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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 406: 116444, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ALS is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder, with the recommendation that symptom management and palliative care start immediately or soon after diagnosis. However, little is known about healthcare utilization at the end of life in this patient group. AIM: To describe healthcare utilization at the end of life in patients who died from ALS. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study using population-level administrative databases. The description of healthcare utilization was based on (1) validated quality indicators for end-of-life care, and (2) the European Federation of Neurological Societies guidelines on the clinical management of ALS. SETTING: We included all people who died from ALS in Belgium between 2010 and 2015 (using ICD-10 code G12.2). RESULTS: 1636 people died from ALS in Belgium between 2010 and 2015. The mean age at death was 71 years (SD11.3), and 56% were men. Specialized palliative care was used by 44% at some point in the last two years of life. In the last month of life, 13% received tube feeding, 48% received diagnostic testing, 41% were admitted to a hospital, and 25% were admitted to an emergency department. Medications were used mainly to treat pain (43%), insomnia and fatigue (33%) and thrombosis (32%); 39% used riluzole. Non-invasive ventilation was used by 18%. 39% died at home. CONCLUSION: Administrative data provide a valuable source to describe healthcare utilization in small populations such as ALS, but more clinical evidence is needed on the advantages and disadvantages initiating or terminating treatments at the end of life.

2.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388901

RESUMO

Recent discovery of nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide drug, has provided encouragement for improving treatment of spinal muscular atrophy. No therapeutic options currently exist for this autosomal recessive motor neuron disorder. Nusinersen is developed for intrathecal use and binds to a specific sequence within the survival motor neuron 2 pre-messenger RNA, modifying the splicing process to promote expression of full-length survival motor neuron protein. We performed a MEDLINE and CENTRAL search to investigate the current evidence for treatment with nusinersen in patients with spinal muscular atrophy. Four papers were withheld, including two phase-3 randomized controlled trials, one phase-2 open-label clinical trial and one phase-1 open-label clinical trial. Outcome measures concerned improvement in motor function and milestones, as well as event-free survival and survival. Results of these trials are hopeful with significant and clinically meaningful improvement due to treatment with intrathecal nusinersen in patients with early- and later-onset spinal muscular atrophy, although this does not restore age-appropriate function. Intrathecal nusinersen has acceptable safety and tolerability. Further trials regarding long-term effects and safety aspects as well as trials including broader spinal muscular atrophy and age categories are required and ongoing.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(9): 834-844, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclusion body myositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and the most common myopathy affecting people older than 50 years. To date, there are no effective drug treatments. We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of bimagrumab-a fully human monoclonal antibody-in individuals with inclusion body myositis. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (RESILIENT) at 38 academic clinical sites in Australia, Europe, Japan, and the USA. Individuals (aged 36-85 years) were eligible for the study if they met modified 2010 Medical Research Council criteria for inclusion body myositis. We randomly assigned participants (1:1:1:1) using a blocked randomisation schedule (block size of four) to either bimagrumab (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 1 mg/kg) or placebo matched in appearance to bimagrumab, administered as intravenous infusions every 4 weeks for at least 48 weeks. All study participants, the funder, investigators, site personnel, and people doing assessments were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome measure was 6-min walking distance (6MWD), which was assessed at week 52 in the primary analysis population and analysed by intention-to-treat principles. We used a multivariate normal repeated measures model to analyse data for 6MWD. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events and by electrocardiography, echocardiography, haematological testing, urinalysis, and blood chemistry. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01925209; this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Sept 26, 2013, and Jan 6, 2016, 251 participants were enrolled to the study, of whom 63 were assigned to each bimagrumab group and 62 were allocated to the placebo group. At week 52, 6MWD change from baseline did not differ between any bimagrumab dose and placebo (least squares mean treatment difference for bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 17·6 m, SE 14·3, 99% CI -19·6 to 54·8; p=0·22; for 3 mg/kg group, 18·6 m, 14·2, -18·2 to 55·4; p=0·19; and for 1 mg/kg group, -1·3 m, 14·1, -38·0 to 35·4; p=0·93). 63 (100%) participants in each bimagrumab group and 61 (98%) of 62 in the placebo group had at least one adverse event. Falls were the most frequent adverse event (48 [76%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 55 [87%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 54 [86%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 52 [84%] in the placebo group). The most frequently reported adverse events with bimagrumab were muscle spasms (32 [51%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 43 [68%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 25 [40%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 13 [21%] in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (33 [52%], 28 [44%], 20 [32%], and 11 [18%], respectively). Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in four (6%) participants in each bimagrumab group compared with one (2%) participant in the placebo group. At least one serious adverse event was reported by 21 (33%) participants in the 10 mg/kg group, 11 (17%) in the 3 mg/kg group, 20 (32%) in the 1 mg/kg group, and 20 (32%) in the placebo group. No significant adverse cardiac effects were recorded on electrocardiography or echocardiography. Two deaths were reported during the study, one attributable to subendocardial myocardial infarction (secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding after an intentional overdose of concomitant sedatives and antidepressants) and one attributable to lung adenocarcinoma. Neither death was considered by the investigator to be related to bimagrumab. INTERPRETATION: Bimagrumab showed a good safety profile, relative to placebo, in individuals with inclusion body myositis but did not improve 6MWD. The strengths of our study are that, to the best of our knowledge, it is the largest randomised controlled trial done in people with inclusion body myositis, and it provides important natural history data over 12 months. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma.

4.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Today, the contribution of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSA) in the diagnostic workup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) is on the rise. The aim of this study was to document MSA frequency as detected by lineblot in a set of consecutive MSA requests and to correlate the results with clinical diagnosis, IIM subtype and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) findings. Additionally, a comparison between two lineblots was performed. METHODS: A total of 118 consecutive samples of patients with suspicion of IIM were analysed on IIF and two lineblots. A total of 107 patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases served as controls. RESULTS: MSA were detected in 55% of IIM patients (n=31) and 7.9% (n=12) of patients without clinical diagnosis of IIM or myositis overlap syndrome. All the IIM patients had a MSA-compatible clinical subtype. There was no to fair agreement between both lineblots for the individual antibodies, with most discrepancies observed for anti-TIF1γ (κ=-0.021), anti-SRP (κ=-0.006) and anti-SAE (κ=0.395). Differences between both assays were mostly observed in the non-IIM patients, also showing signi cantly lower blot signal intensities compared to IIM patients (p=0.0013). MSA in the non-IIM patients frequently showed an incompatible IIF pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Lineblot seems to be an interesting tool for MSA detection in a clinical context, allowing the identification of clinical subtypes. However, considerable caution must be exercised in interpreting the results in case of low positive MSA signal intensity, discordant lineblot results and/or an incompatible IIF pattern.

5.
Neurology ; 93(9): e889-e894, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine interrater variability in diagnosing individual muscle biopsy abnormalities and diagnosis. METHODS: We developed a scoring tool to analyze consensus in muscle biopsy reading of an ad hoc workgroup of international experts. Twenty-four samples from patients with suspected idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) were randomly selected, providing sections that were stained with standard histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Sections were made available on an online platform, and experts were queried about myopathologic features within 4 pathologic domains: muscle fibers, inflammation, connective tissue, and vasculature. A short clinical presentation of cases was included, and experts were asked to give a tentative diagnosis of polymyositis, dermatomyositis, inclusion-body myositis, antisynthetase syndrome-related myositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, nonspecific myositis, or other disease. Fleiss κ values, scoring interrater variability, showed the highest agreement within the muscle fiber and connective tissue domains. RESULTS: Despite overall low κ values, moderate agreement was achieved for tentative diagnosis, supporting the idea of using holistic muscle biopsy interpretation rather than adding up individual features. CONCLUSION: The assessment of individual pathologic features needs to be standardized and harmonized and should be measured for sensitivity and specificity for subgroup classification. Standardizing the process of diagnostic muscle biopsy reading would allow identification of more homogeneous patient cohorts for upcoming treatment trials.

6.
Brain ; 142(9): 2605-2616, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332438

RESUMO

Distal hereditary motor neuropathies are a rare subgroup of inherited peripheral neuropathies hallmarked by a length-dependent axonal degeneration of lower motor neurons without significant involvement of sensory neurons. We identified patients with heterozygous nonsense mutations in the αII-spectrin gene, SPTAN1, in three separate dominant hereditary motor neuropathy families via next-generation sequencing. Variable penetrance was noted for these mutations in two of three families, and phenotype severity differs greatly between patients. The mutant mRNA containing nonsense mutations is broken down by nonsense-mediated decay and leads to reduced protein levels in patient cells. Previously, dominant-negative αII-spectrin gene mutations were described as causal in a spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 996-1002, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a spectrum of rare autoimmune diseases characterised clinically by muscle weakness and heterogeneous systemic organ involvement. The strongest genetic risk is within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Since autoantibody presence defines specific clinical subgroups of IIM, we aimed to correlate serotype and genotype, to identify novel risk variants in the MHC region that co-occur with IIM autoantibodies. METHODS: We collected available autoantibody data in our cohort of 2582 Caucasian patients with IIM. High resolution human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and corresponding amino acid sequences were imputed using SNP2HLA from existing genotyping data and tested for association with 12 autoantibody subgroups. RESULTS: We report associations with eight autoantibodies reaching our study-wide significance level of p<2.9×10-5. Associations with the 8.1 ancestral haplotype were found with anti-Jo-1 (HLA-B*08:01, p=2.28×10-53 and HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=3.25×10-9), anti-PM/Scl (HLA-DQB1*02:01, p=1.47×10-26) and anti-cN1A autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=1.40×10-11). Associations independent of this haplotype were found with anti-Mi-2 (HLA-DRB1*07:01, p=4.92×10-13) and anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*11, p=5.09×10-6). Amino acid positions may be more strongly associated than classical HLA associations; for example with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies and position 74 of HLA-DRB1 (p=3.47×10-64) and position 9 of HLA-B (p=7.03×10-11). We report novel genetic associations with HLA-DQB1 anti-TIF1 autoantibodies and identify haplotypes that may differ between adult-onset and juvenile-onset patients with these autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights regarding the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms within the MHC. As autoantibodies in IIM correlate with specific clinical features of disease, understanding genetic risk underlying development of autoantibody profiles has implications for future research.

8.
Neurology ; 92(23): e2679-e2690, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We took advantage of a large multinational recruitment to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large, trans-European multicenter cohort of patients with spastic paraplegia gene 7 (SPG7). METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data from 241 patients with SPG7, integrating neurologic follow-up data. One case was examined neuropathologically. RESULTS: Patients with SPG7 had a mean age of 35.5 ± 14.3 years (n = 233) at onset and presented with spasticity (n = 89), ataxia (n = 74), or both (n = 45). At the first visit, patients with a longer disease duration (>20 years, n = 62) showed more cerebellar dysarthria (p < 0.05), deep sensory loss (p < 0.01), muscle wasting (p < 0.01), ophthalmoplegia (p < 0.05), and sphincter dysfunction (p < 0.05) than those with a shorter duration (<10 years, n = 93). Progression, measured by Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia evaluations, showed a mean annual increase of 1.0 ± 1.4 points in a subgroup of 30 patients. Patients homozygous for loss of function (LOF) variants (n = 65) presented significantly more often with pyramidal signs (p < 0.05), diminished visual acuity due to optic atrophy (p < 0.0001), and deep sensory loss (p < 0.0001) than those with at least 1 missense variant (n = 176). Patients with at least 1 Ala510Val variant (58%) were older (age 37.6 ± 13.7 vs 32.8 ± 14.6 years, p < 0.05) and showed ataxia at onset (p < 0.05). Neuropathologic examination revealed reduction of the pyramidal tract in the medulla oblongata and moderate loss of Purkinje cells and substantia nigra neurons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest SPG7 cohort study to date and shows a spasticity-predominant phenotype of LOF variants and more frequent cerebellar ataxia and later onset in patients carrying at least 1 Ala510Val variant.

9.
Brain ; 142(6): 1561-1572, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135052

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum enzyme fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) plays a major role in the formation of 2-hydroxy glycosphingolipids, main components of myelin. FA2H deficiency in mice leads to severe central demyelination and axon loss. In humans it has been associated with phenotypes from the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration, FAHN), hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP type SPG35) and leukodystrophy (leukodystrophy with spasticity and dystonia) spectrum. We performed an in-depth clinical and retrospective neurophysiological and imaging study in a cohort of 19 cases with biallelic FA2H mutations. FAHN/SPG35 manifests with early childhood onset predominantly lower limb spastic tetraparesis and truncal instability, dysarthria, dysphagia, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive deficits, often accompanied by exotropia and movement disorders. The disease is rapidly progressive with loss of ambulation after a median of 7 years after disease onset and demonstrates little interindividual variability. The hair of FAHN/SPG35 patients shows a bristle-like appearance; scanning electron microscopy of patient hair shafts reveals deformities (longitudinal grooves) as well as plaque-like adhesions to the hair, likely caused by an abnormal sebum composition also described in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency. Characteristic imaging features of FAHN/SPG35 can be summarized by the 'WHAT' acronym: white matter changes, hypointensity of the globus pallidus, ponto-cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum. At least three of four imaging features are present in 85% of FA2H mutation carriers. Here, we report the first systematic, large cohort study in FAHN/SPG35 and determine the phenotypic spectrum, define the disease course and identify clinical and imaging biomarkers.

10.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 47(2): 128-133, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070454

RESUMO

Some degree of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), striated muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise, is a well-known phenomenon associated with endurance sports. However in rare cases, severe and/or recurrent ER is a manifestation of an underlying condition, which puts patients at risk for significant morbidity and mortality. Selecting the patients that need a diagnostic work up of an acute rhabdomyolysis episode is an important task. Based on the diagnostic work up of three illustrative patients treated in our hospital, retrospectively using the 'RHABDO' screening tool, we discuss the clinical and biochemical clues that should trigger further investigation for an underlying condition. Finally, we describe the most common genetic causes of this clinical syndrome.


Assuntos
Exercício , Rabdomiólise , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/etiologia
12.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(1): 14-24, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767274

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eculizumab is effective and well tolerated in patients with antiacetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG; REGAIN; NCT01997229). We report an interim analysis of an open-label extension of REGAIN, evaluating eculizumab's long-term safety and efficacy. METHODS: Eculizumab (1,200 mg every 2 weeks for 22.7 months [median]) was administered to 117 patients. RESULTS: The safety profile of eculizumab was consistent with REGAIN; no cases of meningococcal infection were reported during the interim analysis period. Myasthenia gravis exacerbation rate was reduced by 75% from the year before REGAIN (P < 0.0001). Improvements with eculizumab in activities of daily living, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life in REGAIN were maintained through 3 years; 56% of patients achieved minimal manifestations or pharmacological remission. Patients who had received placebo during REGAIN experienced rapid and sustained improvements during open-label eculizumab (P < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: These findings provide evidence for the long-term safety and sustained efficacy of eculizumab for refractory gMG. Muscle Nerve 2019.

13.
Muscle Nerve ; 59(5): E38, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758837
14.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 24(1): 48-55, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672091

RESUMO

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a potential therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). To investigate the efficacy and safety of the IVIG IgPro10 (Privigen) for treatment of CIDP, results from Privigen Impact on Mobility and Autonomy (PRIMA), a prospective, open-label, single-arm study of IVIG in immunoglobulin (Ig)-naïve or IVIG pre-treated subjects (NCT01184846, n = 28) and Polyneuropathy And Treatment with Hizentra (PATH), a double-blind, randomized study including an open-label, single-arm IVIG phase in IVIG pre-treated subjects (NCT01545076, IVIG restabilization phase n = 207) were analyzed separately and together (n = 235). Efficacy assessments included change in adjusted inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) score, grip strength and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADRs/infusion were recorded. Adjusted INCAT response rate was 60.7% in all PRIMA subjects at Week 25 (76.9% in IVIG pre-treated subjects) and 72.9% in PATH. In the pooled cohort (n = 235), INCAT response rate was 71.5%; median time to INCAT improvement was 4.3 weeks. No clear demographic differences were noticed between early (responding before Week 7, n = 148) and late responders (n = 21). In the pooled cohort, median change from baseline to last observation was -1.0 (interquartile range -2.0; 0.0) point for INCAT score; +8.0 (0.0; 20.0) kPa for maximum grip strength; +3.0 (1.0; 7.0) points for MRC sum score. In the pooled cohort, 271 ADRs were reported in 105 subjects (44.7%), a rate of 0.144 ADRs per infusion. This analysis confirms the efficacy and safety of IgPro10, a recently FDA-approved IVIG for CIDP, in a population of mainly pre-treated subjects with CIDP [Correction added on 14 March 2019 after first online publication: the INCAT response rate has been corrected.].

15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(1): e513, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345336

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of different clinico-serologic subgroups of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from medical charts of 64 patients diagnosed with IMNM between 2012 and 2017 in 3 neuromuscular referral centers in The Netherlands and 1 in Belgium. Results: Seventeen patients had anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) autoantibodies (Abs), of whom 11 had a history of statin use, 15 had anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) Abs, 2 had anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) Abs, 22 patients were seronegative, and 9 patients did not have a complete Ab assessment. Moderate to severe disability in HMGCR Ab-positive and anti-SRP Ab-positive IMNM was common (71% and 60%, respectively) despite multimodality treatment. Compared with statin-associated anti-HMGCR Ab-positive IMNM, statin-naive anti-HMGCR Ab-positive IMNM patients were more often men (67% vs 45%), had lower rates of dysphagia (17% vs 45%), and more frequently had third-line therapy (50% vs 9%) and poor to fatal outcome (50% vs 0%). Compared with seropositive IMNM, seronegative IMNM was characterized by female predominance (1:3), frequent occurrence of associated connective tissue disorders (22% vs 9%), and significantly higher rates of extramuscular disease activity (50% vs 16%, p 0.014; 2-sided Fisher exact), also after excluding patients with an associated connective tissue disease (35% vs 7%, p 0.038; 2-sided Fisher exact). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that seronegative IMNM forms a subgroup with distinctive features from seropositive IMNM.

16.
Front Neurol ; 9: 846, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364257

RESUMO

We recently identified osmolyte accumulators as novel biomarkers for chronic skeletal muscle inflammation and weakness, but their precise involvement in inflammatory myopathies remains elusive. In the current study, we demonstrate in vitro that, in myoblasts and myotubes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines or increased salt concentration, mRNA levels of the osmolyte carriers SLC5A3, SLC6A6, SLC6A12, and AKR1B1 enzyme can be upregulated. Induction of SLC6A12 and AKR1B1 was confirmed at the protein level using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Gene silencing by specific siRNAs revealed that these factors were vital for muscle cells under hyperosmotic conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines activated mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor κB as well as nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 mRNA expression. In muscle biopsies from patients with polymyositis or sporadic inclusion body myositis, osmolyte pathway activation was observed in regenerating muscle fibers. In addition, the osmolyte carriers SLC5A3 and SLC6A12 localized to subsets of immune cells, most notably to the endomysial macrophages and T-cells. Collectively, this study unveiled that muscle cells respond to osmotic and inflammatory stress by osmolyte pathway activation, likely orchestrating general protection of the tissue. Moreover, pro-inflammatory properties are attributed to SLC5A3 and SLC6A12 in auto-aggressive macrophages and T-cells in inflamed skeletal muscle.

17.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(8): 746-754, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885538

RESUMO

Dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis (IBM), immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) and overlap myositis (OM) are classified as inflammatory myopathies (IM) with involvement of autoimmune features such as autoreactive lymphocytes and autoantibodies. Autoimmunity can be defined as a loss in self-tolerance and attack of autoantigens by the immune system. Self-tolerance is achieved by a group of immune mechanisms occurring in central and periphal lymphoid organs and tissues, called immune checkpoints, that work in synergy to protect the body from harmful immune reactions. Autoimmune disorders appear when immune checkpoints fail. In this review, the different immune checkpoint failures are discussed in DM, PM, IBM and IMNM. Exploring research contribution in each of these immune checkpoints might help to highlight research perspectives in the field and obtain a more complete picture of IM disease pathology.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Miosite/imunologia , Prognóstico
18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 67: 84-94, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653316

RESUMO

We previously reported a granulin (GRN) null mutation, originating from a common founder, in multiple Belgian families with frontotemporal dementia. Here, we used data of a 10-year follow-up study to describe in detail the clinical heterogeneity observed in this extended founder pedigree. We identified 85 patients and 40 unaffected mutation carriers, belonging to 29 branches of the founder pedigree. Most patients (74.4%) were diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia, while others had a clinical diagnosis of unspecified dementia, Alzheimer's dementia or Parkinson's disease. The observed clinical heterogeneity can guide clinical diagnosis, genetic testing, and counseling of mutation carriers. Onset of initial symptomatology is highly variable, ranging from age 45 to 80 years. Analysis of known modifiers, suggested effects of GRN rs5848, microtubule-associated protein tau H1/H2, and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 G4C2 repeat length on onset age but explained only a minor fraction of the variability. Contrary, the extended GRN founder family is a valuable source for identifying other onset age modifiers based on exome or genome sequences. These modifiers might be interesting targets for developing disease-modifying therapies.


Assuntos
Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Dimetilidrazinas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Progranulinas , Propionatos
19.
Neurol Genet ; 4(2): e222, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582019

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the genetic cause of disease in 2 previously unreported families with forms of distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs). Methods: The first family comprises individuals affected by dHMN type V, which lacks the cardinal clinical feature of vocal cord paralysis characteristic of dHMN-VII observed in the second family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the proband of each family. Variants were annotated and filtered, initially focusing on genes associated with neuropathy. Candidate variants were further investigated and confirmed by dideoxy sequence analysis and cosegregation studies. Thorough patient phenotyping was completed, comprising clinical history, examination, and neurologic investigation. Results: dHMNs are a heterogeneous group of peripheral motor neuron disorders characterized by length-dependent neuropathy and progressive distal limb muscle weakness and wasting. We previously reported a dominant-negative frameshift mutation located in the concluding exon of the SLC5A7 gene encoding the choline transporter (CHT), leading to protein truncation, as the likely cause of dominantly-inherited dHMN-VII in an extended UK family. In this study, our genetic studies identified distinct heterozygous frameshift mutations located in the last coding exon of SLC5A7, predicted to result in the truncation of the CHT C-terminus, as the likely cause of the condition in each family. Conclusions: This study corroborates C-terminal CHT truncation as a cause of autosomal dominant dHMN, confirming upper limb predominating over lower limb involvement, and broadening the clinical spectrum arising from CHT malfunction.

20.
Front Physiol ; 9: 126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515464

RESUMO

Aims: Regeneration in skeletal muscle relies on regulated myoblast migration and differentiation, in which the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) participates. Impaired muscle regeneration and chronic inflammation are prevalent in myositis. Little is known about the impact of inflammation on NFAT5 localization and expression in this group of diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate NFAT5 physiology in unaffected myoblasts exposed to cytokine or hyperosmolar stress and in myositis. Methods: NFAT5 intracellular localization and expression were studied in vitro using a cell culture model of myositis. Myoblasts were exposed to DMEM solutions enriched with pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ with IL-1ß or hyperosmolar DMEM obtained by NaCl supplementation. NFAT5 localization was visualized using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB) in fractionated cell lysates. NFAT5 expression was assessed by WB and RT-qPCR. In vivo localization and expression of NFAT5 were studied in muscle biopsies of patients diagnosed with polymyositis (n = 6), dermatomyositis (n = 10), inclusion body myositis (n = 11) and were compared to NFAT5 localization and expression in non-myopathic controls (n = 13). Muscle biopsies were studied by means of quantitative IHC and WB of total protein extracts. Results: In unaffected myoblasts, hyperosmolar stress ensues in NFAT5 nuclear translocation and increased NFAT5 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, pro-inflammatory cytokines did not lead to NFAT5 nuclear translocation nor increased expression. Cytokines IL-1ß with IFN-γ induced colocalization of NFAT5 with histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), involved in cell motility. In muscle biopsies from dermatomyositis and polymyositis patients, NFAT5 colocalized with HDAC6, while in IBM, this was often absent. Conclusions: Our data suggest impaired NFAT5 localization and expression in unaffected myoblasts in response to inflammation. This disturbed myogenic NFAT5 physiology could possibly explain deleterious effects on muscle regeneration in myositis.

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