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1.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(4): 859-866, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol consumption is a major public health concern that should be continuously monitored. This study aims (i) to analyze country-level trends in weekly alcohol consumption, drunkenness and early initiation in alcohol consumption and drunkenness among 15-year-old adolescents from 39 countries and regions across Europe and North America between 2002 and 2014 and (ii) to examine the geographical patterns in adolescent alcohol-related behaviours. METHODS: The sample was composed of 250 161 adolescents aged 15 from 39 countries and regions from Europe and North America. Survey years were 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. The alcohol consumption and drunkenness items of the HBSC questionnaire were employed. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. RESULTS: Data show a general decrease in all four alcohol variables between 2002 and 2014 except for some countries. However, there is variability both within a country (depending on the alcohol-related behaviour under study) and across countries (in the beginning and shape of trends). Some countries have not reduced or even increased their levels in some variables. Although some particularities have persisted over time, there are no robust patterns by regions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an overall decrease in adolescent alcohol consumption, special attention should be paid to those countries where declines are not present, or despite decreasing, rates are still high. Further research is needed to clarify factors associated with adolescent drinking, to better understand country specificities and to implement effective policies.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(6S): S21-S28, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although previous research has established a positive association between national income inequality and socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health, very little is known about the extent to which national-level wealth inequalities (i.e., accumulated financial resources) are associated with these inequalities in health. Therefore, this study examined the association between national wealth inequality and income inequality and socioeconomic inequality in adolescents' mental well-being at the aggregated level. METHODS: Data were from 17 countries participating in three consecutive waves (2010, 2014, and 2018) of the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. We aggregated data on adolescents' life satisfaction, psychological and somatic symptoms, and socioeconomic status (SES) to produce a country-level slope index of inequality and combined it with country-level data on income inequality and wealth inequality (n = 244,771). Time series analyses were performed on a pooled sample of 48 country-year groups. RESULTS: Higher levels of national wealth inequality were associated with fewer average psychological and somatic symptoms, while higher levels of national income inequality were associated with more psychological and somatic symptoms. No associations between either national wealth inequality or income inequality and life satisfaction were found. Smaller differences in somatic symptoms between higher and lower SES groups were found in countries with higher levels of national wealth inequality. In contrast, larger differences in psychological symptoms and life satisfaction (but not somatic symptoms) between higher and lower SES groups were found in countries with higher levels of national income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Although both national wealth and income inequality are associated with socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent mental well-being at the aggregated level, associations are in opposite directions. Social policies aimed at a redistribution of income resources at the national level could decrease socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent mental well-being while further research is warranted to gain a better understanding of the role of national wealth inequality in socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Renda , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1555, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that parental unemployment is associated with low life satisfaction in adolescents. It is unclear whether this translates to an association between national unemployment and adolescent life satisfaction, and whether such a contextual association is entirely explained by parental unemployment, or if it changes as a function thereof. For adults, associations have been shown between unemployment and mental health, including that national unemployment can affect mental health and life satisfaction of both the employed and the unemployed, but to different degrees. The aim of this paper is to analyse how national unemployment levels are related to adolescent life satisfaction, across countries as well as over time within a country, and to what extent and in what ways such an association depends on whether the individual's own parents are unemployed or not. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data on adolescents' (aged 11, 13 and 15 years, n = 386,402) life satisfaction and parental unemployment were collected in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, in 27 countries and 74 country-years, across 2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10 survey cycles. We linked this data to national harmonised unemployment rates provided by OECD and tested their associations using multilevel linear regression, including interaction terms between national and parental unemployment. RESULTS: Higher national unemployment rates were related to lower adolescent life satisfaction, cross-sectionally between countries but not over time within countries. The verified association was significant for adolescents with and without unemployed parents, but stronger so in adolescents with unemployed fathers or both parents unemployed. Having an unemployed father, mother och both parents was in itself related to lower life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Living in a country with higher national unemployment seems to be related to lower adolescent life satisfaction, whether parents are unemployed or not, although stronger among adolescents where the father or both parents are unemployed. However, variation in unemployment over the years did not show an association with adolescent life satisfaction.


Assuntos
Pais , Satisfação Pessoal , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934658

RESUMO

This study examines the mediating role of sleep duration and sleep onset difficulties in the association of school pressure, physical activity, and screen time with psychological symptoms in early adolescents. Data were retrieved from 49,403 children (13.7 ± 1.6 years old, 48.1% boys) from 12 countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children" 2013/2014 study. A validated self-report questionnaire assessed psychological symptoms (feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous), school pressure, physical activity (number of days/week 60 min moderate-to-vigorous), screen time, sleep duration on week- and weekend days, and perceived difficulties in getting asleep. Multilevel mediation analyses were conducted. School pressure and screen time were positively associated with psychological symptoms, whereas physical activity was negatively associated. With the exception of sleep duration in the association between physical activity and psychological symptoms, all associations were significantly mediated by sleep duration on week- and weekend days and sleep onset difficulties. Percentages mediated ranged from 0.66% to 34.13%. This study partly explains how school pressure, physical activity, and screen time are related to adolescents' psychological symptoms. Future interventions improving adolescents' mental well-being could target schoolwork, physical activity, and screen time, as these behaviours are directly and indirectly (through sleep) related to psychological symptoms.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Tempo de Tela , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
5.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974855

RESUMO

Little information concerning social disparities in adolescent dietary habits is currently available, especially regarding migration status. The aim of the present study was to estimate socioeconomic disparities in dietary habits of school adolescents from different migration backgrounds. In the 2014 cross-sectional "Health Behavior in School-Aged Children" survey in Belgium, food consumption was estimated using a self-administrated short food frequency questionnaire. In total, 19,172 school adolescents aged 10-19 years were included in analyses. Multilevel multiple binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed, stratified by migration status (natives, 2nd- and 1st-generation immigrants). Overall, immigrants more frequently consumed both healthy and unhealthy foods. Indeed, 32.4% of 1st-generation immigrants, 26.5% of 2nd-generation immigrants, and 16.7% of natives consumed fish ≥two days a week. Compared to those having a high family affluence scale (FAS), adolescents with a low FAS were more likely to consume chips and fries ≥once a day (vs.

Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Aculturação , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Public Health ; 64(2): 253-263, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to test whether changes in community income inequality influence adolescent emotional distress. We take advantage of the unique combination of data and history available in Iceland. This affluent welfare society has experienced extreme shifts in income inequality, allowing us to test whether changes in community income inequality are related to changes in adolescent emotional distress. METHODS: Combining adolescent survey data (n = 24,107) with tax registry data on 76 neighborhood communities, we used a multilevel approach to model the data as longitudinal in order to test whether changes in community income inequality are related to changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents. RESULTS: The results showed that, after adjusting for relevant individual and community covariates, decreases in community income inequality were associated with decreases in symptoms of anxiety among adolescents (b = - 0.367, p ≤ 0.001), but not with decreases in symptoms of depression. CONCLUSIONS: While the results provide a partial support for the income inequality thesis, we call for replications from other cultures and studies exploring the mediating role of social psychological processes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/tendências , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Int J Public Health ; 64(4): 487-498, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined changes in sleep-onset difficulties over time and associations with physical activity and screen time behavior among adolescents. METHODS: We used data from last four survey waves of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study (2002-2006-2010-2014). Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations between regular sleeping difficulties, excessive screen time exposure and being insufficiently physically active (i.e., < 60 min daily) among 33 European and non-European countries. RESULTS: Findings indicate an increase in the prevalence of sleep-onset difficulties and in excessive screen time exposure and a small but significant increase in physical activity levels. Additionally, adolescents exceeding 2-h daily screen time had 20% higher odds of reporting sleep-onset difficulties, while no association was found for physical activity. The strength of the association between screen time and sleep-onset difficulties increased over time, which may reflect a change in type of screen time use (e.g., the increased use of easy accessible screens such as smartphones and tablets). CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies to reduce screen time are key to reverse the detrimental trend in sleep-onset difficulties among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Vigilância da População , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Scand J Public Health ; 47(8): 851-858, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999480

RESUMO

Aims: Insufficient physical activity (PA) is one of the largest public health challenges of our time and requires a multisectoral public-health response. PA recommendations state that all children and adolescents should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) daily and carry out vigorous PA (VPA) three times weekly. While participation in sports club activities is known to enhance the probability of reaching the recommended overall PA level, less is known about the contribution of sports club participation to VPA, and few cross-national comparisons have been carried out. The purpose of this paper is to study whether participation in sports club activities is associated with meeting the overall PA and VPA recommendations among children and adolescents across six European countries, namely Belgium (Flanders), Czech Republic, Finland, France, Ireland and Sweden. Methods: Analyses were carried out on existing self-reported national data sets using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Results indicate that approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents take part in sports club activities in the given countries. Sports club participants were more likely to meet the overall PA recommendations (OR 2.4-6.4) and VPA recommendation (OR 2.8-5.0) than non-participants. Conclusions: The extent to which overall PA and/or VPA is gained through sports club participation versus other settings needs to be further studied. Nonetheless, it can be argued that sports clubs have an important position in PA promotion for younger populations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 1001-1009, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although social capital approach has showed its merits in predicting well-being and health in the working environment, studies examining the relation between social capital and burnout are scarce and limited to cross-sectional studies in the health care sector. This study aims to explore the longitudinal relationship between workplace social capital and burnout in a Belgian company in the energy sector. An additional aim was to assess whether the relation between workplace social capital and the dimensions of burnout was independent of job characteristics, i.e., the level of decision-making autonomy and task variety, and demographical variables. METHODS: Analyses are conducted on the questionnaire data of 473 workers who participated at the two waves (2013 and 2014) of a longitudinal study. RESULTS: The results showed a negative relation between social capital and distance and a positive relation between social capital and competence, after 1-year follow-up and after adjustments for baseline levels of the respective burnout dimension. In contrast with the literature, no relation between social capital and emotional exhaustion was found after adjustment for baseline level of emotional exhaustion. After additional adjustments were made for the job characteristics 'decision-making autonomy' and 'task variety', the relation between social capital and competence disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: This study delivered evidence for the lagged relation between social capital and distance, even after controlling for demographical and job characteristics. Therefore, the findings suggest that organizations should pay attention to strategies enhancing social interaction, enabling to increase the levels of support, reciprocity, sharing and trust, in the prevention of burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Capital Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Am Coll Health ; 65(8): 558-566, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drinking alcohol during the exams can affect academic performance and future career options, but is rarely investigated. Drinking motives, sociodemographics and personality characteristics are investigated in nonabstainers and weekly drinkers during the exams. PARTICIPANTS: 7,181 Belgian university students who anonymously responded to an email invitation to an online survey. METHODS: Logistic regressions and mixed design analysis of variance on cross-sectional data. RESULTS: One-third of the students continued drinking during the exams, with 40% drinking weekly. Nonabstainers were mainly men, elder, internally motivated when drinking, and housed with parents or independently. Weekly drinkers were similar, except mainly housed in student apartments or independently. Personality characteristics were nonsignificant. All drinking motives were less pronounced during the exams, with smaller differences for internal motives. CONCLUSIONS: Mainly linked to internal drinking motives, drinking during the exams in higher education is underestimated. The characteristics and motives of students doing so can be used in future interventions.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Motivação , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 279-286, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040734

RESUMO

Background: Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Methods: Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. Results: The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P < 0.05), and were consequently reduced when adolescents reported to have a high number of books at home ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: A combination of selected resources in the form of economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cultura , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Capital Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Occup Health ; 59(2): 177-186, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28111414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between indicators of non-standard work arrangements, including precarious contract, long working hours, multiple jobs, shift work, and work-related accident absence, using a representative Belgian sample and considering several socio-demographic and work characteristics. METHODS: This study was based on the data of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). For the analysis, the sample was restricted to 3343 respondents from Belgium who were all employed workers. The associations between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence were studied with multivariate logistic regression modeling techniques while adjusting for several confounders. RESULTS: During the last 12 months, about 11.7% of workers were absent from work because of work-related accident. A multivariate regression model showed an increased injury risk for those performing shift work (OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.074-2.224). The relationship between contract type and occupational injuries was not significant (OR 1.163, 95% CI 0.739-1.831). Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed for those performing long working hours (OR 1.217, 95% CI 0.638-2.321) and those performing multiple jobs (OR 1.361, 95% CI 0.827-2.240) in relation to work-related accident absence. Those who rated their health as bad, low educated workers, workers from the construction sector, and those exposed to biomechanical exposure (BM) were more frequent victims of work-related accident absence. No significant gender difference was observed. CONCLUSION: Indicators of non-standard work arrangements under this study, except shift work, were not significantly associated with work-related accident absence. To reduce the burden of occupational injuries, not only risk reduction strategies and interventions are needed but also policy efforts are to be undertaken to limit shift work. In general, preventive measures and more training on the job are needed to ensure the safety and well-being of all workers.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 39(4): e127-e133, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27744375

RESUMO

Background: Previous research demonstrated an association between low employment quality and lower sickness absence, which may be explained by presenteeism. Therefore, this study aimed exploring the relation between three indicators of employment quality (long working hours, precarious employment, job insecurity) and attendance behavior. Methods: The association between employment quality and attendance behavior was investigated in 28.999 workers (mean age: 40.0 years, 53% males) of the fifth wave of the European Working Conditions Survey, using multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis. Attendance behavior was operationalized as different combinations of sickness absence and presenteeism. Results: Those working >48 h/week, had a higher risk to report presenteeism (with or without sickness absence). They had a lower risk to report sickness absence without presenteeism. Workers with a precarious contract had a lower risk to report absenteeism without presenteeism and the combination of both presenteeism and absenteeism. Finally, for workers perceiving job insecurity, the risk for presenteeism without sickness absence was significantly higher. Conclusions: Several indicators of low employment quality were associated with attendance behavior, suggesting a complex behavioral mechanism in workers facing low job quality employment. Therefore, policy makers are recommended to re-establish the indefinite contractual employment as the standard, avoiding long working hours.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Emprego/economia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , União Europeia/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Presenteísmo/economia , Licença Médica/economia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Appetite ; 108: 317-325, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27751842

RESUMO

'Reward sensitivity' explains inter-individual differences in the motivation to obtain rewards when reward cues are perceived. This psychobiological trait has been linked to higher consumption of palatable food when exposed to palatable food cues. The current study aims to examine if reward sensitivity explains differences in patterns of fat and lean tissue accretion over time in children. A longitudinal observational study with measurement waves in 2011 (baseline), 2012, 2013, and 2015 was conducted. The sample was a population-based Flemish cohort of children (n = 446, 50% boys and 5.5-12 years at baseline; 38.8% of the baseline sample also participated in 2015). Baseline reward sensitivity of the children was assessed by parent ratings on the Drive subscale of the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System scales. Age- and sex-independent Fat and Lean Mass Index z-scores (zFMI and zLMI respectively) were computed for each study wave based on air-displacement plethysmography. In girls, but not boys, reward sensitivity was positively associated with the baseline zFMI and zLMI (95% confidence intervals of unstandardized estimates: 0.01 to 0.11 and 0.01 to 0.10 respectively, P values 0.01 and 0.02 respectively). Further, reward sensitivity explained 14.8% and 11.6% of the change in girls' zFMI and zLMI respectively over four years: the zFMI and zLMI increased and decreased respectively in high reward sensitive girls (95% confidence intervals of unstandardized estimates: 0.01 to 0.11 and -0.12 to -0.01 respectively, P values 0.01 and 0.02 respectively). Hence, girls high in reward sensitivity had significantly higher adiposity gain over four years parallel with lower increase in lean mass than was expected on the basis of their age and height. These results may help to identify appropriate targets for interventions for obesity prevention.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motivação , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/patologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/patologia , Recompensa , Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292773

RESUMO

The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study (HBSC) uses the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) as a tool to identify the socioeconomic status of children and adolescents. Even though it is now widely applied in research studies, the external criterion validation of FAS has not been verified in terms of objective economic indicators in Central Europe. The aim of this study is to validate FAS in terms of disposable income per capita in 14 Czech administrative regions. Regional differences in the FAS score were analyzed using Pearson correlation and linear regression to measure the dependency of the aggregated mean of the FAS index at the regional level on data from the Czech HSBC survey carried out from April to June 2014 (n = 10,361). The data analysis has shown an overall positive correlation between the FAS index and regional disposable income (R = 0.77, p < 0.01). The regional disposable income per person could explain 59.7% of the variance in the FAS index (p < 0.01). By validating individual items, the authors identified three items with a significant correlation (p < 0.01): number of computers, dishwasher at home, and number of holidays. FAS seems to be a valid instrument to measure adolescents' socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 15(1): 203, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27955660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has been extensively used to explain the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent health and well-being. Much less is known about the specific mechanism through which social capital impacts the relationship. This paper investigates whether an individual's perception of community social capital moderates or mediates the association between SES and life satisfaction. METHODS: This study employs cross-sectional data from the 2009-2010 Czech Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey: a WHO Collaborative Cross-National Study (HBSC). A sample of 4425 adolescents from the 5th, 7th and 9th grade (94.5% school response rate, 87% student response) was used to perform multilevel analysis. RESULTS: We found that pupils' life satisfaction was positively related to both family affluence and perceived wealth. Moreover, we found the cognitive component of social capital to be positively associated with life satisfaction. Additionally, a significant interaction was found, such that the social gradient in life satisfaction was flattened when pupils reported high levels of perceived community social capital. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that community social capital acts as an unequal health resource for adolescents, but could potentially represent opportunities for public health policy to close the gap in socioeconomic disparities.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Satisfação Pessoal , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Br J Nutr ; 116(7): 1288-1297, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666744

RESUMO

Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2-9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow-up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children's dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1·31; 99 % CI 1·01, 1·70) and migrants (OR 1·45; 99 % CI 1·15, 1·83) were more likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents were homemakers (OR 0·74; 99 % CI 0·60, 0·92) were less likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline. A higher number of vulnerabilities was associated with a higher probability of children being in the processed cluster (OR 1·78; 99 % CI 1·21, 2·62). Therefore, special attention should be paid to children of vulnerable groups as they present unhealthier dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Família de Pais Solteiros , Lanches , Apoio Social , Migrantes , Desemprego , Verduras
19.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 851, 2016 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27549206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the "work environment hypothesis", which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. RESULTS: The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the origin of bullying. This study highlights that remodeling jobs to reduce job strain may be important in the prevention of bullying and subsequent sickness absence.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Bullying , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
20.
Nurs Res ; 65(4): 290-300, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27362515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an enhanced interest and evolution in pain management, prevalence remains high. Interventions to optimize pain-related care can only be effective if barriers are identified and accounted for. AIM: To assess pain intensity and examine its association with patient- (including health literacy defined in this study as "requiring help to read health information"), nurse-, and system-related (including social capital defined as "the importance of network and norms at work") barriers/facilitators to pain management. METHODS: A two-center, cross-sectional study was performed between October 2012 and April 2013. The study included patients and nurses of 39 noncritical wards of two hospitals in Belgium. Patients who were 18 years of age or older and without impaired cognition or consciousness were eligible to take part. All nurses working in the included ward were invited to participate. Pain intensity and patient-related barriers were collected by a structured and standardized questionnaire, completed in dialogue with the patient. Nurses completed the questionnaire on the nurse- and system-related barriers and the social capital scale. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze the data because of the hierarchical structure of the data. RESULTS: The average pain of all patients across all wards on a 0-10 scale was 2.2 (SD = 3.6). The multilevel analysis indicates that pain intensity can be explained by variables at patient and ward levels. A significant independent association was found between higher pain intensity and younger age, receiving pain medication, the conviction of patients that pain medication does not improve pain, inadequate health literacy in patients, nurses without advanced education, and nurse's concerns about side effects. Social capital did not emerge as predictor of pain intensity. DISCUSSION: Patient and nurse level factors should be taken into account in hospitals when setting up strategies to improve pain management.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Avaliação em Enfermagem/métodos , Manejo da Dor/enfermagem , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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