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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to evaluate the compliance rate to secondary prophylaxis and the presence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a cohort of Italian patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF). METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective study. The patients were divided into two groups by the presence or absence at last follow-up of RHD. Clinical features, ARF recurrences and the rate of compliance to secondary prophylaxis were evaluated. RESULTS: Two-hundred and ninety patients were enrolled (137 females; 153 males). Carditis at onset was present in 244 patients (84.7%). At the end of follow-up, 173 patients manifested RHD. Adherence to secondary prophylaxis was low in 26% of patients. The presence of RHD at follow-up was associated with the presence of carditis and its severity at onset (p=0.001), but it was not related to secondary prophylaxis adherence (p=NS). No association between prophylaxis adherence and ARF recurrence was found (p=NS) nor between ARF recurrence and RHD at the end of follow-up (p=NS). CONCLUSIONS: Poor adherence to secondary prophylaxis does not seem to be associated with increased risk of RHD in developed countries. Further studies are needed to confirm our data in a larger population.

2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3018584, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827671

RESUMO

The extent of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are closely related events which coexist in a muscle environment under pathologic conditions. It has been generally accepted that the inflammatory cells, as well as myofibers, are sources of reactive species which are, in turn, able to amplify the activation of proinflammatory pathways. However, the precise mechanism underlining the physiopathologic interplay between ROS generation and inflammatory response has to be fully clarified. Thus, the identification of key molecular players in the interconnected pathogenic network between the two processes might help to design more specific therapeutic approaches for degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated whether elevated circulating levels of the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are sufficient to perturb the physiologic redox balance in skeletal muscle, independently of tissue damage and inflammatory response. We observed that the overexpression of circulating IL-6 enhances the generation and accumulation of free radicals in the diaphragm muscle of adult NSE/IL-6 mice, by deregulating redox-associated molecular circuits and impinging the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2- (Nrf2-) mediated antioxidant response. Our findings are coherent with a model in which uncontrolled levels of IL-6 in the bloodstream can influence the local redox homeostasis, inducing the establishment of prooxidative conditions in skeletal muscle tissue.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226043, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846457

RESUMO

Aim of this study was to investigate the activation of the IFNγ pathway in the affected liver and in the blood of patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). To this purpose, the mRNA expression levels of IFNG and IFNγ-inducible genes as well as Tyrosine (701)-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) protein levels were evaluated in the liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of three patients with sHLH with predominant liver involvement. The mRNA expression levels of IFNG and IFNγ-inducible genes were markedly higher in patient livers compared to control livers and to one disease control liver. Conversely, slight differences in the expression levels of Type I IFN-inducible genes and other classical inflammatory cytokine genes were found. Further supporting the activation of the IFNγ pathway, higher protein levels of phosphorylated and total STAT1 were detected in patient livers compared to control livers. When the expression of the same genes analysed in liver tissues was evaluated in PBMCs collected from 2 out of 3 patients before the liver biopsy, we found that mRNA levels of IFNγ-inducible genes were markedly increased. Accordingly, high circulating levels of IFNγ-inducible CXCL9 were observed in patients. Altogether, these data demonstrate the selective and marked up-regulation of the IFNγ pathway in the liver tissue and blood of patients with active sHLH. Finally, we show that measurement of circulating CXCL9 levels and evaluation of IFNγ-inducible gene expression levels in PBMCs may represent a new valid tool to better identify patients with suspected HLH with predominant liver involvement.

4.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 84, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is the most catastrophic form of heterotopic ossification, due to ongoing intracellular signaling through the bone morphogenic protein pathway. The paroxysmal appearance of inflammatory lumps and elevated inflammatory markers during flares, suggest that FOP is an auto-inflammatory disease. Based on evidence, demonstrating a role for interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in other forms of heterotopic ossification, we hypothesized that treating FOP patients with anti-IL-1 agents could help lower the rate of FOP paroxysms and/or limit the symptoms and residual lesions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13.5-year-old Arab boy was diagnosed with FOP. Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs did not change the disease course. New lumps appeared in a rate of approximately one every 8 days. Treatment with the anti-IL-1 agents anakinra and canakinumab resulted in significantly lower rate of paroxysms (every 22-25 days, of which almost all involved only 2 existing lumps), as well as shorter duration. High levels of IL-1ß were found in the patient's plasma samples, collected during a paroxysm that appeared 8 weeks after the last canakinumab dose. In contrast, IL-1ß plasma levels were undetectable in the previous three plasma samples, obtained while he was treated with anti-IL-1 agents. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the efficacy of anti-IL-1 agents in the treatment of a patient with FOP. Results showing the marked increase in IL-1ß plasma levels during a paroxysm support a role for IL-1ß in the pathogenesis of FOP and further provide the rationale for the use of anti-IL-1 agents in FOP treatment.

5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(Supplement_6): vi9-vi22, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769856

RESUMO

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and adult-onset Still's disease are rare autoinflammatory disorders with common features, supporting the recognition of these being one disease-Still's disease-with different ages of onset. Anakinra was recently approved by the European Medicines Agency for Still's disease. In this review we discuss the reasoning for considering Still's disease as one disease and present anakinra efficacy and safety based on the available literature. The analysis of 27 studies showed that response to anakinra in Still's disease was remarkable, with clinically inactive disease or the equivalent reported for 23-100% of patients. Glucocorticoid reduction and/or stoppage was reported universally across the studies. In studies on paediatric patients where anakinra was used early or as first-line treatment, clinically inactive disease and successful anakinra tapering/stopping occurred in >50% of patients. Overall, current data support targeted therapy with anakinra in Still's disease since it improves clinical outcome, especially if initiated early in the disease course.

6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709256

RESUMO

Nod-like Receptor Pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRPs) expressed by resident renal cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple renal diseases. Cystinosis is a genetic disorder that affects kidney and particularly proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Here, we investigated the expression of NLRP family members in human control and cystinotic conditionally immortalized PTEC. Among all the NLRPs tested, we found that NLRP2 is highly expressed in cystinostic PTEC, but not in PTEC from healthy subjects. The NLRP2 overexpression was confirmed in primary PTEC and in kidney biopsies from cystinotic patients. In order to elucidate the role of NLRP2 in PTEC, we stably transfected control PTEC with an NLRP2-containing plasmid. We showed that NLRP2 markedly increases the production of several NF-κB regulated cytokines and chemokines. Accordingly, we demonstrated that NLRP2 interacts with IKKa and positively regulates the DNA-binding activity of p50 and p65 NF-κB, by modulating the p65 NF-κB phosphorylation status in Serine 536. Transcriptome analysis revealed that NLRP2 also upregulates the expression of profibrotic mediators and reduces that of several interferon-inducible genes. Finally, NLRP2 overexpression decreased the apoptotic cell rate. Consistently, silencing of NLRP2 by small-interfering RNA in cystinotic PTEC resulted in a significant decrease in cytokine and chemokine production as well as in an increase in the apoptosis rate. Altogether, our data reveals a previously unrecognized role for NLRP2 in regulating proinflammatory, profibrotic and antiapoptotic responses in PTEC, through NF-κB activation. Moreover, our findings unveil a novel potential mechanism involving NLRP2 overexpression in the pathogenesis of cystinosis.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507416

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Only a few studies have reported long-term efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 inhibition in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and adult-onset Still disease (AOSD). Herein we report on the effectiveness of anakinra (ANA), expressed in terms of drug retention rate (DRR), and evaluate the predictive factors of drug survival in a cohort of patients with sJIA and AOSD. Patients and Methods: This is a multicenter study reviewing retrospectively the medical records from 61 patients with sJIA and 76 with AOSD, all treated with ANA in 25 Italian tertiary referral centers. Results: The cumulative retention rate of ANA at 12-, 24-, 48-, and 60-month of follow-up was 74.3%, 62.9%, 49.4%, and 49.4%, respectively, without any significant differences between sJIA and AOSD patients (p = 0.164), and between patients treated in monotherapy compared with the subgroup coadministered with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) (p = 0.473). On the other hand, a significant difference in DRR was found between biologic-naïve patients and those previously treated with biotechnologic drugs (p = 0.009), which persisted even after adjustment for pathology (p = 0.013). In the regression analysis, patients experiencing adverse events (AEs) {hazards ratio (HR) = 3.029 [confidence interval (CI) 1.750-5.242], p < 0.0001} and those previously treated with other biologic agents [HR = 1.818 (CI 1.007-3.282), p = 0.047] were associated with a higher HR of ANA discontinuation. The median treatment delay was significantly higher among patients discontinuing ANA (p < 0.0001). Significant corticosteroid-sparing (p = 0.033) and cDMARD-sparing effects (p < 0.0001) were also recorded. Less than one-third of our cohort developed AEs, and 85% were deemed mild in nature, with 70% of them involving the skin. Conclusions: Our findings display an overall excellent DRR of ANA on the long run for both sJIA and AOSD, that may be further optimized by closely monitoring patient's safety issues and employing this IL-1 inhibitor as a first-line biologic as early as possible. Moreover, ANA allowed a significant drug-sparing effect and showed an overall good safety profile.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1722-1731, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and risk factors of a novel parenchymal lung disease (LD), increasingly detected in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, 61 cases were investigated using physician-reported clinical information and centralised analyses of radiological, pathological and genetic data. RESULTS: LD was associated with distinctive features, including acute erythematous clubbing and a high frequency of anaphylactic reactions to the interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitor, tocilizumab. Serum ferritin elevation and/or significant lymphopaenia preceded LD detection. The most prevalent chest CT pattern was septal thickening, involving the periphery of multiple lobes ± ground-glass opacities. The predominant pathology (23 of 36) was pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or endogenous lipoid pneumonia (PAP/ELP), with atypical features including regional involvement and concomitant vascular changes. Apparent severe delayed drug hypersensitivity occurred in some cases. The 5-year survival was 42%. Whole exome sequencing (20 of 61) did not identify a novel monogenic defect or likely causal PAP-related or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)-related mutations. Trisomy 21 and young sJIA onset increased LD risk. Exposure to IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors (46 of 61) was associated with multiple LD features. By several indicators, severity of sJIA was comparable in drug-exposed subjects and published sJIA cohorts. MAS at sJIA onset was increased in the drug-exposed, but was not associated with LD features. CONCLUSIONS: A rare, life-threatening lung disease in sJIA is defined by a constellation of unusual clinical characteristics. The pathology, a PAP/ELP variant, suggests macrophage dysfunction. Inhibitor exposure may promote LD, independent of sJIA severity, in a small subset of treated patients. Treatment/prevention strategies are needed.

10.
Clin Genet ; 96(6): 585-589, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448411

RESUMO

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) is a DNA-binding signal transducer that regulates transcription of specific genes in response to IFNγ and IFNα/ß stimulation. Loss-of-function mutations impairing STAT1 activity are known to confer susceptibility to intracellular bacterial and viral diseases. Conversely, the few known activating mutations of STAT1 allow predisposition to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease, and occur in patients with combined immunodeficiency and defective Th1 and Th17 responses. Here, we report on a de novo gain-of-function (GoF) STAT1 mutation (c.1398C>G, p.Ser466Arg) identified by exome sequencing in an individual with brain calcification, arthritis, recurrent pericarditis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and low C3 levels, a phenotype resembling an interferonopathy. The Ser466Arg change affects a highly conserved residue located in the DNA binding domain of the protein and the amino acid substitution was documented to have an activating role both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, clinical features and functional studies are compatible with hyperactivation of the Interferon pathways, highlighting a role of STAT1 GoF mutation in clinical phenotypes fitting interferonopathies.

11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(6): 1084-1091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present the results of a Delphi consensus survey among Italian paediatric and adult rheumatologists on transitional care (TC) of young people (YP) with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: A taskforce of 27 paediatric and adult rheumatologists evaluated the applicability of the 2016 EULAR/PReS recommendations for TC to the Italian rheumatology practice and healthcare system and formulated additional country-specific statements aimed to increase their suitability. After a two-round discussion, applicability of EULAR/PReS recommendations and agreement with newly-proposed statements were voted on a 0-10 scale (where 0 = no applicability/agreement and 10 = total applicability/agreement). A mean level of agreement ≥8 was deemed acceptable. RESULTS: The consensus threshold was reached for only 4 of the 12 EULAR/PReS recommendations and for 25 of the 27 country-specific statements. Poor agreement with EULAR/PReS recommendations was mostly explained by paucity of centres in Italy that possess both paediatric and adult rheumatologists, disagreement about optimal time of transition start and de nition of transition coordinator, diversity between paediatric and adult clinimetric assessments, and lack of administrative and financial support. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus initiative represents an important step forward toward the establishment of a nationwide TC network for YP with JIA in Italy. The main goals established for the future are the identification of adult rheumatology centres that are willing to participate in the TC process, the education of adult rheumatology teams on childhood-onset rheumatic diseases and transition issues, and the increased awareness of public healthcare authorities and other stakeholders about the importance of good-quality TC.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Reumatologia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Cuidado Transicional , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Humanos , Itália , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(12): 1976-1984, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313532

RESUMO

A meeting was organized to bring together multiple stakeholders involved in the testing and authorization of new medications for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to discuss current issues surrounding clinical trials and access to new medications for children and adolescents with JIA. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance invited representatives of regulatory agencies (Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency), and major pharmaceutical companies with JIA-approved products or products in development, patient and parent representatives, representatives of an advocacy organization (Arthritis Foundation), and pediatric rheumatology clinicians/investigators to a 1-day meeting in April 2018. The participants engaged in discussion regarding issues in clinical trials. As the pharmacologic options to treat inflammatory arthritis rapidly expand, registration trial designs to test medications in JIA patients must adapt. Many methodologies successfully used in the recent past are no longer feasible. The pool of patients meeting entry criteria who are willing to participate is shrinking while the number of medications to be tested is growing. Suggested solutions included proposing innovative clinical trial methods to regulatory agencies, as well as open discussions among stakeholders. Ensuring that new medications are authorized in a timely manner to meet the needs of JIA patients worldwide is critical. Approaches should include open dialog between regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and other stakeholders to develop and implement novel study designs, including patient and clinician perspectives to define meaningful trial outcomes, and changing existing study plans.

13.
Neurochem Int ; 129: 104498, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278975

RESUMO

The present work aimed to explore the innovative hypothesis that different transcript/protein variants of a pro-neurotrophin may generate different biological outcomes in a cellular system. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is important in the development and progression of neurodegenerative and cancer conditions. Mature NGF (mNGF) originates from a precursor, proNGF, produced in mouse in two major variants, proNGF-A and proNGF-B. Different receptors bind mNGF and proNGF, generating neurotrophic or neurotoxic outcomes. It is known that dysregulation in the proNGF/mNGF ratio and in NGF-receptors expression affects brain homeostasis. To date, however, the specific roles of the two major proNGF variants remain unexplored. Here we attempted a first characterization of the possible differential effects of proNGF-A and proNGF-B on viability, differentiation and endogenous ngf gene expression in the PC12 cell line. We also investigated the differential involvement of NGF receptors in the actions of proNGF. We found that native mouse mNGF, proNGF-A and proNGF-B elicited different effects on PC12 cell survival and differentiation. Only mNGF and proNGF-A promoted neurotrophic responses when all NGF receptors are exposed at the cell surface. Tropomyosine receptor kinase A (TrkA) blockade inhibited cell differentiation, regardless of which NGF was added to culture media. Only proNGF-A exerted a pro-survival effect when TrkA was inhibited. Conversely, proNGF-B exerted differentiative effects when the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) was antagonized. Stimulation with NGF variants differentially regulated the autocrine production of distinct proNgf mRNA. Overall, our findings suggest that mNGF and proNGF-A may elicit similar neurotrophic effects, not necessarily linked to activation of the same NGF-receptor, while the action of proNGF-B may be determined by the NGF-receptors balance. Thus, the proposed involvement of proNGF/NGF on the development and progression of neurodegenerative and tumor conditions may depend on the NGF-receptors balance, on specific NGF trancript expression and on the proNGF protein variant ratio.

14.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(5): 421-427, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192813

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-18 pro-inflammatory activities are finely regulated in vivo by the inhibitory effects of the soluble IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP). The elevation of circulating levels of IL-18 has been described in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). In the recent years, the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), also referred to as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), in the context of autoinflammatory diseases, including sJIA, is emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of studies in patients and animal models pointed to the imbalance in IL-18/IL-18BP levels, causing increased systemic levels of free bioactive IL-18, as a predisposing factor in the development of MAS. Although the exact mechanisms involved in the development of MAS are not clearly understood, increasing evidence demonstrate the role of IL-18 in upregulating the production of interferon (IFN)-γ. SUMMARY: On the basis of the first emerging data on the possibility of blocking IL-18, we here discuss the scientific rationale for neutralizing the IL-18/IFNγ axis in the prevention and treatment of sHLH and MAS.

15.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 25, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition that presents with fever, rash and arthritis. At onset systemic features are predominant and the diagnosis may be a challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) forms may be associated with different disorders, including rheumatic diseases, and this form is called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). CXCL9 levels, a chemokine induced by IFNγ, are significantly elevated in patients with sHLH or MAS and are correlated with laboratory features of disease activity. High levels of IL-18 have been reported in patients with MAS during sJIA, as well as in some patients with sHLH and IL-18 is indeed known to induce IFNγ production. FINDINGS: We report a patient with a clinical presentation highly suggestive for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) onset complicated by MAS, and was later diagnosed with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficiency with HLH. Some unusual features appeared when HLH was controlled and further investigations provided the correct diagnosis. Serum CXCL9 and IL-18 levels were found markedly elevated at disease onset, during the active phase of MAS and decreased progressively during the course. CONCLUSION: The reported case underlines the potential difficulties in discriminating sJIA from other causes of systemic inflammation. Furthermore, this supports the notion that especially in young children with a sJIA-like disease other mimicking conditions should be actively sought for. CXCL9 and IL-18 levels suggested that patients with PNP-deficiency may have a subclinical activation of the IFNγ pathway and indeed they are predisposed to develop sHLH.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Purina-Núcleosídeo Fosforilase/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Lactente , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/complicações
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(5): 476-485, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mutations affecting the TMEM173 gene cause STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). No standard immunosuppressive treatment approach is able to control disease progression in patients with SAVI. We studied the efficacy and safety of targeting type I IFN signaling with the Janus kinase inhibitor, ruxolitinib. METHODS: We used DNA sequencing to identify mutations in TMEM173 in patients with peripheral blood type I IFN signature. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was administered on an off-label basis. RESULTS: We identified three patients with SAVI presenting with skin involvement and progressive severe interstitial lung disease. Indirect echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension were present in one case. Following treatment with ruxolitinib, we observed improvements of respiratory function including increased forced vital capacity in two patients, with discontinuation of oxygen therapy and resolution of echocardiographic abnormalities in one case. Efficacy was persistent in one patient and only transitory in the other two patients. Clinical control of skin complications was obtained, and one patient discontinued steroid treatment. One patient, who presented with kidney involvement, showed resolution of hematuria. One patient experienced increased recurrence of severe viral respiratory infections. Monitoring of peripheral blood type I interferon signature during ruxolitinib treatment did not show a stable decrease. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that targeting type I IFN receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic option for a subset of patients with SAVI syndrome and severe lung involvement. However, the occurrence of viral respiratory infection might represent an important cautionary note for the application of such form of treatment.

17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(8): 1025-1032, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different diagnostic and classification criteria are available for hereditary recurrent fevers (HRF)-familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS)-and for the non-hereditary, periodic fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA). We aimed to develop and validate new evidence-based classification criteria for HRF/PFAPA. METHODS: Step 1: selection of clinical, laboratory and genetic candidate variables; step 2: classification of 360 random patients from the Eurofever Registry by a panel of 25 clinicians and 8 geneticists blinded to patients' diagnosis (consensus ≥80%); step 3: statistical analysis for the selection of the best candidate classification criteria; step 4: nominal group technique consensus conference with 33 panellists for the discussion and selection of the final classification criteria; step 5: cross-sectional validation of the novel criteria. RESULTS: The panellists achieved consensus to classify 281 of 360 (78%) patients (32 CAPS, 36 FMF, 56 MKD, 37 PFAPA, 39 TRAPS, 81 undefined recurrent fever). Consensus was reached for two sets of criteria for each HRF, one including genetic and clinical variables, the other with clinical variables only, plus new criteria for PFAPA. The four HRF criteria demonstrated sensitivity of 0.94-1 and specificity of 0.95-1; for PFAPA, criteria sensitivity and specificity were 0.97 and 0.93, respectively. Validation of these criteria in an independent data set of 1018 patients shows a high accuracy (from 0.81 to 0.98). CONCLUSION: Eurofever proposes a novel set of validated classification criteria for HRF and PFAPA with high sensitivity and specificity.

18.
J Rheumatol ; 46(9): 1117-1126, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neutropenia is associated with increased risk for infection in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pcJIA) treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). METHODS: Data up to Week 104 from 2 phase III trials of intravenous TCZ in sJIA (n = 112; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00642460) and pcJIA (n = 188; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00988221) were pooled. Worst common toxicity criteria grade and lowest observed absolute neutrophil count (ANC) were identified for each patient. Associations between patient characteristics and lowest observed ANC were tested using univariate regression analysis. Infection and serious infection rates per 100 patient-years (PY) in periods associated with grades 1/2 and 3/4 neutrophil counts were compared with rates associated with normal neutrophil counts. RESULTS: ANC decreased to grade ≥ 3 in 25.0% and 5.9% of sJIA and pcJIA patients, respectively, and decreases were transient. Young age (p = 0.047) and methotrexate use (p = 0.012) were positively associated with neutropenia in patients with sJIA but not in patients with pcJIA. The rate of serious infections in patients with sJIA (10.9/100 PY; 95% CI 6.8-16.5) tended to be higher than in patients with pcJIA (5.2/100 PY; 95% CI 3-8.5). No increase in rates of serious or nonserious infections was observed during periods of neutropenia in either trial. CONCLUSION: Patients with JIA treated with TCZ experienced transient neutropenia that was not associated with an increased number of infections.

19.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 523-526, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An upregulation of type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes [IFN score (IS)] was described in patients with adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency (DADA2). We describe the clinical course of 5 such patients and the role of IS as a marker of disease activity and severity. METHODS: Expression levels of IS were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Five white patients were identified as carrying CECR1 mutations. The IS before treatment was elevated in 4 out of 5 patients and decreased after treatment. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm the high variability of DADA2 and suggest type I IS as a biomarker of disease activity.

20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(6): 1011-1021, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of type I interferon (IFNα/ß)- and type II IFN (IFNγ)-inducible genes in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to correlate their expression levels with histologic and clinical features. METHODS: Expression levels of IFN-inducible genes and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with juvenile DM (n = 39), patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), and healthy controls. Muscle biopsy sections were stained and scored for severity of histopathologic features. The charts of patients with juvenile DM were reviewed for clinical features at the time of sampling and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Muscle expression levels of IFNα/ß-inducible genes (type I IFN score), IFNγ, IFNγ-inducible genes (type II IFN score), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were significantly higher in juvenile DM patients not receiving glucocorticoid therapy before muscle biopsy (n = 27) compared to DMD patients (n = 24) (type I IFN score, P < 0.0001; type II IFN score, P < 0.001; TNF, P < 0.05) and healthy controls (n = 4) (type I IFN score, P < 0.01; type II IFN score, P < 0.01; TNF, P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining of muscle biopsy sections from untreated juvenile DM patients showed increased immunoreactivity for IFNγ and HLA class II molecules compared to controls. Type I and type II IFN scores were correlated with typical histopathologic features of juvenile DM muscle biopsy samples, such as infiltration of endomysial CD3+ cells (type I IFN score, r = 0.68; type II IFN score, r = 0.63), perimysial CD3+ cells (type I IFN score, r = 0.59; type II IFN score, r = 0.66), CD68+ cells (type II IFN score, r = 0.46), and perifascicular atrophy (type I IFN score, r = 0.61; type II IFN score, r = 0.77). Juvenile DM patients with a high type I IFN score, a high type II IFN score, and high TNF expression levels showed more severe disease activity at biopsy (P < 0.05). In addition, juvenile DM patients with a high type II IFN score at biopsy reached clinically inactive disease significantly later than patients with low type II IFN score (log rank chi-square value 13.53, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increased expression of IFN-inducible genes in the muscle in juvenile DM patients and their association with histologic and clinical features further support a pathogenic role for both type I and type II IFNs in juvenile DM.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/genética , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatomiosite/metabolismo , Dermatomiosite/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética
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