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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361060

RESUMO

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates various transcriptional and chromatin regulators, thus modulating numerous important cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and oxidative stress. The role of HIPK2 in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis is well established, and evidence of its involvement in the homeostasis of multiple organs has been recently emerging. We have previously demonstrated that Hipk2-null (Hipk2-KO) mice present cerebellar alterations associated with psychomotor abnormalities and that the double ablation of HIPK2 and its interactor HMGA1 causes perinatal death due to respiratory failure. To identify other alterations caused by the loss of HIPK2, we performed a systematic morphological analysis of Hipk2-KO mice. Post-mortem examinations and histological analysis revealed that Hipk2 ablation causes neuronal loss, neuronal morphological alterations, and satellitosis throughout the whole central nervous system (CNS); a myopathic phenotype characterized by variable fiber size, mitochondrial proliferation, sarcoplasmic inclusions, morphological alterations at neuromuscular junctions; and a cardiac phenotype characterized by fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These data demonstrate the importance of HIPK2 in the physiology of skeletal and cardiac muscles and of different parts of the CNS, thus suggesting its potential relevance for different new aspects of human pathology.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteínas HMGA/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101150, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049215

RESUMO

White striping (WS) is an emerging myopathy of broiler chickens characterized by white striation of muscle. Despite the recent advances, the pathomechanism underlying the WS remains elusive. The aim of this study was to characterize morphological and molecular features of WS in broiler chickens. 50 pectoralis muscles were collected from 55 days old ROSS 308 broiler chickens with a mean weight of 3.5 kg. Samples were snap frozen and analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Real-time-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of different cytokines. Histological lesions were observed in all examined animals, both with and without macroscopic evidence of WS. WS muscles showed endomysial and perivascular inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages and cluster of differentiation (CD)8-positive T lymphocytes with severe myofiber atrophy, necrosis, fibrosis and replacement by adipose tissue. There was diffuse sarcoplasmic and sarcolemmal overexpression of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). The severity of the histologic lesions was positively correlated with the macroscopic degree of white striations. IL-6, IL-17 and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) were overexpressed in severe lesions of WS. The presence of the CD8/MHC I complexes, together with the higher expression of IL-6, IL-17 and LITAF in severe degree of WS, suggest that the immune response may be involved in the progression of this myopathy and can be consistent with a hypoxia-induced inflammatory myopathy. These results help to understand the pathomechanism of WS contributing to the reduction of economic losses and improving poultry welfare.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Carne/análise , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Músculos Peitorais
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808510

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to evaluate, for the first time, the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in bovine skeletal muscle in order to investigate the hypothesis that inflammasome activation may trigger and sustain a pro-inflammatory environment leading to sarcopenia. Samples of skeletal muscle were collected from 60 cattle belonging to three age-based groups. Morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis were performed to assess the presence of age-related pathologic changes and chronic inflammation, the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and to determine the levels of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in muscle tissue. Our results revealed the presence of morphologic sarcopenia hallmark, chronic lymphocytic inflammation and a type II fibers-selective NLRP3 expression associated to a significant decreased number of immunolabeled-fibers in aged animals. Moreover, we found a statistically significant age-related increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1ß and interleukin-18 suggesting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome components may be normally expressed in skeletal muscle, but its priming and activation during aging may contribute to enhance a pro-inflammatory environment altering normal muscular anabolism and metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Bovinos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-18/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
5.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669870

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between infection by Dicrocoelium dendriticum (class Trematoda) and the animal host response in terms of macroscopic lesions, the immunopathological response, and histological changes in the livers of naturally infected sheep. Twenty-four sheep were selected on the basis of positive D. dendriticum fecal egg counts (FECs). Gross and histological injuries were scored. A positive significant association was observed between the number of adult worms recovered from the liver, FEC, macroscopic lesions, fibrosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. A significant negative association was observed among these variables and the degree of leukocyte infiltration. In addition, immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells was carried out using primary antibodies against T cell epitopes (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+), B cell epitopes (CD79α), and the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) antigen. Independently of the severity of the D. dendriticum infection, the predominant cell population was CD3-positive and associated with lesser numbers of CD79α- and Iba-I-positive cells. An increase in Iba-1-positive cells was observed in the livers of animals with a high worm burden. Our results provide a reference basis to better understand the local immune response in sheep naturally infected by D. dendriticum in relation to the FEC and parasitic burden.

6.
JSLS ; 24(2)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508487

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Laparoscopy is the preferred method when operating in the abdomen. In this study, we evaluated systemic and morphological peritoneal cytokine modifications (RANTES/CCL5 and MCP-1/CCL2) due to CO2 pneumoperitoneum in rats. Methods: Twenty-five prepubertal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. Pneumoperitoneum lasting 30 minutes, was induced with a flow of 0.5 L/min, in two groups (S1 and S2, n = 20), at a P/CO2 of 6 and 10 mm Hg, respectively. In the control group (C, n = 5), only anesthesia was carried out. All animals were sacrificed after 24 hours. The serum of the rats was collected for ELISA, and the levels of the cytokines RANTES and MCP-1 were investigated. An immunohistochemical analysis of RANTES and MCP-1 was performed on samples of the peritoneum, and the morphological evaluation was conducted with a blinded evaluation by two independent, experienced pathologists by using a grading system (0, 1+, 2+, 3+: no, faint, moderate, and strong reactivity, respectively). Results: RANTES mean levels were significantly different in the S1, S2, and C groups (70.3 ± 2.26, 58.23 ± 4.32, 29.66 ± 4.03, respectively, P = .0001). The levels of MCP-1 were 32.1 ± 1.63 in the S1 group, 27.0 ± 9.26 in the S2 group, and 16.4 ± 9.55 in the C group (P = .159). Normal control peritoneum showed little reactivity, whereas a moderate to strong cytoplasmic reaction to anti-CCL5/CCL2 antibodies was observed in mesothelial and inflammatory cells in the S1 and S2 groups. Conclusion: CO2 pneumoperitoneum evokes an inflammatory response by modifying plasma RANTES levels and peritoneal CCL5/CCL2 expression.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CCL5/sangue , Laparoscopia , Pneumoperitônio Artificial/métodos , Animais , Camundongos , Peritonite/sangue , Peritonite/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Pathogens ; 9(4)2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260380

RESUMO

Multiple papillomatous nodules were observed scattered over the amniotic membrane in six water buffaloes that had recently aborted. Grossly, some of the nodules had multiple villous projections while others appeared as single prominent conical or cylindrical horns. Histology revealed folded hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic epithelium supported by a narrow fibro-vascular stalk. Using PCR, sequences of the bovine Deltapapillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) E5 gene were amplified from the amniotic papillomas. Furthermore, expression of the E5 gene was detected using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Western blotting revealed BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein as well as L1 protein, suggesting both abortive and productive infection. Additionally, a functional complex composed of BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein and the phosphorylated PDGFßR was detected, which is consistent with the activation of PDGFßR by the interaction with BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein. These results demonstrate that BPV-2 can infect the amnion of water buffaloes and suggest that this infection may cause proliferation of the epithelial cells of the amnion. While the precise pathogenesis in uncertain, it is possible that BPV-2 infection of stratified squamous epithelial cells within squamous metaplasia foci and/or amniotic plaques could lead to papilloma formation. Papillomavirus-associated amniotic papillomas have not previously been reported in any species, including humans.

8.
Vet Sci ; 7(2)2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326275

RESUMO

Infectious causes of myositis are reported relatively uncommonly in horses. Among them, bacterial causes include Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Actinobacillus equuli, Fusobacterium spp. Staphylococcus spp, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Infection can be spread to muscles via haematogenous or extension from skin lesions. Parasitic myositis has also been documented. In this report, a 12 year-old Italian Quarter Horse mare presented with diffuse subcutaneous nodules and masses ranging from 2 × 3 to 5 × 20 cm in size, and adherent to subcutis and muscles that were first macroscopically and cytologically diagnosed as pyogranulomas. Subsequently, histological, molecular, bacteriological, and biochemical investigations were performed. All the data obtained allowed to diagnose a severe and diffuse multibacterial granulomatous myositis caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium amycolatum. Following the therapy and an initial disappearance of most of the lesions together with a general improvement of the mare, the clinical condition deteriorated, and new nodules appeared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and PCR techniques revealed the presence of bacteria as Glutamicibacter creatinolyticus and Dietzia spp. To the authors' knowledge, this case report represents the first description of multibacterial granulomatous myositis due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Glutamicibacter creatinolyticus, and Dietzia spp. in a horse reared in Italy.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7057, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341372

RESUMO

We have recently identified and characterized two pseudogenes (HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7) of the HMGA1 gene, which has a critical role in malignant cell transformation and cancer progression. HMGA1P6 and HMGAP17 act as microRNA decoy for HMGA1 and other cancer-related genes upregulating their protein levels. We have previously shown that they are upregulated in several human carcinomas, and their expression positively correlates with a poor prognosis and an advanced cancer stage. To evaluate in vivo oncogenic activity of HMGA1 pseudogenes, we have generated a HMGA1P7 transgenic mouse line overexpressing this pseudogene. By a mean age of 12 months, about 50% of the transgenic mice developed splenomegaly and accumulation of lymphoid cells in several body compartments. For these mice FACS and immunohistochemical analyses suggested the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma that was further supported by clonality analyses and RNA expression profile of the pathological tissues of the HMGA1P7 transgenic tissues. Therefore, these results clearly demonstrate the oncogenic activity of HMGA1 pseudogenes in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGA1a/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteína HMGA1a/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células NIH 3T3 , Pseudogenes/genética , RNA-Seq
10.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 350-364, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914699

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activation controls hepatic lipid homeostasis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation, and adapting the metabolic response to lipid overload and storage. Here, we investigate the effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous PPAR-α ligand, in counteracting hepatic metabolic inflexibility and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Long-term PEA administration (30 mg/kg/die per os) in HFD mice limited hepatic lipid accumulation, increased energy expenditure, and markedly reduced insulin resistance. In isolated liver mitochondria, we have demonstrated PEA capability to modulate mitochondrial oxidative capacity and energy efficiency, leading to the reduction of intracellular lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Moreover, we have evaluated the effect of PEA on mitochondrial bioenergetics of palmitate-challenged HepG2 cells, using Seahorse analyzer. In vitro data showed that PEA recovered mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced lipid accumulation in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, increasing fatty acid oxidation. Mechanistic studies showed that PEA effect on lipid metabolism was limited by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition, providing evidence for a pivotal role of AMPK in PEA-induced adaptive metabolic setting. All these findings identify PEA as a modulator of hepatic lipid and glucose homeostasis, limiting metabolic inflexibility induced by nutrient overload.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Palmíticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Amidas , Animais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo
11.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(6): 5394-5403, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903559

RESUMO

NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that can sense several stimuli such as autophagy dysregulation and increased reactive oxygen species production stimulating inflammation by priming the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß and interleukin-18 in their active form. In the aging brain, these cytokines can mediate the innate immunity response priming microglial activation. Here, we describe the results of immunohistochemical and molecular analysis carried out on bovine brains. Our results support the hypothesis that the age-related impairment in cellular housekeeping mechanisms and the increased oxidative stress can trigger the inflammatory danger sensor NLRP3. Moreover, according to the recent scientific literature, we demonstrate the presence of an age-related proinflammatory environment in aged brains consisting in an upregulation of interleukin-1ß, an increased microglial activation and increased NLRP3 expression. Finally, we suggest that bovine may potentially be a pivotal animal model for brain aging studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Microglia/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
12.
Vet Pathol ; 57(2): 272-280, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801417

RESUMO

Sarcocystosis is a protozoal disease affecting a wide range of animals. The aims of this study were to characterize the following in sheep: (1) the muscle pathology in Sarcocystis infection, (2) the inflammatory infiltrate and its relationship to severity of infection, and (3) immune markers expressed by parasitized muscle fibers and parasitic cysts. Skeletal muscle samples from 78 sheep slaughtered in southern Italy were snap frozen and analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used for Sarcocystis species identification. All 40 muscle samples tested were PCR-positive for Sarcocystis tenella. Histologically, cysts were identified in 76/78 cases (97%), associated with an endomysial infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The T cells were predominantly CD8+, with fewer CD4+ or CD79α+ cells. Eosinophils were absent. Notably, sarcolemmal immunopositivity for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II was found in 76/78 cases (97%) and 75/78 cases (96%), respectively, both in samples with and in those without evident inflammatory infiltrate. The number of cysts was positively correlated with inflammation. In addition, MHC I was detected in 55/78 cyst walls (72%), and occasionally co-localized with the membrane-associated protein dystrophin. The findings suggest that muscle fibers respond to the presence of cysts by expression of MHC I and II. The possible role of MHC I and II in the inflammatory response and on the cyst wall is also discussed.


Assuntos
Inflamação/veterinária , Miosite/veterinária , Sarcocystis/classificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Animais , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Inflamação/parasitologia , Inflamação/patologia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miosite/parasitologia , Miosite/patologia , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Sarcocistose/patologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Linfócitos T/parasitologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
13.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799284

RESUMO

The detection of diatoms into the organs is considered an important "biological marker" for the diagnosis of drowning in human pathology, but it still has a high possibility for false positive results. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the contribution of pathological examination in drowning cases and (2) to investigate the differences in the number and location of diatoms between animals who died in drowning and non-drowning conditions. For these purposes, 30 dead adult dogs were selected for the study and subdivided into five groups. The group A comprised six cadavers dead for drowning; the group B comprised six control animals; the groups C, D, and E comprised six animals dead for causes other than drowning and subsequently immersed in water for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. On each animal, a complete macroscopic and histological examination and diatom test were performed. Diatoms test and quantification were also performed on drowning mediums. Pathological findings of the animals in the group A showed pulmonary congestion, oedema, and hemorrages in the lung. However, similar injuries were also observed in control and experimentally submerged cadavers. In contrast, we observed a statistically differences between drowning animals and all experimentally submerged groups and control animals regarding diatom numbers recovered from organ tissue samples (p < 0.05). Therefore, these findings suggest that the number of diatoms may be used as a valid tool to differentiate animals who died in drowning and non-drowning conditions, even if the latter were found in an aquatic environment.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658596

RESUMO

The Disorders of Sex Development (DSDs) are congenital conditions characterized by inconsistency among chromosomal, gonadal, and anatomical sex development. The aim of this research is to report the clinical and cytogenetic findings of four DSD cases and 13 couples of heterosexual twins in sheep. To this purpose, C- and R-banding techniques were used, and the analyses of the SRY (Sex Determining Region Y) and AMEL (Amelogenin) genes were carried out. Moreover, morphopathological analyses were performed in one case. The four DSD sheep cases were registered as females at birth, and for none of them it was possible to establish whether the subjects were born from heterosexual multiple births. Three of the four cases were diagnosed as XX/XY blood lymphocyte chimaeras, while the fourth case was diagnosed as a 54, XY SRY-positive DSD sheep. None of the heterosexual twins showed XX/XY blood chimaerism. This finding suggests that the blood chimaeric cases detected could also be due to a zygote/embryo fusion. Moreover, no gene variants involved in sheep DSD are known, the identification of which would be very useful for the sheep industry.

16.
Lab Anim ; 53(5): 447-458, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522404

RESUMO

Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is an idiopathic, spontaneous and progressive disease typically affecting C57BL/6 aged mice with an unknown aetiopathogenesis. For this study, we evaluated 25 cases of UD in C57BL/6NCrl-Tg(HMGA1P6)1Pg mice. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin samples were submitted to morphological investigations. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize and quantify inflammatory cells using CD3, CD45/B220, CD4, CD8 and IL-17 antibodies. Mast cell-bound IgE was investigated by immunofluorescence, whereas serum and cryopreserved skin samples were collected for molecular analysis. Student's t-test (two-tailed) was performed to assess significant differences between the two groups. Affected skin showed extensive areas of ulceration and diffuse, severe and mixed inflammatory infiltrates. No relevant changes were observed in control mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a predominant CD3 + CD4 + leukocyte population with fewer CD45/B220 and IL-17 immunolabelled cells and mast cell-bound IgE. Increases in TNFα, IL-1ß and Il-6 mRNA expression were observed in the skin of affected animals compared to controls. Serum TNFα and IL-6 did not vary between affected and control mice. Inflammatory infiltrates and cytokine expression were consistent with both Th2/IgE and Th17 differentiation, a typical pattern of a type I hypersensitivity reaction. Overall, our data suggest an allergic-based aetiopathogenesis of UD in C57BL/6NCrl-Tg(HMGA1P6)1Pg mice.


Assuntos
Dermatite/imunologia , Úlcera Cutânea/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(9): e180, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Google Glass is a head-mounted device designed in the shape of a pair of eyeglasses equipped with a 5.0-megapixel integrated camera and capable of taking pictures with simple voice commands. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether Google Glass is fit for veterinary forensic pathology purposes. METHODS: A total of 44 forensic necropsies of 2 different species (22 dogs and 22 cats) were performed by 2 pathologists; each pathologist conducted 11 necropsies of each species and, for each photographic acquisition, the images were taken with a Google Glass device and a Nikon D3200 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The pictures were collected, divided into 3 groups (based on the external appearance of the animal, organs, and anatomical details), and evaluated by 5 forensic pathologists using a 5-point score system. The parameters assessed were overall color settings, region of interest, sharpness, and brightness. To evaluate the difference in mean duration between necropsies conduced with Google Glass and DSLR camera and to assess the battery consumption of the devices, an additional number of 16 necropsies were performed by the 2 pathologists. In these cases, Google Glass was used for photographic reports in 8 cases (4 dogs and 4 cats) and a Nikon D3200 reflex camera in the other 8 cases. Statistical evaluations were performed to assess the differences in ratings between the quality of the images taken with both devices. RESULTS: The images taken with Google Glass received significantly lower ratings than those acquired with reflex camera for all 4 assessed parameters (P<.001). In particular, for the pictures of Groups A and B taken with Google Glass, the sum of frequency of ratings 5 (very good) and 4 (good) was between 50% and 77% for all 4 assessed parameters. The lowest ratings were observed for the pictures of Group C, with a sum of frequency of ratings 5 and 4 of 21.1% (342/1602) for region of interest, 26% (421/1602) for sharpness, 35.5% (575/1602) for overall color settings, and 61.4% (995/1602) for brightness. Furthermore, we found a significant reduction in the mean execution time for necropsy conduced with the Google Glass with respect to the reflex group (P<.001). However, Google Glass drained the battery very quickly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Google Glass is usable in veterinary forensic pathology. In particular, the image quality of Groups A and B seemed adequate for forensic photographic documentation purposes, although the quality was lower than that with the reflex camera. However, in this step of development, the high frequency of poor ratings observed for the pictures of Group C suggest that the device is not suitable for taking pictures of small anatomical details or close-ups of the injuries.

18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: e5-e8, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072043

RESUMO

Cardiac laceration with non-penetrating chest trauma is reported as a common cause of death in human following rapid deceleration in high-speed vehicular accident. In contrast, in veterinary medicine, traumatic rupture of heart and great-vessel structures appears to be an uncommon cause of death. Here we report three cases of cardiac laceration following non-penetrating chest trauma in a one cat and two dogs. In two of these cases, necropsy revealed a rupture of the heart associated with fractures of the ribs and lung contusion; only one case did not exhibit any external chest injury but revealed pericardial tear associated with hemothorax following rupture of the right auricle of the heart. However, in all three presented cases, the thoracic location of the injuries allowed to conclude that the cause of the cardiac rupture was due to a direct impact of the chest wall with a high speed object and consequent transmission of the kinetic force and compression of the heart between left and right thorax. These case reports underline the importance of a systematic and complete macroscopic evaluation of the heart in all cases of death following non-penetrating chest trauma in dog and cat such as in human. They also highlight how, in clinical and forensic practice, the cardiac injury following blunt chest trauma should be ruled out even in the cases of absence of external chest injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Ruptura Cardíaca/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Animais , Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Gatos , Cães , Traumatismos Cardíacos/veterinária , Ruptura Cardíaca/veterinária , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/veterinária
19.
Vet Pathol ; 55(4): 539-542, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566608

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen and the cause of Q fever in many animal species and humans. Several studies have reported the association between C. burnetii and abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth, and weak offspring. However, no solid evidence indicates that C. burnetii causes endometritis, subfertility, and retained fetal membranes. For this study, histopathological and PCR evaluation were performed on 40 uterine biopsies from dairy cattle with poor fertility. Uterine swabs were concurrently tested with microbiology assays. The endometrial biopsies of 30 cows did not have any significant lesions, and no pathogens were identified by aerobic bacterial culture and PCR. Ten cows were PCR-positive for C. burnetii and negative for other pathogens by aerobic bacterial culture and PCR. These 10 cases revealed a mild to severe chronic endometritis admixed with perivascular and periglandular fibrosis. Immunohistochemical evaluation of C. burnetii PCR-positive biopsies identified, for the first time, the presence of intralesional and intracytoplasmic C. burnetii in macrophages in the endometrium of cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Endometrite/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Endometrite/complicações , Endometrite/microbiologia , Endometrite/patologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Infertilidade/microbiologia , Infertilidade/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gravidez , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/microbiologia , Febre Q/patologia
20.
Cell Cycle ; 17(5): 580-588, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157111

RESUMO

We have previously reported a critical role of HMGA proteins in pituitary tumorigenesis since either the Hmga1 or Hmga2 gene overexpression/activation induces the development of mixed growth hormone/prolactin cell pituitary adenomas by activating the E2F transcription factor 1, and then enhancing the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Consistently, amplification and overexpression of the HMGA2 gene was found in human pituitary prolactinomas. Since impairment of the cell cycle control represents a feature of experimental and human pituitary adenomas, we have investigated the possible synergism between the alterations of other cell cycle regulators, such as p27 deficiency or Cdk4R24C mutation, with Hmga2 overexpression in pituitary tumorigenesis. Therefore, we crossed the Hmga2/T mice, overexpressing the truncated/active form of the Hmga2 gene, either with the knockout mice for p27kip1, or with the knockin mice for the Cdk4R24C mutation, both developing pituitary adenomas. Increased incidence and decreased latency in the development of pituitary lesions appeared in double mutant Hmga2/T;Cdk4R24C mice, and increased features of invasiveness and atypia were observed in pituitary tumors of both Hmga2/T;p27-ko and Hmga2/T;Cdk4R24C double mutant mice as compared with single mutant compounds. Interestingly, most of these mice develop pituitary adenomas with high Ki67 index, extrasellar expansion and brain tissue infiltration, representing good mouse models for human aggressive pituitary adenomas. Taken together, the results reported here indicate a cooperation between HMGA2 overexpression and either p27kip1 or CDK4 impairment in promoting pituitary tumor development and progression.


Assuntos
Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Proteína HMGA2/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/deficiência , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/mortalidade
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