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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053597

RESUMO

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.

2.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 22(1): 115-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior antiangiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The postprogression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5%, and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2, or >2 prior treatment, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48-0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Anilidas/farmacologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Piridinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(1): e17-e28, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients. However, their efficacy remains uncertain in uncommon histologies (UH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from ICI treated aNSCLC patients (April,2013-January,2021) in one Institution were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression model, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were assessed. RESULTS: Of 375 patients, 79 (21.1%) had UH: 19 (24.1%) sarcomatoid carcinoma, 15 (19.0%) mucinous adenocarcinoma, 10 (12.6%) enteric adenocarcinoma, 8 (10.1%) adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, 7 (8.9%) large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, 6 (7.6%) mixed histology non-adenosquamous, 5 (6.3%) adenosquamous carcinoma, 9 (11.4%) other UH. In UH group, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) <1%, 1-49%, ≥50% and unknown expression were reported in 27.8%, 22.8%, 31.7% and 17.7% patients respectively and ICI was the second/further-line in the majority of patients. After a median follow-up of 35.64 months (m), median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.5 m in UH [95% CI 2.2-2.9 m] versus (vs.) 2.7 m in CH [95% CI 2.3-3.2 m, P-value = .584]; median overall survival (mOS) was 8.8 m [95% CI 4.9-12.6 m] vs. 9.7 m [95% CI 8.0-11.3 m, P-value = .653]. At multivariate analyses only ECOG PS was a confirmed prognostic factor in UH. ORR and DCR were 25.3% and 40.5% in UH vs. 21.6% and 49.5% in CH [P-value = .493 and .155 respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were detected between UH and CH groups. Prospective trials are needed to understand ICIs role in UH population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Tumori ; 107(6): 542-549, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib strongly inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. We aimed to evaluate its effect on bone turnover markers (BTMs) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This is a monocentric prospective study on patients with mRCC treated with cabozantinib between October 2016 and July 2018. We collected blood samples at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. We compared sets of data obtained from plasma samples in the whole population with unpaired 2-tailed Student t tests and data for a subset of patients for which all timepoints were available with paired 2-tailed Student t tests. We used the Kaplan-Meier method for survival analyses and the log-rank test to compare the curves. RESULTS: Our analysis included 39 patients. At month 3, the mean C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx) and the mean N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (PINP) levels were significantly decreased in the whole population (p = 0.013 and p < 0.0001, respectively), as well as at paired analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.045, respectively). No differences were observed between baseline and 6 months (p = 0.053 and p = 0.087, respectively). After 3 months, the mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels significantly increased in the whole population (p = 0.004), as well as at paired analysis; the mean PTH levels increased significantly at 3 and 6 months, respectively (p = 0.019 and p = 0.041, respectively). Changes in BTM levels were not associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Cabozantinib significantly reduced bone resorption as demonstrated by the decrease of CTx and showed a transient secondary increase of PTH.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085669

RESUMO

Circulating microRNA (ct-miRNAs) are able to identify patients with differential response to HER2-targeted therapy. However, their dynamics are largely unknown. We assessed 752 miRNAs from 52 NeoALTTO patients with plasma pairs prior and two weeks after trastuzumab. Increased levels of ct-miR-148a-3p and ct-miR-374a-5p were significantly associated with pathological complete response (pCR) (p = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively). At a threshold ≥ the upper limit of the 95%CI of the mean difference, pCR resulted 45% (95%CI 24%-68%), and 44% (95%CI 22%-69%) for ct-miR-148a-3p and ct-miR-374a-5p, respectively. Notably, ct-miR-148a-3p retained its predictive value (OR 3.42, 95%CI 1.23-9.46, p = 0.018) in bivariate analysis along with estrogen receptor status. Combined information from ct-miR-148a-3p and ct-miR140-5p, which we previously reported to identify trastuzumab-responsive patients, resulted in greater predictive capability over each other, with pCR of 54% (95%CI 25%-81%) and 0% (95%CI 0%-31%) in ct-miR-148a/ct-miR-140-5p high/present and low/absent, respectively. GO and KEGG analyses showed common enriched terms between the targets of these ct-miRNAs, including cell metabolism regulation, AMPK and MAPK signaling, and HCC progression. In conclusion, early modulated ct-miR-148-3p may inform on the functional processes underlying treatment response, integrate the information from already available predictive biomarkers, and identify patients likely to respond to single agent trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
6.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 22(1): 9, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989430

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to sum up the state of the art of urachal carcinoma (UC) in order to easily guide clinicians. RECENT FINDINGS: UC is a rare and aggressive disease with consequent few data about diagnosis and treatment. Dates are mainly based on retrospective trial and case reports with limited prospective trial. Clinical presentation is not specific, often with urinary symptoms. Diagnosis is mainly based on CT scan and MRI, useful to evaluate local invasion and nodal status and to detect the presence of distant metastases. Therefore, biopsy is needed to obtain histological confirmation. Surgery is the gold standard for localized disease, while different chemotherapy schemes have been used in metastatic setting. Novel findings based on mutational analysis of the tumor include the use of biological treatment, such as cetuximab, and immunotherapy, such as atezolizumab, with satisfactory responses, suggesting that personalized treatment could be the most suitable option for UC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cistectomia/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(3): 392-403, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634667

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Induction of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression due to constitutive oncogenic signaling has been reported in NSCLC models harboring echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 gene (EML4)-ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements. We assessed the safety and activity of ceritinib plus nivolumab in these patients. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 1B, multicenter, dose escalation and expansion study, previously treated (with ALK receptor tyrosine kinase [ALK] inhibitor [ALKI]/chemotherapy) or treatment-naive patients with stage IIIB or IV ALK-rearranged NSCLC received nivolumab, 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks, plus ceritinib, 450 mg/300 mg daily, with a low-fat meal. RESULTS: In total, 36 patients were treated (a 450-mg cohort [n=14] and a 300-mg cohort [n=22]). In the 450-mg cohort, four patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities. In the 300-mg cohort, two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities. Among ALKI-naive patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.9-99.6) in the 450-mg cohort and 60% (95% CI: 26.2-87.8) in the 300-mg cohort. Among ALKI-pretreated patients, the ORR was 50% (95% CI: 15.7-84.3) in the 450-mg cohort and 25% (95% CI: 5.5-57.2) in the 300-mg cohort. The ORR point estimate was observed to be greater in patients who were positive for PD-L1 than in those who were negative for PD-L1, with overlapping CIs (e.g., at a cutoff ≥1% PD-L1, 64% of patients [95% CI: 35.1-87.2] had confirmed responses as compared with those with negative PD-L1 staining (31% [95% CI: 11.0-58.7]). The most frequently reported grade 3 or 4 adverse events were increased alanine aminotransferase level (25%), increased gamma-glutamyl transferase level (22%), increased amylase level (14%), increased lipase level (11%), and maculopapular rash (11%). The incidence of all-grade rash (grouped term) was 64% in both cohorts; grade 3 rash was reported in 29% and 14% of patients in the 450-mg and 300-mg cohorts, respectively; no grade 4 rash was reported. CONCLUSION: Ceritinib plus nivolumab has activity; ORR appears to correlate with PD-L1 at baseline. Toxicity, especially rash, is more common than with either single agent.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Nivolumabe , Pirimidinas , Sulfonas
8.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(6): 699-707, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In selected metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, radical metastasectomy followed by observation is a potential strategy. It is still to be defined whether systemic therapy should be administered following metastasectomy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential benefit of postoperative treatment with sorafenib compared with observation alone after radical metastasectomy in mRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The RESORT trial was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 2 study conducted between November 2012 and November 2017 in Italy. Patients with clear-cell mRCC pretreated with nephrectomy and undergoing radical metastasectomy (three or fewer lesions) were eligible for the study. Patients were randomized (1:1) within 12 wk from metastasectomy to sorafenib (standard dose 400 mg twice daily) or observation for a maximum of 52 wk. Stratification factors were interval from nephrectomy, site, and number of lesions. Overall, 76 patients were screened and 69 were randomized: 33 were assigned to sorafenib and 36 to observation. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival and the safety profile. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: RFS curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to statistically compare the curves. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: At a median follow-up of 38 mo, median RFS was 37 mo (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-not available [NA]) in the observation arm versus 21 mo (95% CI 11-NA) in the sorafenib arm (log-rank test p = 0.404), with 12-, 24-, and 36-mo RFS probability of 74% versus 63%, 59% versus 49%, and 50% versus 41%, respectively, in the observation versus the sorafenib arm. Any-grade adverse event (AE) rates were 84% in the sorafenib arm and 31% in the observation arm; grade ≥3 AE rates were 22% and 3% in the sorafenib and the observation arm, respectively, with a rate of treatment discontinuation for AEs of 19% in the sorafenib arm. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that systemic treatment with sorafenib did not increase RFS as compared with observation in mRCC patients following radical metastasectomy. PATIENT SUMMARY: This article reports the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sorafenib or managed with an observation-alone strategy after the radical surgery of metastases. We found that sorafenib did not improve the patient outcome in terms of relapse-free survival in this selected population.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Metastasectomia/métodos , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sorafenibe/farmacologia
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 1-9, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual HER2-inhibition combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy allows increased pathological complete response (pCR) rate. However, with the addition of new agents, there is a growing need to select patients to minimise overtreatment. Herein, we evaluated the 41-gene classifier TRAR to predict pCR to anti-HER2 therapies in the NeoALTTO trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gene expression data were obtained using RNA from 226 pretreatment tumour biopsies. Logistic regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were used to evaluate TRAR predictive and discriminatory capabilities. RESULTS: TRAR levels were associated with pCR (odds ratio, OR: 0.25, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.15-0.42). The ROC analysis showed AUC values of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.80) overall; 0.70 (0.59-0.81) and 0.71 (0.62-0.80) for positive and negative oestrogen receptor cases and 0.74 (0.60-0.88), 0.76 (0.65-0.87) and 0.71 (0.59-0.83) for trastuzumab, lapatinib and combined treatment arms, respectively. TRAR provided reliable predictive information beyond established clinicopathological variables (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.14-0.47). Furthermore, addition of TRAR to these variables provided greater predictive capability than the addition of PAM50: AUC 0.78 (0.72-0.84) versus 0.74 (0.67-0.81), p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: TRAR represents a promising tool to refine the ability to identify patients sensitive to anti-HER2 (including trastuzumab-only)-based therapy and eligible for de-escalated treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptoma , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lapatinib/efeitos adversos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Seleção de Pacientes , Medicina de Precisão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3887-3895, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of circulating-miRNAs (ct-miRNA) as noninvasive biomarkers to predict the efficacy of single/dual HER2-targeted therapy in the NeoALTTO study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with plasma samples at baseline (T0) and/or after 2 weeks (T1) of treatment were randomized into training (n = 183) and testing (n = 246) sets. RT-PCR-based high-throughput miRNA profiling was employed in the training set. After normalization, ct-miRNAs associated with pathologic complete response (pCR) were identified by univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to generate treatment-specific signatures at T0 and T1, which were evaluated by RT-PCR in the testing set. Event-free survival (EFS) according to ct-miRNA signatures was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. RESULTS: In the training set, starting from 51 ct-miRNAs associated with pCR, six signatures with statistically significant predictive capability in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) were identified. Four signatures were confirmed in the testing set: lapatinib at T0 and T1 [AUC 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.98 and 0.71 (0.55-0.86)], respectively; trastuzumab at T1 (0.81; 0.70-0.92); lapatinib + trastuzumab at T1 (0.67; 0.51-0.83). These signatures were confirmed predictive after adjusting for known variables, including estrogen receptor status. ct-miRNA signatures failed to correlate with EFS. However, the levels of ct-miR-140-5p, included in the trastuzumab signature, were associated with EFS (HR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: ct-miRNAs discriminate patients with and without pCR after neoadjuvant lapatinib- and/or trastuzumab-based therapy. ct-miRNAs at week two could be valuable to identify patients responsive to trastuzumab, to avoid unnecessary combination with other anti-HER2 agents, and finally to assist deescalating treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNA Circulante , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
11.
Breast ; 42: 68-73, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cancer Testis Antigens are immunogenic tumor-specific proteins. We investigated NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3 and PRAME, in addition to WT1 expression in different Breast Cancer (BC) subtypes. We then evaluated the expression rate of NY-ESO-1 in early Triple Negative breast cancer (TNBC), and investigated whether its expression would be maintained or lost in the metastatic setting to explore possible immunotherapy indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three subgroups of BC patients were selected by the expression of ER, PgR and Her2. Tissue microarray was performed on a total of 92 Invasive BC. Sections were stained for NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3, PRAME and WT1. The second cohort was composed by 26 metastatic TNBC patients from whom both the primary and secondary lesion tissues were available. Sections were stained for NY-ESO-1. RESULTS: NY-ESO-1 was the only differentially expressed antigen and was absent in ER+ and ER-PgR + tumors, as for an exclusive expression of either NY-ESO-1 or at least one hormonal receptor (HR+). NY-ESO-1 was particularly represented in TNBC. No correlation has been found between MAGE-A3 and PRAME expression and subtype WT1 had low expression, except in the Her2+ group. In the second cohort, NY-ESO-1 was expressed in 12 and 24% of primary and metastatic lesions respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study defines a distinction between HR+ and HR-tumors through NY-ESO-1 expression. TNBC subgroup has the highest frequency of NY-ESO-1+ cases, and it could be the candidate population for the development of anti-NY-ESO-1 vaccine, both in the adjuvant or metastatic setting, and for the selection of cases suitable for immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Antígenos Específicos de Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas WT1/metabolismo , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(11): 1692-1704, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that activating KRAS mutations and inactivation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) oncosuppressor can cooperate to sustain NSCLC aggressiveness. We also hypothesized that the growth advantage of KRAS/LKB1 co-mutated tumors could be balanced by higher sensitivity to metabolic stress conditions, such as metformin treatment, thus revealing new strategies to target this aggressive NSCLC subtype. METHODS: We retrospectively determined the frequency and prognostic value of KRAS/LKB1 co-mutations in tissue specimens from NSCLC patients enrolled in the TAILOR trial. We generated stable LKB1 knockdown and LKB1-overexpressing isogenic H1299 and A549 cell variants, respectively, to test the in vitro efficacy of metformin. We also investigated the effect of metformin on cisplatin-resistant CD133+ cells in NSCLC patient-derived xenografts. RESULTS: We found a trend towards worse overall survival in patients with KRAS/LKB1 co-mutated tumors as compared to KRAS-mutated ones (hazard ratio: 2.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-4.35, p = 0.072). In preclinical experiments, metformin produced pro-apoptotic effects and enhanced cisplatin anticancer activity specifically in KRAS/LKB1 co-mutated patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, metformin prevented the development of acquired tumor resistance to 5 consecutive cycles of cisplatin treatment (75% response rate with metformin-cisplatin as compared to 0% response rate with cisplatin), while reducing CD133+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: LKB1 mutations, especially when combined with KRAS mutations, may define a specific and more aggressive NSCLC subtype. Metformin synergizes with cisplatin against KRAS/LKB1 co-mutated tumors, and may prevent or delay the onset of resistance to cisplatin by targeting CD133+ cancer stem cells. This study lays the foundations for combining metformin with standard platinum-based chemotherapy in the treatment of KRAS/LKB1 co-mutated NSCLC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Cancer Discov ; 7(4): 400-409, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183697

RESUMO

Entrectinib, a potent oral inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases TRKA/B/C, ROS1, and ALK, was evaluated in two phase I studies in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors, including patients with active central nervous system (CNS) disease. Here, we summarize the overall safety and report the antitumor activity of entrectinib in a cohort of patients with tumors harboring NTRK1/2/3, ROS1, or ALK gene fusions, naïve to prior TKI treatment targeting the specific gene, and who were treated at doses that achieved therapeutic exposures consistent with the recommended phase II dose. Entrectinib was well tolerated, with predominantly Grades 1/2 adverse events that were reversible with dose modification. Responses were observed in non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma, as early as 4 weeks after starting treatment and lasting as long as >2 years. Notably, a complete CNS response was achieved in a patient with SQSTM1-NTRK1-rearranged lung cancer.Significance: Gene fusions of NTRK1/2/3, ROS1, and ALK (encoding TRKA/B/C, ROS1, and ALK, respectively) lead to constitutive activation of oncogenic pathways. Entrectinib was shown to be well tolerated and active against those gene fusions in solid tumors, including in patients with primary or secondary CNS disease. Cancer Discov; 7(4); 400-9. ©2017 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 339.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Indazóis/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Secretor Análogo ao Mamário/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Crizotinibe , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Indazóis/efeitos adversos , Indazóis/farmacocinética , Masculino , Carcinoma Secretor Análogo ao Mamário/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptor trkA/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/genética , Receptor trkC/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkC/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética
14.
Invest New Drugs ; 34(2): 236-42, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26873642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progress in developing effective salvage therapies for UC is warranted. Alisertib is an orally available, selective inhibitor of the aurora kinase A. METHODS: A single-group, phase 2 trial was conducted with alisertib 50 mg orally BID for 7 days, with 14d rest until disease progression (PD) (NCT02109328). The primary endpoint (EP) was RECIST 1.1 objective response-rate (ORR, H0 ≤ 5%, H1 ≥ 20%, α = 10% and ß = 20%). Eligibility included failure of at least one platinum-based regimen. RESULTS: From 10/2014 to 04/2015, 22 patients were enrolled (20 evaluable for response), 8 (36.4%) in second-line and 14 (63.6 %) beyond the second-line. Eight (36.4%) had an ECOG-performance status 1-2. Two partial responses (PR, ORR: 9.1%), 7 stable disease (SD) and 11 PD were obtained. Median follow-up was 8.3 months (IQR: 7-10.3), 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) was 13.6% (95%CI: 4.8-39.0). Two SD are still receiving treatment after 11.5 and 6.3 months. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached (6-month OS: 59.1%, 95%CI: 41.7-83.7). Hb < 10 g/dl was significantly associated with shorter PFS and OS multivariably (p = 0.031 and p = 0.033). Tissue of the case with 11.5 month SD harbored a missense mutation of mTOR (E1813D), the nonsense mutation Q527STOP of TSC1, HER3 and TAF1L missense mutations. Grade 3-4 adverse events (AE) were: 40.9% mucositis, 36.4% fatigue, 18.2% neutropenia (13.6% febrile neutropenia). There were 2 treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The study did not meet the primary EP, yet sustained disease control was obtained in about 14% of patients. The incidence of AE and the issue of patient selection are two major concerns.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase A/antagonistas & inibidores , Azepinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/patologia , Idoso , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Azepinas/efeitos adversos , Azepinas/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(9): 2146-54, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26655846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Objectives of this dose-finding study were to determine the MTD and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of the first-in-class anti-activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) monoclonal antibody PF-03446962, and assess safety and antitumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This open-label, multicenter study was based on a 3+3 design. PF-03446962 was administered biweekly by intravenous infusion, at doses ranging from 0.5 to 15 mg/kg. RESULTS: Forty-four patients received treatment with PF-03446962. Dose-limiting toxicities observed during dose escalation included grade 3 increased amylase, grade 3/4 increased lipase, and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. The MTD was determined to be 10 mg/kg. The RP2D was set at 7 mg/kg for patients with advanced solid tumors, based on the observed safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity. The most-frequent treatment-related, all-grade adverse events included thrombocytopenia (20.5%), fatigue (15.9%), and nausea, increased amylase, and increased lipase (each 11.4%). Treatment-related telangiectasia was noted in 7% of patients, suggesting in vivo inhibition of the ALK-1 pathway. None of the deaths was deemed to be treatment-related. Three (6.8%) patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, or non-small cell lung cancer achieved a partial response, and 12 (27.3%) patients had stable disease, across dose levels. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis of tumor vascularity showed reduction in tumor perfusion in 2 patients with stable disease following treatment with PF-03446962. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical activity demonstrated in this study points to PF-03446962 as a novel approach to antiangiogenic therapy, with manageable safety profile and single-agent, antitumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2146-54. ©2015 AACR.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 12(3): 203-209.e1, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24394493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The classic MVAC (methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin) regimen was the first recognized option for untreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (UC). Modifying MVAC by reducing side effects may have the potential to improve efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Changes to classic MVAC were provided at the authors' institution: (1) deletion of day 22 and administration of 25 mg/m(2) cisplatin on days 2 to 5 (modified [m]MVAC); (2) deletion of day 22 only (simplified [s]MVAC1); and (3) deletion of days 15 and 22 in a 3-week schedule (sMVAC2). A total of 4 to 6 cycles were provided. Multivariate analysis was undertaken for recognized clinical variables. RESULTS: For the period from September 1986 to May 2012, 157 patients were identified (25 with mMVAC, 72 with sMVAC1, and 60 with sMVAC2). Overall, 43.9% had a Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center score of 1 or 2, with differences across series (P = .002). Altogether, 65.8% attained a complete (19.1%) or partial response (46.7%), and 24.3% a stable disease, with no difference across regimens. After a median follow-up of 87 months (interquartile range, 37-161), median progression-free survival was 10.2 months (95% CI, 8.4-10.8), and median overall survival (OS) was 19.5 months (95% CI, 16.3-24.1). Responses were mainly seen in nodal metastases or soft tissue relapse (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.12-5.54). Only visceral (hazard ratio [HR], 2.42; 95% CI, 1.37-4.30) and nodal metastases/local relapse (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.07-2.69) were independently associated with OS. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were similar across regimens and were 36% neutropenia, 14% thrombocytopenia, 12% anemia, 10% mucositis, and 4% renal toxicity. Two treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: Simplifying MVAC may result in improved efficacy and reduced toxicity. The combined results of the original and modified MVAC regimens encourage a reappraisal of the frontline management of advanced UC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/secundário , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Vimblastina/efeitos adversos , Vimblastina/uso terapêutico
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 4(3): 808-20, 2012 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24213468

RESUMO

Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 17(7): 1964-72, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21307147

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NGR-hTNF exploits the tumor-homing peptide asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) for selectively targeting TNF-α to an aminopeptidase N overexpressed on cancer endothelial cells. Preclinical synergism with cisplatin was displayed even at low doses. This study primarily aimed to explore the safety of low-dose NGR-hTNF combined with cisplatin in resistant/refractory malignancies. Secondary aims included pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics, and activity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: NGR-hTNF was escalated using a doubling-dose scheme (0.2-0.4-0.8-1.6 µg/m(2)) in combination with fixed-dose of cisplatin (80 mg/m(2)), both given intravenously once every three weeks. PKs and circulating TNF-receptors (sTNF-Rs) were assessed over the first three cycles. RESULTS: Globally, 22 patients (12 pretreated with platinum) received a range of one to ten cycles. Consistently with the low-dose range tested, maximum-tolerated dose was not reached. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed at 0.2 (n = 4) and 0.4 µg/m(2) (n = 3). One DLT (grade 3 infusion-related reaction) was observed at 0.8 µg/m(2). This dose cohort was expanded to six patients without further DLTs. No DLTs were noted also at 1.6 µg/m(2) (n = 3). NGR-hTNF exposure increased dose-proportionally without apparent PK interactions with cisplatin. No shedding of sTNF-Rs was detected up to 0.8 µg/m(2). At the dose level of 0.8 µg/m(2), expanded to 12 patients for activity assessment, a platinum-pretreated lung cancer patient achieved a partial response lasting more than six months and five patients maintained stable disease for a median time of 5.9 months. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of NGR-hTNF 0.8 µg/m(2) with cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) showed favorable toxicity profile and promising antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/administração & dosagem
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 28(15): 2604-11, 2010 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20406925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: NGR-hTNF consists of human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-alpha) fused to the tumor-homing peptide asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) able to selectively bind an aminopeptidase N isoform overexpressed on tumor blood vessels. Hypervascularity is a prominent and poor-prognosis feature of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Currently, there are no standard options for patients with MPM who are failing a front-line pemetrexed-based regimen. We explored safety and efficacy of NGR-hTNF in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had radiologically documented tumor progression and performance status < or = 2. Primary study aim was progression-free survival (PFS). NGR-hTNF 0.8 microg/m(2) was given intravenously every 3 weeks. A subsequent cohort of patients received 0.8 microg/m(2) on a weekly basis. RESULTS: In the triweekly cohort (n = 43), only one grade 3 drug-related toxicity was noted, and the most common grades 1 to 2 were short-lived chills (71%). The median PFS was 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.3 months). Nineteen patients (44%) had disease control (one had partial response, and 18 had stable diseases) and experienced a median progression-free time of 4.4 months. In the weekly cohort (n = 14), there was no higher toxicity, and median PFS was 3.0 months (95% CI, 1.9 to 4.1 months). Seven patients (50%) had disease control (all stable diseases) and had a median progression-free interval of 9.1 months. In the overall study population (N = 57), median PFS was 2.8 months. Median progression-free time was 4.7 months in twenty-six patients (46%) who achieved disease control. Median survival was 12.1 months. CONCLUSION: The tolerability and disease control of NGR-hTNF 0.8 microg/m(2) weekly warrant additional evaluation in patients with advanced MPM.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos
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