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1.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 42: 116239, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090079

RESUMO

To further explore the chemical space surrounding the "hydrophobic channel" of the NNRTI binding pocket (NNIBP), a new series of diarylpyrimidines (DAPYs) were designed and synthesized as potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). The target compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV potency in MT-4 cells. Most of the synthesized DAPYs exhibited moderate to excellent activity against the HIV-1 wild-type (WT) strain with EC50 values ranging from 16 nM to 0.722 µM. Interestingly, few compounds displayed remarkable activity in inhibiting K103N mutant virus with EC50 values ranging from 39 nM to 1.708 µM. Notably, FS2 (EC50(IIIB) = 16 nM, EC50(K103N) = 39 nM, SI = 294) was identified as the most significant compound, which was considerably more potent than nevirapine, lamivudine, and comparable to zidovudine. Additionally, the HIV-1 RT inhibition assay confirmed their binding target. Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) and molecular modeling studies were also performed, providing significant suggestions for further optimization.

2.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 40: 116195, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979774

RESUMO

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are widely used in combination therapies against HIV-1. As a continuation of our efforts to discover and develop "me-better" drugs of DAPYs, novel diarylpyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells. All the compounds demonstrated strong inhibition activity against wide-type HIV-1 strain (IIIB) with EC50 values in the range of 2.5 nM ~ 0.93 µM. Among them, compounds IVB-5-4 and IVB-5-8 were the most potent ones which showed anti-HIV-1IIIB activity much superior than that of Nevirapine, comparable to Efavirenz and Etravirine. What's more, some compounds also showed low nanomole activity against some mutant strains such as K103N and E138K. The selected compound IVB-5-4 was also evaluated for the activity against reverse transcriptase (RT), and exhibited submicromolar IC50 values indicating that this series compounds are specific RT inhibitors. Preliminary structure-activity relationships and modeling studies of these new analogues provide valuable avenues for future molecular optimization.

3.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 5067-5081, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851529

RESUMO

Considering the nonideal metabolic stability of the difluoro-biphenyl-diarylpyrimidine lead compound 4, a series of novel alkylated difluoro-biphenyl-diarylpyrimidines were designed and synthesized based on their structure. Introducing alkyl or substituted alkyl groups on the linker region to block the potential metabolic sensitive sites generated 22 derivatives. Among them, compound 12a with an N-methyl group displayed excellent anti-HIV-1 activity and selectivity. The methyl group was hopped to the central pyrimidine to occupy the small linker region and maintain the water-mediated hydrogen bond observed in the binding of compound 4 with RT. The resulting compound 16y exhibited an improved anti-HIV-1 activity, much lower cytotoxicity, and nanomolar activity toward multiple mutants. In addition, 16y has a better stability in human liver microsomes than 4. Moreover, no apparent in vivo acute toxicity was observed in 16y-treated female, especially pregnant mice. This series of alkylated compounds with highly potency and safety represent a promising lead template for future discovery.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Alquilação , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Bioorg Chem ; 111: 104905, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895602

RESUMO

Fifteen naphthyl-carboxamide-DAPYs were generated to explore chemical space in reverse transcriptase (RT) binding site via lead optimization strategy. They displayed up to single-digit nanomolar activity against wild-type (WT) and rilpivirine-associated resistant mutant E138K viruses, as well as potent inhibitory ability toward the RT enzyme. Compound a1 showed exceptionally inhibitory effects with an EC50 value of 3.7 nM against HIV-1 wt strain, and an EC50 of 11 nM targeting mutant E138K. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the newly obtained DAPYs were also investigated. Molecular docking analysis elucidated the biological activity and offered a structural insight for follow-up research.

5.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 4239-4256, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734714

RESUMO

There is an urgent unmet medical need for novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors that are effective against a variety of NNRTI-resistance mutations. We report our research efforts aimed at discovering a novel chemotype of anti-HIV-1 agents with improved potency against a variety of NNRTI-resistance mutations in this paper. Structural modifications of the lead K-5a2 led to the identification of a potent inhibitor 16c. 16c yielded highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities and improved resistance profiles compared with the approved drug etravirine. The co-crystal structure revealed the key role of the water networks surrounding the NNIBP for binding and for resilience against resistance mutations, while suggesting further extension of 16c toward the NNRTI-adjacent site as a lead development strategy. Furthermore, 16c demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic and safety properties, suggesting the potential of 16c as a promising anti-HIV-1 drug candidate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Células HEK293 , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 214: 113204, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567378

RESUMO

With our previously identified potent NNRTIs 25a and HBS-11c as leads, series of novel thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine and thiophene[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed via molecular hybridization strategy. All the target compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity in MT-4 cells. Compounds 16a1 and 16b1 turned out to be the most potent inhibitors against WT and mutant HIV-1 strains (L100I, K103N, and E138K), with EC50 values ranging from 0.007 µM to 0.043 µM. Gratifyingly, 16b1 exhibited significantly reduced cytotoxicity (CC50 > 217.5 µM) and improved water solubility (S = 49.3 µg/mL at pH 7.0) compared to the lead 25a (S < 1 µg/mL at pH 7.0, CC50 = 2.30 µM). Moreover, molecular docking was also conducted to rationalize the structure-activity relationships of these novel derivatives and to understand their key interactions with the binding pocket.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/síntese química , Tiofenos/química
7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(7): 4514-4540, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595031

RESUMO

During the last forty years we have witnessed impressive advances in the field of antiviral drug discovery culminating with the introduction of therapies able to stop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, or cure hepatitis C virus infections in people suffering from liver disease. However, there are important viral diseases without effective treatments, and the emergence of drug resistance threatens the efficacy of successful therapies used today. In this review, we discuss strategies to discover antiviral compounds specifically designed to combat drug resistance. Currently, efforts in this field are focused on targeted proteins (e.g. multi-target drug design strategies), but also on drug conformation (either improving drug positioning in the binding pocket or introducing conformational constraints), in the introduction or exploitation of new binding sites, or in strengthening interaction forces through the introduction of multiple hydrogen bonds, covalent binding, halogen bonds, additional van der Waals forces or multivalent binding. Among the new developments, proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) have emerged as a valid approach taking advantage of intracellular mechanisms involving protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Finally, several molecules targeting host factors (e.g. human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and DEAD-box polypeptide 3) have been identified as broad-spectrum antiviral compounds. Implementation of herein described medicinal chemistry strategies are expected to contribute to the discovery of new drugs effective against current and future threats due to emerging and re-emerging viral pandemics.

8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 211: 113063, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340914

RESUMO

Inspired by our previous efforts to improve the drug-resistance profiles of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), a novel series of "dual-site" binding diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) derivatives targeting both the NNRTI adjacent site and NNRTIs binding pocket (NNIBP) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their anti-HIV potency in TZM-bl and MT-4 cells. Eight compounds exhibited moderate to excellent potencies in inhibiting wild-type (WT) HIV-1 replication with EC50 values ranging from 2.45 nM to 5.36 nM, and 14c (EC50 = 2.45 nM) proved to be the most promising inhibitor. Of note, 14c exhibited potent activity against the single mutant strain E138K (EC50 = 10.6 nM), being comparable with ETR (EC50 = 9.80 nM) and 3.5-fold more potent than that of compound 7 (EC50 = 37.3 nM). Moreover, 14c acted as a classical NNRTI with high affinity for WT HIV-1 RT (IC50 = 0.0589 µM). The detailed structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the representative compounds were also determined, and further supported by molecular dynamics simulation. Overall, we envision that the "dual-site"-binding NNRTIs have significant prospects and pave the way for the next round of rational design of potent anti-HIV-1 agents.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular/normas , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 30: 115927, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352387

RESUMO

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are widely used in combination therapies against HIV-1. However, emergent and transmitted drug resistance compromise their efficacy in the clinical setting. Y181C is selected in patients receiving nevirapine, etravirine and rilpivirine, and together with K103N is the most prevalent NNRTI-associated mutation in HIV-infected patients. Herein, we report on the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of indolylarylsulfones bearing acrylamide or ethylene sulfonamide reactive groups as warheads to inactivate Cys181-containing HIV-1 RT via a Michael addition reaction. Compounds I-7 and I-9 demonstrated higher selectivity towards the Y181C mutant than against the wild-type RT, in nucleotide incorporation inhibition assays. The larger size of the NNRTI binding pocket in the mutant enzyme facilitates a better fit for the active compounds, while stacking interactions with Phe227 and Pro236 contribute to inhibitor binding. Mass spectrometry data were consistent with the covalent modification of the RT, although off-target reactivity constitutes a major limitation for further development of the described inhibitors.

10.
Eur J Med Chem ; : 113051, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279288

RESUMO

To yield potent HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with favorable drug-like properties, a series of novel diarylpyrimidine derivatives targeting the tolerant region I of the NNRTI binding pocket were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The most active inhibitor 10c exhibited outstanding antiviral activity against most of the viral panel, being about 2-fold (wild-type, EC50 = 0.0021 µM), 1.7-fold (K103N, EC50 = 0.0019 µM), and slightly more potent (E138K, EC50 = 0.0075 µM) than the NNRTI drug etravirine (ETR). Additionally, 10c was endowed with relatively low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 18.52 µM). More importantly, 10c possessed improved drug-like properties compared to those of ETR with an increased Fsp3 (Fraction of sp3 carbon atoms) value. Furthermore, the molecular dynamics simulation and molecular docking studies were implemented to reveal the binding mode of 10c in the binding pocket. Taken together, 10c is a promising lead compound that is worth further investigation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229424

RESUMO

Emerging flaviviruses are causative agents of severe and life-threatening diseases, against which no approved therapies are available. Among the nucleoside analogues, which represent a promising group of potentially therapeutic compounds, fluorine-substituted nucleosides are characterized by unique structural and functional properties. Despite having been first synthesized almost 5 decades ago, they still offer new therapeutic opportunities as inhibitors of essential viral or cellular enzymes active in nucleic acid replication/transcription or nucleoside/nucleotide metabolism. Here we report evaluation of the anti-flaviviral activity of 28 nucleoside analogues, each modified with a fluoro substituent at different positions of the ribose ring and/or heterocyclic nucleobase. Our antiviral screening revealed that 3'-deoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine exerted a low-micromolar antiviral effect against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Zika virus, and West Nile (WNV) virus (EC50 values from 1.1 ± 0.1 µM to 4.7 ± 1.5 µM), which was manifested in host cell lines of neural and extraneural origin. The compound did not display any measurable cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 25 µM but had an observable cytostatic effect, resulting in suppression of cell proliferation at concentrations of >12.5 µM. Novel approaches based on quantitative phase imaging using holographic microscopy were developed for advanced characterization of antiviral and cytotoxic profiles of 3'-deoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine in vitro In addition to its antiviral activity in cell cultures, 3'-deoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine was active in vivo in mouse models of TBEV and WNV infection. Our results demonstrate that fluoro-modified nucleosides represent a group of bioactive molecules with excellent potential to serve as prospective broad-spectrum antivirals in antiviral research and drug development.

12.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(9): e1182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005417

RESUMO

Objectives: Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients may transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but their clinical features and immune responses remain largely unclear. We aimed to characterise the clinical features and immune responses of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We collected clinical, laboratory and epidemiological records of patients hospitalised in a coronavirus field hospital in Wuhan. We performed qualitative detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) using archived blood samples. Results: Of 214 patients with SARS-CoV-2, 26 (12%) were asymptomatic at hospital admission and during hospitalisation. Most asymptomatic patients were ≤ 60 years (96%) and females (65%) and had few comorbidities (< 16%). Serum levels of white and red blood cells were higher in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (P-values < 0.05). During hospitalisation, IgG seroconversion was commonly observed in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients (85% versus 94%, P-value = 0.07); in contrast, IgM seroconversion was less common in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (31% versus 74%, P-value < 0.001). The median time from the first virus-positive screening to IgG or IgM seroconversion was significantly shorter in asymptomatic than in symptomatic patients (median: 7 versus 14 days, P-value < 0.01). Furthermore, IgG/IgM seroconversion rates increased concomitantly with the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. At the time of virus clearance, IgG/IgM titres and plasma neutralisation capacity were significantly lower in recovered asymptomatic than in recovered symptomatic patients (P-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients exhibited different kinetics of IgG/IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic patients may transmit SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 206: 112811, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977301

RESUMO

To address the intractable issues of drug resistance and poor solubility, a novel series of morpholine-substituted diarylpyrimidines targeting the tolerant region I and tolerant region II of NNIBP were rationally designed by utilizing the available crystallography studies. The biological evaluation results showed that four most promising compounds (14e1, 14g1, 14g2 and 14j2) displayed excellent potency against WT HIV-1 strain with EC50 values ranging from 58 to 87 nM, being far more potent than NVP and comparable to ETV. Besides, some derivatives exhibited moderate activity in inhibiting the mutant HIV-1 strains. More encouragingly, 14d2 (RF = 0.4) possessed higher antiresistance profile than ETV (RF = 6.3) and K-5a2 (RF = 3.0) toward the double mutant strain F227L + V106A. The HIV-1 RT inhibition assay confirmed their binding target. The molecular docking studies were conducted and discussed in detail to rationalize the preliminary SARs. Further test indicated that morpholine could indeed promote the improvement of water solubility. Additionally, the in silico prediction of physicochemical properties and CYP enzymatic inhibitory ability were investigated to evaluate their drug-like features.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 2759-2774, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764876

RESUMO

On June 8, 2018, an NS3/4A protease inhibitor called danoprevir was approved in China to treat the infections of HCV genotype (GT) 1b - the most common HCV genotype worldwide. Based on phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, the 12-week regimen of ritonavir-boosted danoprevir (danoprevir/r) plus peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin offered 97.1% (200/206) of sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12) in treatment-naïve non-cirrhotic patients infected with HCV genotype 1b. Adverse events such as anemia, fatigue, fever, and headache were associated with the inclusion of peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in the danoprevir-based regimen. Moreover, drug resistance to danoprevir could be traced to amino acid substitutions (Q80K/R, R155K, D168A/E/H/N/T/V) near the drug-binding pocket of HCV NS3 protease. Despite its approval, the clinical use of danoprevir is currently limited to its combination with peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin, thereby driving its development towards interferon-free, ribavirin-free regimens with improved tolerability and adherence. In the foreseeable future, pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals with better clinical efficacy and less adverse events will be available to treat HCV infections worldwide.

15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 202: 112549, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712537

RESUMO

The single enantiomers of seven hydroxyl-substituted biphenyl-diarylpyrimidines were designed and synthesized by a bioisosterism strategy as novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The cellular and enzymatic assays indicated that the novel obtained compounds had significant activities and relatively low cytotoxicity. The supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) enantioseparations of the racemic compounds and the enantiomeric profiling resulted that the (S) forms were generally more potent than the (R) counterparts. Among all the chiral derivatives, (S)-(-)-12a showed the best potency with the antiviral activities against wild-type (WT) and single mutant strains (L100I, K103 N, Y181C, E138K; especially Y188L), and RT enzyme in the low nanomolar concentration range. Toward double mutant virus strains (F227L + V106A, RES056), (S)-(-)-12a possessed submicromolar antiviral activities. In addition, (S)-(-)-12a showed a high cell-based selectivity index (SI WT = 5822) and no apparent toxicity was observed in the in vivo acute toxicity assay and electrocardiogram. The molecular docking studies predicted the binding modes of the compounds with RT and explained the activity differences for the enantiomers. Although the rat pharmacokinetic assay indicated a poor oral metabolism of the hydroxyl compound, the promising antiviral activity of the chiral hydroxyl-substituted biphenyl-diarylpyrimidines provided valuable lead compounds for further anti-HIV drug design.

16.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725669

RESUMO

Taking the previously reported compound BH-7d as the lead, we designed and synthesized a series of piperidinyl-substituted [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, and their anti-HIV activities as well as cytotoxicities were evaluated. Several compounds exhibited moderate anti-HIV (IIIB) potency, among which 2b was the most active one (EC50  = 4.29 µM). Structure-activity relationships derived from the antiretroviral results were analyzed. Additionally, most compounds demonstrated reduced cytotoxicity (CC50  > 200 µM) compared with those of BH-7d and etravirine. Molecular docking study further revealed the binding conformation of 2b in the binding pocket of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

17.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(16): 127287, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631509

RESUMO

In the present work, we described the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of potential dual-target prodrugs targeting the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7) simultaneously. Among them, the most effective compound 7c was found to inhibit HIV-1 wild-type (WT) strain at double-digit nanomolar concentration (EC50 = 42 nM) in MT-4 cells, and sub-micromole (EC50 = 0.308 µM) to inhibit HIV-1 NL4-3 strain in TZM-bl cells. This is a significant improvement over the parent drug MT. In addition, it showed moderate inhibitory potency (EC50 = 1.329 µM) against the HIV-1 K103N/Y181C double mutant strain (MT-4 cells). The metabolic stability in human plasma of compound 7c indicated that it can release the active forms of the parent drugs MT and AZT in a linear time-independent manner and turn out to be a potential prodrug.

18.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(6): 961-978, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642405

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the primary infectious agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the cornerstone of HIV treatment. In the last 20 years, our medicinal chemistry group has made great strides in developing several distinct novel NNRTIs, including 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT), thio-dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine (S-DABO), diaryltriazine (DATA), diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) analogues, and their hybrid derivatives. Application of integrated modern medicinal strategies, including structure-based drug design, fragment-based optimization, scaffold/fragment hopping, molecular/fragment hybridization, and bioisosterism, led to the development of several highly potent analogues for further evaluations. In this paper, we review the development of NNRTIs in the last two decades using the above optimization strategies, including their structure-activity relationships, molecular modeling, and their binding modes with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Future directions and perspectives on the design and associated challenges are also discussed.

19.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(8): 2225-2234, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619096

RESUMO

Previous efforts in our lab have led to the development of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine compound 1 (K-5a2) with promising activity against wild-type and mutant HIV-1 strains. In this work, a series of novel diarylpyrimidines derivatives carrying a structurally diverse motif at the right wing of the lead K-5a2 was designed and synthesized as potential anti-HIV-1 agents. The results demonstrated that 8a yielded exceptionally potent activity against HIV-1 wild-type (50% effective concentration (EC50) = 3.30 nM) and mutant strain RES056 (EC50 = 22.6 nM) in MT-4 cells; in the reverse transcriptase inhibitory assay, 8a (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 0.028 µM) was remarkably superior to that of K-5a2 (IC50 = 0.300 µM) and comparable to that of etravirine (ETR; IC50 = 0.011 µM). Notably, 8a exhibited better druggability than that of K-5a2, including significantly reduced CYP enzymatic inhibitory activity (IC50 > 50 µM), lower human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) inhibition (IC50 > 30 µM), and improved metabolic stability (short half-life, T1/2 = 77.5 min) in vitro.

20.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(5): 878-894, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528834

RESUMO

In this report, a series of novel piperidine-substituted thiophene[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed to explore the hydrophobic channel of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors binding pocket (NNIBP) by incorporating an aromatic moiety to the left wing of the lead K-5a2. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV potency in MT-4 cells and inhibitory activity to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad-spectrum activity toward wild-type and a wide range of HIV-1 strains carrying single non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-resistant mutations. Especially, compound 26 exhibited the most potent activity against wild-type and a panel of single mutations (L100I, K103N, Y181C, Y188L and E138K) with an EC50 ranging from 6.02 to 23.9 nmol/L, which were comparable to those of etravirine (ETR). Moreover, the RT inhibition activity, preliminary structure-activity relationship and molecular docking were also investigated. Furthermore, 26 exhibited favorable pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles and with a bioavailability of 33.8%. Taken together, the results could provide valuable insights for further optimization and compound 26 holds great promise as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

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