mg C/ha were stored in woody vegetation, understorey, litter, deadwood and soil respectively. The live vegetation, detritus and soil contributed 65.5%, 5.5% and 29% respectively to the total ecosystem-level C stock and distributed in forest types in the order: TEF III > TEF II > TEF I > TSE I > TDD II > TSE II > TDD I. The plant diversity, structural attributes and environmental factors showed significant positive correlations with C stocks and accounted for 6.7, 77.2 and 16% of variance. These findings indicate that the tropical forests in the Western Ghats store large amount of C, and resulting data are invaluable for planning and monitoring forest conservation and management programs to enhance C storage in tropical forests.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12192-12200, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393624

RESUMO

Late-spring frosts (LSFs) affect the performance of plants and animals across the world's temperate and boreal zones, but despite their ecological and economic impact on agriculture and forestry, the geographic distribution and evolutionary impact of these frost events are poorly understood. Here, we analyze LSFs between 1959 and 2017 and the resistance strategies of Northern Hemisphere woody species to infer trees' adaptations for minimizing frost damage to their leaves and to forecast forest vulnerability under the ongoing changes in frost frequencies. Trait values on leaf-out and leaf-freezing resistance come from up to 1,500 temperate and boreal woody species cultivated in common gardens. We find that areas in which LSFs are common, such as eastern North America, harbor tree species with cautious (late-leafing) leaf-out strategies. Areas in which LSFs used to be unlikely, such as broad-leaved forests and shrublands in Europe and Asia, instead harbor opportunistic tree species (quickly reacting to warming air temperatures). LSFs in the latter regions are currently increasing, and given species' innate resistance strategies, we estimate that ∼35% of the European and ∼26% of the Asian temperate forest area, but only ∼10% of the North American, will experience increasing late-frost damage in the future. Our findings reveal region-specific changes in the spring-frost risk that can inform decision-making in land management, forestry, agriculture, and insurance policy.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Baixa , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Florestas , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura
4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 138: 102-113, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132521

RESUMO

The evolution of Peninsular Indian biodiversity has been a fascinating topic of research due to historical connections of this region to the ancient Gondwanaland. We investigated the phylogeny and historical biogeography of nearly all extant species of the genus Piper reported from the region to assess the biogeographical origins and test mechanisms of lineage diversification (dispersal, vicariance and in situ radiation) of this highly diverse genus of angiosperms commonly found in the understory of evergreen forests. The phylogeny of 21 species of Piper reported from Peninsular India was reconstructed for the first time, which included three new putative species from the Western Ghats. We used BEAST for the divergence time estimations (using three constraints), and ancestral range estimations were performed with the dated phylogenetic tree using BIOGEOBEARS. Divergence dating analysis revealed that the genus Piper originated during lower Cretaceous around 110 Ma [95% highest posterior density (HPD): 116-105 Ma] and colonized Peninsular India five times independently, from Southeast Asia starting from the Oligocene. The two major dispersals into India occurred during the periods of 27.3 Ma (95% HPD: 35.8-19.9.) and 15.5 Ma (95% HPD: 24.9-7.11). This was followed by rapid radiations in some lineages with subsequent back dispersals to Southeast Asia. Our study indicates that dispersals from Southeast Asia led to the arrival of Piper to Indian subcontinent following the Indo-Eurasian collision. Members of Piper have colonized and diversified within the climatically stable habitats of Peninsular India. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence for the Miocene overland dispersal of Piper species to Africa from South Asia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Piper/genética , Biodiversidade , Índia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Piper/classificação , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Ecol Evol ; 6(18): 6510-6523, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777725

RESUMO

Conservation managers and policy makers are often confronted with a challenging dilemma of devising suitable strategies to maintain agricultural productivity while conserving endemic species that at the early stages of becoming pests of agricultural crops. Identification of environmental factors conducive to species range expansion for forecasting species distribution patterns will play a central role in devising management strategies to minimize the conflict between the agricultural productivity and biodiversity conservation. Here, we present results of a study that predicts the distribution of Indrella ampulla, a snail endemic to the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, which is becoming a pest in cardamom (Ellettaria cardamomum) plantations. We determined the distribution patterns and niche overlap between I. ampulla and Ellettaria cardamomum using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) niche modeling techniques under current and future (2020-2080) climatic scenarios. The results showed that climatic (precipitation of coldest quarter and isothermality) and soil (cation exchange capacity of soil [CEC]) parameters are major factors that determine the distribution of I. ampulla in Western Ghats. The model predicted cardamom cultivation areas in southern Western Ghats are highly sensitive to invasion of I. ampulla under both present and future climatic conditions. While the land area in the central Western Ghats is predicted to become unsuitable for I. ampulla and Ellettaria cardamomum in future, we found 71% of the Western Ghats land area is suitable for Ellettaria cardamomum cultivation and 45% suitable for I. ampulla, with an overlap of 35% between two species. The resulting distribution maps are invaluable for policy makers and conservation managers to design and implement management strategies minimizing the conflicts to sustain agricultural productivity while maintaining biodiversity in the region.

6.
Ecol Evol ; 6(12): 3898-911, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516853

RESUMO

Citron (Citrus medica L.) is a medicinally important species of citrus native to India and occurs in natural forests and home gardens in the foothills of the eastern Himalayan region of northeast India. The wild populations of citron in the region have undergone rapid decline due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and most of the remaining individuals of citron are found in fragmented natural forests and home gardens in the region. In order to assess the genetic structure and diversity of citron in wild and domesticated populations, we analyzed 219 individuals of C. medica collected from four wild and eight domesticated populations using microsatellite markers. The genetic analysis based on five polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed an average of 13.40 allele per locus. The mean observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged between 0.220-0.540 and 0.438-0.733 respectively among the wild and domesticated populations. Domesticated populations showed close genetic relationships as compared to wild populations and pairwise Nei's genetic distance ranged from 0.062 to 2.091 among wild and domesticated populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic diversity among- than within populations. The analysis of population structure revealed five groups. Mixed ancestry of few individuals of different populations revealed exchange of genetic materials among farmers in the region. Citron populations in the region show high genetic variation. The knowledge gained through this study is invaluable for devising genetically sound strategies for conservation of citron genetic resources in the region.

7.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0118831, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25799495

RESUMO

Lilium regale E.H. Wilson is endemic to a narrow geographic area in the Minjiang River valley in southwestern China, and is considered an important germplasm for breeding commercially valuable lily varieties, due to its vigorous growth, resistance to diseases and tolerance for low moisture. We analyzed the genetic diversity of eight populations of L. regale sampled across the entire natural distribution range of the species using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers. The genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity= 0.3356) was higher than those reported for other narrowly distributed endemic plants. The levels of inbreeding (Fst = 0.1897) were low, and most of the genetic variability was found to be within (80.91%) than amongpopulations (19.09%). An indirect estimate of historical levels of gene flow (Nm =1.0678) indicated high levels of gene flow among populations. The eight analyzed populations clustered into three genetically distinct groups. Based on these results, we recommend conservation of large populations representing these three genetically distinct groups.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Lilium/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético , Meio Selvagem , China , Fluxo Gênico , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 953, 2014 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25547027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India are traditionally classified into sali, boro and jum ecotypes based on geographical locality and the season of cultivation. In this study, we used DNA sequence data from the Waxy (Wx) gene to infer the genetic relatedness among indigenous rice varieties in Northeast India and to assess the genetic distinctiveness of ecotypes. FINDINGS: The results of all three analyses (Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor Joining) were congruent and revealed two genetically distinct clusters of rice varieties in the region. The large group comprised several varieties of sali and boro ecotypes, and all agronomically improved varieties. The small group consisted of only traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties, which included one boro, few sali and all jum varieties. The fixation index analysis revealed a very low level of differentiation between sali and boro (F(ST) = 0.005), moderate differentiation between sali and jum (F(ST) = 0.108) and high differentiation between jum and boro (F(ST) = 0.230) ecotypes. CONCLUSION: The genetic relatedness analyses revealed that sali, boro and jum ecotypes are genetically heterogeneous, and the current classification based on cultivation type is not congruent with the genetic background of rice varieties. Indigenous rice varieties chosen from genetically distinct clusters could be used in breeding programs to improve genetic gain through heterosis, while maintaining high genetic diversity.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sintase do Amido/genética , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA de Plantas/química , Geografia , Haplótipos , Índia , Cadeias de Markov , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Método de Monte Carlo , Oryza/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sintase do Amido/classificação
9.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e112769, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25493426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND QUESTION: The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He = 0.816, Ho = 0.607, A = 18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He = 0.781, Ho = 0.511, A = 15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho = 0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity of economically and medicinally important plant species.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/genética , Agricultura , Alelos , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Análise por Conglomerados , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Carga Genética , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Densidade Demográfica , Plântula/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e103645, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25116432

RESUMO

Populus (Salicaceae) is one of the most economically and ecologically important genera of forest trees. The complex reticulate evolution and lack of highly variable orthologous single-copy DNA markers have posed difficulties in resolving the phylogeny of this genus. Based on a large data set of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, we reconstructed robust phylogeny of Populus using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed better resolution at both inter- and intra-sectional level than previous studies. The results revealed that (1) the plastid-based phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clades, suggesting an early divergence of the maternal progenitors of Populus; (2) three advanced sections (Populus, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca) are of hybrid origin; (3) species of the section Tacamahaca could be divided into two major groups based on plastid and nuclear DNA data, suggesting a polyphyletic nature of the section; and (4) many species proved to be of hybrid origin based on the incongruence between plastid and nuclear DNA trees. Reticulate evolution may have played a significant role in the evolution history of Populus by facilitating rapid adaptive radiations into different environments.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Populus/classificação , Populus/genética , Quimera , Dados de Sequência Molecular
11.
BMC Genet ; 15: 71, 2014 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24935343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the domestication of crops, individual plants with traits desirable for human needs have been selected from their wild progenitors. Consequently, genetic and nucleotide diversity of genes associated with these selected traits in crop plants are expected to be lower than their wild progenitors. In the present study, we surveyed the pattern of nucleotide diversity of two selected trait specific genes, Wx and OsC1, which regulate amylose content and apiculus coloration respectively in cultivated rice varieties. The analyzed samples were collected from a wide geographic area in Northeast (NE) India, and included contrasting phenotypes considered to be associated with selected genes, namely glutinous and nonglutinous grains and colored and colorless apiculus. RESULTS: No statistically significant selection signatures were detected in both Wx and OsC1gene sequences. However, low level of selection that varied across the length of each gene was evident. The glutinous type varieties showed higher levels of nucleotide diversity at the Wx locus (πtot = 0.0053) than nonglutinous type varieties (πtot = 0.0043). The OsC1 gene revealed low levels of selection among the colorless apiculus varieties with lower nucleotide diversity (πtot = 0.0010) than in the colored apiculus varieties (πtot = 0.0023). CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that functional mutations at Wx and OsC1genes considered to be associated with specific phenotypes do not necessarily correspond to the phenotypes in indigenous rice varieties in NE India. This suggests that other than previously reported genomic regions may also be involved in determination of these phenotypes.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , DNA de Plantas/genética , Haplótipos , Mutação INDEL , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Nucleotídeos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e87287, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24586267

RESUMO

Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered tree species endemic to Northeast India, and shows sexual dimorphism with male and hermaphrodite flowers on separate trees. We studied phenology, reproductive biology and mating system of the species. The flowers are small, tubular, odorless and last for about 96 hours. Pollen grains in both morphs were viable and capable of fertilization leading to fruit and seed set. Scanning electron micrographs revealed morphologically similar pollen in both male and hermaphrodite flowers. The fruit set in open pollinated flowers was 43.61 percent, while controlled autogamous and geitonogamous pollinations yielded 76.81 and 65.58 percent fruit set respectively. Xenogamous pollinations between male and hermaphrodite flowers resulted in 56.85 percent fruit set and pollinations between hermaphrodite flowers yielded 67.90 percent fruit set. This indicates a functionally androdioecious mating system and pollination limited fruit set in G. assamicus. Phylogenetic analyses of Gymnocladus and the sister genus Gleditsia are needed to assess if the androdioecious mating system in G. assamicus evolved from dioecy as a result of selection for hermaphrodites for reproductive assurance during colonization of pollination limited high altitude ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fabaceae/classificação , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/classificação , Flores/fisiologia , Índia , Filogenia , Pólen/anatomia & histologia , Pólen/classificação , Pólen/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia
13.
Springerplus ; 2(1): 228, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23741655

RESUMO

The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the world. The efforts for conservation of rice germplasm in NE India should consider saving rice varieties representing different types with specific emphasis given to sali and jum types. The protection against the loss of vast genetic diversity found in indigenous rice varieties in NE India is crucial for maintaining future food security in the changing world.

14.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60102, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23560070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of extraordinarily rich biodiversity in tropical forests is often attributed to evolution under stable climatic conditions over a long period or to climatic fluctuations during the recent Quaternary period. Here, we test these two hypotheses using Dracaena cambodiana, a plant species distributed in paleotropical forests. METHODS: WE ANALYZED NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE DATA OF TWO CHLOROPLAST DNA (CPDNA: atpB-rbcL and trnD-trnT) regions and genotype data of six nuclear microsatellites from 15 populations (140 and 363 individuals, respectively) distributed in Indochina Peninsular and Hainan Island to infer the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure. The population bottleneck and genetic drift were estimated based upon nuclear microsatellites data using the software programs BOTTLENECK and 2MOD. The lineage divergence times and past population dynamics based on cpDNA data were estimated using coalescent-based isolation-with-migration (IMa) and BEAST software programs. RESULTS: A significant phylogeographic structure (N ST = 0.876, G ST = 0.796, F ST-SSR = 0.329, R ST = 0.449; N ST>G ST, R ST>F ST-SSR, P<0.05) and genetic differentiation among populations were detected. Bottleneck analyses and Bayesian skyline plot suggested recent population reduction. The cpDNA haplotype network revealed the ancestral populations from the southern Indochina region expanded to northward. The most recent ancestor divergence time of D. cambodiana dated back to the Tertiary era and rapid diversification of terminal lineages corresponded to the Quaternary period. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the present distribution of genetic diversity in D. cambodiana was an outcome of Tertiary dispersal and rapid divergence during the Quaternary period under limited gene flow influenced by the uplift of Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and Quaternary climatic fluctuations respectively. Evolutionary processes, such as extinction-recolonization during the Pleistocene may have contributed to the fast diversification in D. cambodiana.


Assuntos
DNA de Cloroplastos/classificação , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Dracaena/classificação , Dracaena/genética , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Árvores , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Clima Tropical
15.
J Parasitol ; 97(6): 1132-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21671715

RESUMO

Flukes belonging to Sphaeridiotrema are important parasites of waterfowl, and 2 morphologically similar species Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus, have been implicated in waterfowl mortality in North America. Cytochrome oxidase I (barcode region) and partial LSU-rDNA sequences from specimens of S. globulus and S. pseudoglobulus, obtained from naturally and experimentally infected hosts from New Jersey and Quebec, respectively, confirmed that these species were distinct. Barcode sequences of the 2 species differed at 92 of 590 nucleotide positions (15.6%) and the translated sequences differed by 13 amino acid residues. Partial LSU-rDNA sequences differed at 29 of 1,208 nucleotide positions (2.4%). Additional barcode sequences from specimens collected from waterfowl in Wisconsin and Minnesota and morphometric data obtained from specimens acquired along the north shore of Lake Superior revealed the presence of S. pseudoglobulus in these areas. Although morphometric data suggested the presence of S. globulus in the Lake Superior sample, it was not found among the specimens sequenced from Wisconsin or Minnesota.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Ribossômico/química , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Aves , Água Doce , Minnesota , New Jersey , Quebeque , Caramujos/parasitologia , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Wisconsin
16.
Int J Parasitol ; 40(3): 333-43, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19737570

RESUMO

In this study, sequences from the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) were used to distinguish Diplostomum spp. in a sample of 497 metacercariae collected from diverse fishes of the St. Lawrence River, Canada and findings were corroborated with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Twelve species were detected based on sequences and metacercarial specificity for hosts and tissues. Although this is an unusually high diversity, additional species are likely to exist in the study area. Two species were indistinguishable with ITS data and there is evidence that they may be undergoing hybridization and/or have recently diverged. The ITS sequences of another species are similar to those of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum from Europe, but ITS data are insufficient to show that they are conspecific. Diplostomum spp. that infect tissues other than the lens are more host-specific than species inhabiting the lenses of fishes, which is attributed to the enhanced immunological privilege of the lens site compared with other tissues. Overall, COI sequences were superior to more commonly used ITS markers for delineating species of this important and taxonomically difficult pathogen.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Canadá , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
17.
Genome ; 50(11): 1001-13, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18059546

RESUMO

Plant O-methyltransferases (OMTs) constitute a large family of enzymes that methylate the oxygen atom of a variety of secondary metabolites including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. O-Methylation plays a key role in lignin biosynthesis, stress tolerance, and disease resistance in plants. To gain insights into the evolution of the extraordinary diversity of plant O-methyltransferases, and to develop a framework phylogenetic tree for improved prediction of the putative function of newly identified OMT-like gene sequences, we performed a comparative and phylogenetic analysis of 61 biochemically characterized plant OMT protein sequences. The resulting phylogenetic tree revealed two major groups. One of the groups included two sister clades, one comprising the caffeoyl CoA OMTs (CCoA OMTs) that methylate phenolic hydroxyl groups of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters, and the other containing the carboxylic acid OMTs that methylate aliphatic carboxyl groups. The other group comprised the remaining OMTs, which act on a diverse group of metabolites including hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. The results suggest that some OMTs may have undergone convergent evolution, while others show divergent evolution. The high number of unique conserved regions within the CCoA OMTs and carboxylic acid OMTs provide an opportunity to design oligonucleotide primers to selectively amplify and characterize similar OMT genes from many plant species.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/genética , Acil Coenzima A/química , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Bovinos , Evolução Molecular , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Metilação , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Genéticos , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Filogenia , Software , Streptomyces/metabolismo
18.
Am J Bot ; 92(5): 833-41, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21652464

RESUMO

Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) is an ecologically and economically important forest tree species of northeastern North America and is considered one of the most genetically depauperate conifer species in the region. We have isolated and characterized 13 nuclear microsatellite loci by screening a partial genomic library with di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeat oligonucleotide probes. In an analysis of over 500 individuals representing 17 red pine populations from Manitoba through Newfoundland, five polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of nine alleles per locus were identified. The mean expected and observed heterozygosity values were 0.508 and 0.185, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with excess homozygosity indicating high levels of inbreeding were evident in all populations studied. The population differentiation was high with 28-35% of genetic variation partitioned among populations. The genetic distance analysis showed that three northeastern (two Newfoundland and one New Brunswick) populations are genetically distinct from the remaining populations. The coalescence-based analysis suggests that "northeastern" and "main" populations likely became isolated during the most recent Pleistocene glacial period, and severe population bottlenecks may have led to the evolution of a highly selfing mating system in red pine.

19.
Am J Bot ; 91(9): 1398-408, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21652373

RESUMO

The species of the genus Populus, collectively known as poplars, are widely distributed over the northern hemisphere and well known for their ecological, economical, and evolutionary importance. The extensive interspecific hybridization and high morphological diversity in this group pose difficulties in identifying taxonomic units for comparative evolutionary studies and systematics. To understand the evolutionary relationships among poplars and to provide a framework for biosystematic classification, we reconstructed a phylogeny of the genus Populus based on nucleotide sequences of three noncoding regions of the chloroplast DNA (intron of trnL and intergenic regions of trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF) and ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear rDNA. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed polyphyletic relationships among species in the sections Tacamahaca and Aigeiros. Based on chloroplast DNA sequence data, P. nigra had a close affinity to species of section Populus, whereas nuclear DNA sequence data suggested a close relationship between P. nigra and species of the section Aigeiros, suggesting a possible hybrid origin for P. nigra. Similarly, the chloroplast DNA sequences of P. tristis and P. szechuanica were similar to that of the species of section Aigeiros, while the nuclear sequences revealed a close affinity to species of the section Tacamahaca, suggesting a hybrid origin for these two Asiatic balsam poplars. The incongruence between phylogenetic trees based on nuclear- and chloroplast-DNA sequence data suggests a reticulate evolution in the genus Populus.

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