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1.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 408, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to the other members of human epidermal growth factor family receptors (HER), the role of HER3 has not been well defined in laryngeal cancer. The predictive and prognostic role of HER3 has been the focus of clinical attention but the research findings are contradictory, especially in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). The variable localization of HER3 within cancer cells and the role of HER3 in primary and acquired resistance to HER1-targeted therapies remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of two cohorts of 66 homogeneous consecutive untreated primary advanced LSCC patients, in which co-expression of HER1, HER2 and HER3 receptors was investigated by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. The association of their pattern of expression with survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox's proportional hazard analyses. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict median 2- and 3-year RFS and 2.5- and 5-year OS. The Akaike information criterion technique and backwards stepwise procedure were used for model selections. The performance of the final Cox models was assessed with respect to calibration and discrimination. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical labeling for HER1 and HER2 was localized both in the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm, while HER3 labeling was observed both in the cell cytoplasm and in the nucleus. HER3 expression was inversely correlated with HER1 positivity. The expression patterns of HERs were associated with tumor differentiation. In both cohorts of patients, HER1 expression was associated with reduced relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS). In HER1 positive tumors, the co-expression with nuclear HER3 was associated with better RFS and OS, compared with HER3 negative tumors or tumors expressing HER3 at cytoplasmic level. HER3 expressing tumors had a higher Geminin/MCM7 ratio than HER3 negative ones, regardless of HER1 co-expression. Multivariable analyses identified age at diagnosis, tumor site, HER1, HER3 and age at diagnosis, tumor stage, HER1, HER3, as covariates significantly associated with RFS and OS, respectively. Bootstrapping verified the good fitness of these models for predicting survivals and the optimism-corrected C-indices were 0.76 and 0.77 for RFS and OS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear HER3 expression was strongly associated with favourable prognosis and allows to improve the prognostic stratification of patients with HER1 positive advanced LSCC carcinoma.

2.
Audiol Res ; 11(3): 418-422, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe BPPV in COVID-19 patients by discussing the possible mechanisms underlying the onset of this vertigo. METHODS: We studied eight patients (4 F, 4 M, aged between 44 and 69 years) with COVID-19 infections complaining of vertigo. Patients were evaluated at the end of infection with an accurate clinical history, and the investigation of spontaneous, positional and positioning nystagmus. RESULTS: The vestibular findings showed benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in all the patients. Three patients had a mild phenotype of the COVID infection, whereas five subjects were hospitalized for the COVID infection and in three cases intensive care was required. Vestibular evaluation showed an involvement of posterior semicircular canals in five patients and horizontal in three. Three patients were treated with the Epley maneuver, two with Semont, one with Lempert and two with Gufoni maneuvers. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that BPPV in COVID-19 infections can be relate to drugs, prolonged bed rest and to direct damage by viral infection on the peripheral vestibular system and in particular on the otolitic membrane due to the cytopathic effect of the virus and to the inflammatory response. Studies on large series of patients are needed to confirm our preliminary observation and to better evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BPPV in these patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297013

RESUMO

Objective: Polidocanol sclerotherapy of head and neck venous malformations (VMs) and lymphatic malformations (LMs) has been reported only in limited series. In this manuscript we evaluated the efficacy and safety of polidocanol sclerotherapy in a series of head and neck venous and lymphatic malformations. Methods: This retrospective observational study analysed data on 20 head and neck VMs and LMs that underwent to percutaneous or endoscopic intra-lesional 3% polidocanol microfoam sclerotherapy at our institution. Clinical response was ranked as excellent, moderate and poor based on volume reduction by MRI and resolution of symptoms. Results: The median volume decreased from 19.3 mL to 5.8 mL after sclerotherapy (mean volume reduction: 72.98 ± 16.1%). An excellent-moderate response was observed in 94.4% of cases. We observed a mean volume reduction of 79.5 ± 16.1 in macrocystic LMs, of 76.1 ± 13.0% in VMs, of 60.5 ± 10.9% in mixed lymphatic ones and 42.5% in microcystic lymphatic ones. Conclusions: Polidocanol sclerotherapy appears to be an effective and safe treatment for venous and lymphatic head and neck malformations. We observed the best responses in macrocystic LMs and VMs, whereas mixed lymphatic ones showed a moderate response and microcystic lymphatic ones a poor response.

5.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(3): 277-281, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264922

RESUMO

Objective: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) may result in a serious impairment of the quality of life (QoL). The most relevant characteristics of CSOM are well represented in the "Chronic Otitis Media Outcome Test 15" questionnaire (COMOT-15). The aim of the study was to translate and adapt the COMOT-15 questionnaire into Italian. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted on 52 Caucasian Italian-speaking patients with CSOM and 52 controls. The linguistic adaptation of the COMOT-15 consisted of the translation of the English version into Italian and reliability assessment of the translation. Psychometric measurements included internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: Cronbach's α was 0.95. The test-retest reliability showed a strong positive correlation for total score and all subscales. Age and gender had no influence on the scores. The correlation between the COMOT-15 and the pure tone average showed a significant association for the scale "Hearing Function". Conclusions: The Italian COMOT-15 questionnaire provides good internal consistency and is suitable for QoL evaluation in Italian-speaking patients suffering from CSOM. In addition, it is able to evaluate the subjective symptoms perceived by patients.


Assuntos
Otite Média , Qualidade de Vida , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e02074, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus is a common symptom largely impactful on quality of life, especially in the elderly. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of self-administered screening tests to correlate the severity of subjective perception of tinnitus with emotional disorders and the overall cognitive status. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 55 years with chronic tinnitus were recruited and submitted to a complete audiological evaluation; Tinnitus Handicap inventory (THI); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Demographic and audiological features of patients with and without cognitive impairment (MMSE score cut-off of 24/30) were analyzed in order to reveal the relationship among tinnitus, emotional disorders, and cognitive dysfunction. RESULTS: 102 patients were recruited (mean age: 70.4 ± 9.6). THI score was directly related to HADS-A score (r = .63) HADS-D score (r = .66), whereas there was no relationship between tinnitus severity and MMSE (r = .13). CI and n-CI groups did not differ in the characteristics of tinnitus (p > .05), however, hearing threshold (p = .049) and anxious depressive traits measured with HADS-A (p = .044) and HADS-D (p = .016) were significantly higher in the group with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, age ≥ 75 years (p = .002, OR = 13.8), female sex (p = .032; OR = 6.5), severe hearing loss (p = .036; OR = 2.3), and anxiety (p = .029; OR = 9.2) resulted risk factors for CI. Therefore, in CI group MMSE score was inversely related to age (r = -.84). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment and psychiatric discomfort should be considered in tinnitus patients, related to increasing age, female sex, and severe hearing loss. Thus, self-administered questionnaires can be useful in addressing clinical approach.


Assuntos
Zumbido , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Zumbido/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 147: 110799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: allergy may be an important risk factor for adenotonsillar disease in children, although conflicting results have been reported in the literature. In previous articles, authors often failed in distinguishing between adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis and in not discriminating between isolated or combined adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy. AIM: to evaluate clinical evidence and biomarkers linking allergy to different phenotypes of adeno-tonsillar disease. Furthermore, we questioned whether anti-allergy treatment might prevent occurrence of adeno-tonsillar disease or improve its specific management. METHODS: our systematic review, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) process, yielded 1010 articles finally screened. This resulted in 21 full texts that were included in a qualitative analysis. RESULTS: literature data support the association between allergy and combined adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy and isolated adenoid hypertrophy, whereas describe a mainly negative correlation between allergy and isolated tonsillar hypertrophy. The results of this review suggest that local allergic inflammation may play a role in adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy. Data correlating bacterial recurrent tonsillitis and allergy are few, although evidence from the lab revealed that allergy might suppress innate immunity in tonsillar tissue by reducing levels of anti-microbial proteins. CONCLUSION: basing on our qualitative analyses allergy should not be misdiagnosed in children with combined adenotonsillar hypertrophy or isolated adenoid hypertrophy, whereas evidence do not support a link between allergy and isolated tonsil hypertrophy. Finally, some data support a link between allergy and recurrent adeno-tonsillar infection although future studies are required to confirm this data. We summarized our conclusions in a practical algorithm.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Tonsilectomia , Tonsilite , Biomarcadores , Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia , Tonsila Palatina , Tonsilite/complicações , Tonsilite/diagnóstico , Tonsilite/terapia
13.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(1): 189-195, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the impact of bile acids on severity of laryngo-pharyngeal reflux (LPR) and the possible correlation with esophagitis and upper airway malignancies. The second end point was to evaluate if salivary bile acids and molecules other than pepsin might serve as diagnostic biomarkers of LPR. DESIGN: Observational prospective comparative study. SETTING: Otorhinolaryngology unit of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two consecutive adult outpatients suspected of LPR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bile acids, bilirubin and pepsinogen I-II were measured in saliva. Patients underwent pH metry and based on the results of bile acids were subdivided as acid, mixed and alkaline LPR. RESULTS: Significantly higher Reflux Findings Score (RFS) and Reflux Symptoms Index (RSI) were seen in patients with alkaline and mixed LPR compared to acid LPR. Salivary bile acids >1 µmol/L seem to be a reliable indicator of the severity of LPR. Compared to those without, patients with esophagitis or a history of upper airway malignancy have high concentrations of bile acids in saliva. Among the molecules studied, bile acids were the most suitable for diagnosis of LPR, with a sensitivity of 86% and a positive predictive value of 80.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that high concentrations of bile acids are associated with higher values of RSI and RFS in LPR as well as a higher risk of esophagitis and history of upper airway malignancies. We finally observed that bile acids provided the best biometric parameters for diagnosis of LPR among the molecules tested.

14.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 35(1): 77-85, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: in the era of new biological agents it is important to identify patients who may benefit from conventional therapies such as endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) plus long-term local corticosteroids from those with patterns of inflammation that are more difficult to control post-operatively and who may benefit from other therapies. OBJECTIVE: determine if preoperative assessment of type and grade of inflammation and clinical factors can predict disease control with ESS plus long-term local corticosteroids in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). METHODS: Eighty patients treated with ESS plus mometasone-furoate 200 µg BID for CRSwNP and followed for at least 1 year were enrolled (November 2017-December 2018) in this prospective observational study. Type and grade of inflammation were evaluated preoperatively by nasal cytology. Based on cellular pattern, patients were grouped as neutrophilic (n = 20), eosinophilic (n = 38), or mixed eosinophil-neutrophilic (n = 22). SNOT-22 and Lund-Kennedy Endoscopic Score were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery and used to define disease control. RESULTS: The cumulative probability of remaining free of significant modification of endoscopic score (Lund-Kennedy Endoscopic Score >2) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months was 0.84, 0.76, 0.71, and 0.68, respectively. At 12-month postoperative evaluation good disease control was observed in 54 of 80 patients (67.5%). Compared to those with good post-operative disease control, those with poor control had a significantly higher pre-operative mean count of eosinophils and neutrophils (p < 0.05). The preoperative inflammatory pattern was associated with relative risk of poor control: neutrophilia (RR: 3.10; CI:1.24-7.71), eosinophilia (RR:8.42; CI:2.72-15.12), and mixed eosinophilic and neutrophilic (RR:25.11; CI:19.41-30.01). We also confirmed that asthma, allergy, blood eosinophilia, and ASA triad could predict poor control. CONCLUSIONS: The type and load of inflammation evaluated preoperatively and selected clinical factors can predict poor control of CRSwNP treated with ESS and local corticosteroids.

15.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(2): 499-507, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Parastomal recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with tracheal involvement following salvage total laryngectomy after prior concurrent chemoradiotherapy is one of the most insidious challenges in head and neck surgery because a complex reconstruction is often required for covering a large area of skin loss, filling the dead space beneath, tracheal reconstruction and suspension, and tracheostome resurfacing. The aim is to describe our experience with the internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) propeller flap for tracheal and tracheostome reconstruction and neck resurfacing after parastomal and cervical trachea resection, especially for suspension and anchoring the stump of the residual distal trachea to the island flap itself. METHODS: We describe IMAP flap reconstruction after resection of parastomal recurrence of SCC requiring cervical trachea resection in five patients between January 1, 2005 and August 30, 2019. RESULTS: IMAP propeller flap was successfully used for reconstruction after complex resection of parastomal recurrence of SCC with cervical trachea involvement in all cases. The mean length and width were, respectively, 16.8 cm (range 13-23) and 6.9 cm (range 5.5-8). We did not report complications of both the donor and the recipient site. Pharyngo-cutaneous or tracheoesophageal fistulas and wound dehiscence were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the use of the IMAP propeller flap in this more complex clinical setting and we provide the message that this surgical procedure is worthy of consideration.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Retalho Perfurante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Humanos , Laringectomia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Traqueia/cirurgia
16.
Brachytherapy ; 20(1): 178-184, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041229

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Surgery, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and interventional radiotherapy (IRT, BrachyTherapy BT) are the current therapeutic options for nose vestibule (NV) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this article, we evaluate the nose functional parameters of patients affected by SCCs of the NV, primarily treated by interstitial IRT comparing them with healthy controls and with patients treated with intensity-modulated EBRT. METHODS: Ten patients treated by using IRT (group 1), 10 healthy controls and eight patients treated by EBRT (group 2) on the region of the nose were submitted to clinical evaluation (with the NOSE scale score), rhinomanometry, olfactory testing, nasal citology, and evaluation of mucociliary clearance through saccharine test. RESULTS: No long-term skin or cartilaginous toxicity are recorded. The olfactometry threshold discrimination identification TDI is lower in EB group. The mean NOSE scale score was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 and healthy controls (p < 0.05). The distribution of cytologic patterns resulted significantly different as well. Patients treated by EB have a significantly impaired mucociliary clearance, with a mean time for the transport of the stained marker, which is more than double in the patients treated by EB than in those treated with IRT (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Nasal function and cytological findings are significantly better, substantially preserved, in patients treated by IRT than in those treated by EBRT, bringing new relevant evidence for the establishment of interstitial IRT as the new standard for the treatment of the primary lesion in cT1 and cT2 -Wang staging NV SCCs.

17.
Audiol Neurootol ; 26(2): 121-126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stapes surgery is a safe procedure, with favourable hearing outcome. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term hearing results, addressing the bone conduction (BC) decay and the need for hearing aids in otosclerosis patients. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent stapes surgery by means of stapedectomy or stapedotomy between 1991 and 2001. All enrolled patients underwent pure-tone audiometry (PTA) between September 2017 and June 2018. A set of questions was administered to record the prevalence of subjective symptoms and the need for hearing aids. RESULTS: Seventy patients were enrolled for a long-term evaluation; 37 patients underwent bilateral surgery; therefore, 107 ears were included in the analysis. The average follow-up period was 22 years. No statistically significant difference was found between early and late post-operative air conduction (AC) PTA (41 vs. 49 dB; p > 0.05) nor between early and late post-operative BC-PTA (29 vs. 37 dB; p > 0.05). A significant difference was observed for AC at 8 kHz (65 vs. 78 dB; p < 0.05) and BC at 2 and 4 kHz (28 vs. 40 dB and 45 vs. 58 dB, respectively; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the longest mean follow-up time in the literature. A mild decrease in both AC and BC threshold can be expected and the sensorineural decay is more pronounced on the high frequencies. The subjective hearing symptoms and overall sound perception are satisfactory.


Assuntos
Condução Óssea , Otosclerose/cirurgia , Cirurgia do Estribo/métodos , Adulto , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Feminino , Seguimentos , Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(3): 524-534, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common childhood disease responsible for a major impact on quality of life and healthcare resources. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between allergy and otitis media, although a definitive mechanism has not been identified yet. One of the major critical points is that authors failed in distinguishing among different phenotypes of middle ear inflammation. This review pointed out literature evidence from the laboratory and clinical experience linking allergy to different phenotypes of otitis media in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) process. Our search yielded 3010 articles that were finally screened. This resulted in 20 manuscripts of which the full texts were included in a qualitative analysis. We paid particular attention in distinguishing among phenotypes of otitis media. RESULTS: Clinical evidence and analyses of biomarkers suggested that allergy may be linked to some phenotypes of otitis media and, in particular, to otitis media with effusion (OME) and acute re-exacerbations in children with middle ear effusion. It was not possible to perform the analysis for allergy and acute and chronic otitis media because of paucity and heterogeneity of data. CONCLUSION: Allergy should be considered in the diagnostic workup of children with OME as well as OME should be excluded in children with persistent moderate to severe AR. In these cases, clinicians should evaluate prompt and accurate treatment of allergy in improving outcomes, although futures studies are required to increase evidence supporting that anti-allergy treatment may be effective in the recovery and outcome of otitis media with effusion.


Assuntos
Otite Média com Derrame , Otite Média , Rinite Alérgica , Criança , Humanos , Otite Média com Derrame/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 20(11): 68, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889648

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: We provide a systematic review of experimental and clinical evidences linking allergy to acute, including common cold, and chronic rhinosinusitis in children. Furthermore, we questioned if anti-allergy treatment may prevent the occurrence of rhinosinusitis or improve outcomes of its specific management. RECENT FINDINGS: Allergic rhinitis is a common childhood disease in industrialized countries that is responsible for a major impact on quality of life and healthcare resources. Over the years many authors tried to correlate allergy with comorbidities and in particular to the onset of rhinosinusitis including common cold, even though conflicting results are frequently reached. We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) process. Our search yielded 7103 that were finally screened. This resulted in 25 publications of which the full texts were assessed and included in a qualitative analysis per different phenotypes of rhinosinusitis. The evidence suggests that allergy may lead to overall impairment of mechanical and immunological defense function of the nasal mucosa against viruses and that anti-allergy treatment may significantly decrease the number and severity of upper respiratory tract infections including common colds in children. It was not possible to perform the analysis for allergy and post-viral acute rhinosinusitis, bacterial acute rhinosinusitis, and recurrent acute rhinosinusitis because of paucity and heterogeneity of data. Although there is no definitive proof of causation linking allergy to chronic rhinosinusitis, studies lead to suppose that anti-allergy treatment may improve outcomes of specific CRS treatments.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/etiologia , Sinusite/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Alérgenos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Rinite Alérgica/sangue
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