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1.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571837

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate many biological processes in vertebrates, including reproduction. Testicular somatic and germ cells are equipped with the arrays of enzymes (deiodinases), transporters, and receptors necessary to locally maintain the optimal level of THs and their signalling, needed for their functions and spermatogenesis. Pesticides, as chlorpyrifos (CPF) and ethylene thiourea (ETU), impair the function of thyroid and testis, affecting male fertility. However, their ability to disarrange testicular T3 (t-T3) metabolism and signalling is poorly considered. Here, a multi-species analysis involving zebrafish and mouse suggests the damage of t-T3 metabolism and signalling as a mechanism of gonadic toxicity of low-doses CPF and ETU. Indeed, the developmental exposure to both compounds reduces Dio2 transcript in both models, as well as in ex-vivo cultures of murine seminiferous tubules, and it is linked to alteration of steroidogenesis and germ cell differentiation. A major impact on spermatogonia was confirmed molecularly by the expression of their markers and morphologically evidenced in zebrafish. The results reveal that in the adopted models, exposure to both pesticides alters the t-T3 metabolism and signalling, affecting the reproductive capability. Our data, together with previous reports suggest zebrafish as an evaluable model in assessing the action of compounds impairing locally T3 signalling.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502288

RESUMO

Thyroid hormone levels are usually genetically determined. Thyrocytes produce a unique set of enzymes that are dedicated to thyroid hormone synthesis. While thyroid transcriptional regulation is well-characterized, post-transcriptional mechanisms have been less investigated. Here, we describe the involvement of ZFP36L2, a protein that stimulates degradation of target mRNAs, in thyroid development and function, by in vivo and in vitro gene targeting in thyrocytes. Thyroid-specific Zfp36l2-/- females were hypothyroid, with reduced levels of circulating free Thyroxine (cfT4) and Triiodothyronine (cfT3). Their hypothyroidism was due to dyshormonogenesis, already evident one week after weaning, while thyroid development appeared normal. We observed decreases in several thyroid-specific transcripts and proteins, such as Nis and its transcriptional regulators (Pax8 and Nkx2.1), and increased apoptosis in Zfp36l2-/- thyroids. Nis, Pax8, and Nkx2.1 mRNAs were also reduced in Zfp36l2 knock-out thyrocytes in vitro (L2KO), in which we confirmed the increased apoptosis. Finally, in L2KO cells, we showed an altered response to TSH stimulation regarding both thyroid-specific gene expression and cell proliferation and survival. This result was supported by increases in P21/WAF1 and p-P38MAPK levels. Mechanistically, we confirmed Notch1 as a target of ZFP36L2 in the thyroid since its levels were increased in both in vitro and in vivo models. In both models, the levels of Id4 mRNA, a potential inhibitor of Pax8 activity, were increased. Overall, the data indicate that the regulation of mRNA stability by ZFP36L2 is a mechanism that controls the function and survival of thyrocytes.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Tristetraprolina/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Ratos , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/citologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tireotropina/farmacologia , Tristetraprolina/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299284

RESUMO

Forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) is a lineage-restricted transcription factor involved in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Cancer-associated polymorphisms map in regulatory regions, thus affecting the extent of gene expression. We have recently shown that genetic reduction of FOXE1 dosage modifies multiple thyroid cancer phenotypes. To identify relevant effectors playing roles in thyroid cancer development, here we analyse FOXE1-induced transcriptional alterations in thyroid cells that do not express endogenous FOXE1. Expression of FOXE1 elicits cell migration, while transcriptome analysis reveals that several immune cells-related categories are highly enriched in differentially expressed genes, including several upregulated chemokines involved in macrophage recruitment. Accordingly, FOXE1-expressing cells induce chemotaxis of co-cultured monocytes. We then asked if FOXE1 was able to regulate macrophage infiltration in thyroid cancers in vivo by using a mouse model of cancer, either wild type or with only one functional FOXE1 allele. Expression of the same set of chemokines directly correlates with FOXE1 dosage, and pro-tumourigenic M2 macrophage infiltration is decreased in tumours with reduced FOXE1. These data establish a novel link between FOXE1 and macrophages recruitment in the thyroid cancer microenvironment, highlighting an unsuspected function of this gene in the crosstalk between neoplastic and immune cells that shape tumour development and progression.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Macrófagos/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375029

RESUMO

The transcription factor Forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) is a key player in thyroid development and function and has been identified by genome-wide association studies as a susceptibility gene for papillary thyroid cancer. Several cancer-associated polymorphisms fall into gene regulatory regions and are likely to affect FOXE1 expression levels. However, the possibility that changes in FOXE1 expression modulate thyroid cancer development has not been investigated. Here, we describe the effects of FOXE1 gene dosage reduction on cancer phenotype in vivo. Mice heterozygous for FOXE1 null allele (FOXE1+/-) were crossed with a BRAFV600E-inducible cancer model to develop thyroid cancer in either a FOXE1+/+ or FOXE1+/- genetic background. In FOXE1+/+ mice, cancer histological features are quite similar to that of human high-grade papillary thyroid carcinomas, while cancers developed with reduced FOXE1 gene dosage maintain morphological features resembling less malignant thyroid cancers, showing reduced proliferation index and increased apoptosis as well. Such cancers, however, appear severely undifferentiated, indicating that FOXE1 levels affect thyroid differentiation during neoplastic transformation. These results show that FOXE1 dosage exerts pleiotropic effects on thyroid cancer phenotype by affecting histology and regulating key markers of tumor differentiation and progression, thus suggesting the possibility that FOXE1 could behave as lineage-specific oncogene in follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/genética , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
5.
J Endocrinol ; 247(1): 53-68, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738127

RESUMO

The intra-tissue levels of thyroid hormones (THs) regulate organ functions. Environmental factors can impair these levels by damaging the thyroid gland and/or peripheral TH metabolism. We investigated the effects of embryonic and/or long-life exposure to low-dose pesticides, ethylene thiourea (ETU), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and both combined on intra-tissue T4/T3 metabolism/signaling in zebrafish at different life stages. Hypothyroidism was evident in exposed larvae that showed reduced number of follicles and induced tshb mRNAs. Despite that, we found an increase in free T4 (fT4) and free T3 (fT3) levels/signaling that was confirmed by transcriptional regulation of TH metabolic enzymes (deiodinases) and T3-regulated mRNAs (cpt1, igfbp1a). Second-generation larvae showed that thyroid and TH signaling was affected even when not directly exposed, suggesting the role of parental exposure. In adult zebrafish, we found that sex-dependent damage of hepatic T3 level/signaling was associated with liver steatosis, which was more pronounced in females, with sex-dependent alteration of transcripts codifying the key enzymes involved in 'de novo lipogenesis' and ß-oxidation. We found impaired activation of liver T3 and PPARα/Foxo3a pathways whose deregulation was already involved in mammalian liver steatosis. The data emphasizes that the intra-tissue imbalance of the T3 level is due to thyroid endocrine disruptors (THDC) and suggests that the effect of a slight modification in T3 signaling might be amplified by its direct regulation or crosstalk with PPARα/Foxo3a pathways. Because T3 levels define the hypothyroid/hyperthyroid status of each organ, our findings might explain the pleiotropic and site-dependent effects of pesticides.


Assuntos
Larva/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Clorpirifos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos , Etilenotioureia/administração & dosagem , Etilenotioureia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Glândula Tireoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492950

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) exert pleiotropic effects in different mammalian organs, including gonads. Genetic and non-genetic factors, such as ageing and environmental stressors (e.g., low-iodine intake, exposure to endocrine disruptors, etc.), can alter T4/T3 synthesis by the thyroid. In any case, peripheral T3, controlled by tissue-specific enzymes (deiodinases), receptors and transporters, ensures organ homeostasis. Conflicting reports suggest that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, assessed by mean of circulating T4, T3 and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), could affect the functionality of the ovarian reserve determining infertility. The relationship between ovarian T3 level and functional ovarian reserve (FOR) is poorly understood despite that the modifications of local T3 metabolism and signalling have been associated with dysfunctions of several organs. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge on the role of TH signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in controlling the physiological and premature ovarian ageing and, finally, in preserving FOR. We will consider separately the reports describing the effects of circulating and local THs on the ovarian health to elucidate their role in ovarian dysfunctions.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117323

RESUMO

With this article, the authors aim to honor the memory of Serafino Zappacosta, who had been their mentor during the early years of their career in science. The authors discuss how the combination of Serafino Zappacosta's extraordinary commitment to teaching and passion for science created a fostering educational environment that led to the creation of the "Ruggero Ceppellini Advanced School of Immunology." The review also illustrates how the research on the MHC and the inspirational scientific context in the Zappacosta's laboratory influenced the authors' early scientific interests, and subsequent professional work as immunologists.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia/história , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Alergia e Imunologia/educação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Masculino , Mentores , Pesquisa
8.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(6): 103894, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081709

RESUMO

Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated to a hemizygous deletion of 28 genes located on chromosome 7q11.23. WS affected subjects frequently suffer from several endocrine abnormalities including hypothyroidism due to defects in thyroid morphology. To date, several genes involved in thyroid dysgenesis have been identified, nonetheless, none of them is located in the 7q11.23 region. Thus, the hypothyroidism-linked molecular features in WS are not yet known. In this study we focused on one of the WS deleted gene, BAZ1B, demonstrating that its downregulation in thyroid cells leads to cell viability and survival decrement. Taking together, our results show that BAZ1B could be the mainly responsible for thyroid defects observed in some of WS patients and that these alterations are activated by PTEN-mediated mechanisms.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/genética , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Cell Death Differ ; 27(1): 345-362, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186534

RESUMO

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) fluctuate among different levels of pluripotency defined as metastates. Sporadically, metastable cellular populations convert to a highly pluripotent metastate that resembles the preimplantation two-cell embryos stage (defined as 2C stage) in terms of transcriptome, DNA methylation, and chromatin structure. Recently, we found that the retinoic acid (RA) signaling leads to a robust increase of cells specifically expressing 2C genes, such as members of the Prame family. Here, we show that Gm12794c, one of the most highly upregulated Prame members, and previously identified as a key player for the maintenance of pluripotency, has a functional role in conferring ESCs resistance to RA signaling. In particular, RA-dependent expression of Gm12794c induces a ground state-like metastate, as evaluated by activation of 2C-specific genes, global DNA hypomethylation and rearrangement of chromatin similar to that observed in naive totipotent preimplantation epiblast cells and 2C-like cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that Gm12794c inhibits Cdkn1A gene expression through the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) histone methyltransferase activity. Collectively, our data highlight a molecular mechanism employed by ESCs to counteract retinoic acid differentiation stimuli and contribute to shed light on the molecular mechanisms at grounds of ESCs naive pluripotency-state maintenance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Proteínas/fisiologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Acetilação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/biossíntese , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Metilação de DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/enzimologia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Família Multigênica , Células NIH 3T3 , Filogenia , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/fisiologia , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/classificação , Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861348

RESUMO

Endoderm-derived organs as liver and pancreas are potential targets for regenerative therapies, and thus, there is great interest in understanding the pathways that regulate the induction and specification of this germ layer. Currently, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms that guide the in vivo endoderm specification is restricted by the lack of early endoderm specific markers. Nephrocan (Nepn) is a gene whose expression characterizes the early stages of murine endoderm specification (E7.5-11.5) and encodes a secreted N-glycosylated protein. In the present study, we report the identification of a new transcript variant that is generated through alternative splicing. The new variant was found to have differential and tissue specific expression in the adult mouse. In order to better understand Nepn role during endoderm specification, we generated Nepn knock-out (KO) mice. Nepn-/- mice were born at Mendelian ratios and displayed no evident phenotype compared to WT mice. In addition, we produced nullizygous mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) line lacking Nepn by applying (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems 9 (Cas9) and employed a differentiation protocol toward endoderm lineage. Our in vitro results revealed that Nepn loss affects the endoderm differentiation impairing the expression of posterior foregut-associated markers.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal/genética , Endoderma/embriologia , Endoderma/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Marcação de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623299

RESUMO

Pancreatic organogenesis is a multistep process that requires the cooperation of several signaling pathways. In this context, the role of pancreatic mesenchyme is important to define the epithelium development; nevertheless, the precise space-temporal signaling activation still needs to be clarified. This study reports a dissection of the pancreatic embryogenesis, highlighting the molecular network surrounding the epithelium-mesenchyme interaction. To investigate this crosstalk, pancreatic epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme, at embryonic day 10.5, were collected through laser capture microdissection (LCM) and characterized based on their global gene expression. We performed a bioinformatic analysis to hypothesize crosstalk interactions, validating the most promising genes and verifying the precise localization of their expression in the compartments, by RNA in situ hybridization (ISH). Our analyses pointed out also the c-Met gene, a very well-known factor involved in stimulating motility, morphogenesis, and organ regeneration. We also highlighted the potential crosstalk between Versican (Vcan) and Syndecan4 (Sdc4) since these genes are involved in pancreatic tissue repair, strengthening the concept that the same signaling pathways required during pancreatic embryogenesis are also involved in tissue repair. This finding leads to novel strategies for obtaining functional pancreatic stem cells for cell replacement therapies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/embriologia , Organogênese , Pâncreas/embriologia , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos
12.
Cancer Res ; 79(22): 5746-5757, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558562

RESUMO

Klhl14-AS is a long noncoding RNA expressed since early specification of thyroid bud and is the most enriched gene in the mouse thyroid primordium at E10.5. Here, we studied its involvement in thyroid carcinogenesis by analyzing its expression in cancer tissues and different models of neoplastic transformation. Compared with normal thyroid tissue and cells, Klhl14-AS was significantly downregulated in human thyroid carcinoma tissue specimens, particularly the anaplastic histotype, thyroid cancer cell lines, and rodent models of thyroid cancer. Downregulating the expression of Klhl14-AS in normal thyroid cells decreased the expression of thyroid differentiation markers and cell death and increased cell viability. These effects were mediated by the binding of Klhl14-AS to two miRNAs, Mir182-5p and Mir20a-5p, which silenced Pax8 and Bcl2, both essential players of thyroid differentiation. MIR182-5p and MIR20a-5p were upregulated in human thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer experimental models and their effects on Pax8 and Bcl2 were rescued by Klhl14-AS overexpression, confirming Klhl14-AS as a ceRNA for both Pax8 and Bcl2. This work connects deregulation of differentiation with increased proliferation and survival in thyroid neoplastic cells and highlights a novel ceRNA circuitry involving key regulators of thyroid physiology. SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes a new ceRNA with potential tumor suppression activity and helps us better understand the regulatory mechanisms during thyroid differentiation and carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Morte Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454993

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Molecular heterogeneity is a major determinant for the clinical outcomes and an exhaustive tumor classification is currently missing. Histologically normal tissue adjacent to the tumor (NAT) is commonly used as a control in cancer studies, nevertheless a recently published paper described the unique characteristics of the NAT in several tumor types. Little is known about the global gene expression profile of gastric NAT (gNAT) which could be an effective tool for a more realistic definition of GC molecular signature. Here, we integrated data of 512 samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GETx) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to analyze the transcriptome of healthy gastric tissues, gNAT, and GC samples. We validated TCGA-GETx data mining through inHouse gNAT and GC expression dataset. Differential gene expression together with pathway enrichment analyses, indeed, led to different results when using the gNAT or the healthy tissue as control. Based on our analyses, gNAT showed a peculiar gene signature and biological features, like the estrogen receptor pathways activation, suggesting a molecular behavior partially different from both healthy and GC tissues. Therefore, using gNAT as healthy control tissue in the characterization of tumor associated biological processes and pathways could lead to suboptimal results.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621213

RESUMO

Epidemiological and experimental studies emphasize the link between environmental chemicals exposure and thyroid cancer. However, this association is strongly debated and the mechanisms of action of environmental thyroid carcinogens still need to be identified. The analysis of in vitro transcriptomic data developed to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos on immortalized thyrocytes highlighted the impaired expression of genes involved in endodermal carcinogenesis. This endodermal carcinogenic gene-network (ECGN, including Zfp36l2, Dmbt1, Ddit4), was validated in cellular and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis, characterized by the constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and in immortalized thyrocytes exposed to tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and chlorpyrifos (CPF). The mRNA levels of Zfp36l2, Dmbt1 and Ddit4 were increased in models characterized by MAPK activation or following TCDD exposure, whereas they were inhibited by CPF exposure. Overall, the ECGN transcripts identify a novel gene-regulatory network associated with thyroid carcinogenesis promoted by genetic mutation or by environmental carcinogens. The latter have opposite effects on the modulation of the ECGN transcripts according to their mechanisms of action in promoting carcinogenesis. Therefore, the analyses of ECGN might be helpful in discriminating compounds that promote cellular survival associated or not to proliferation of thyrocytes.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Feminino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais da Tireoide/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tristetraprolina/genética
15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010697

RESUMO

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. In serum/LIF culture condition, they show variable expression of pluripotency genes that mark cell fluctuation between pluripotency and differentiation metastate. The ESCs subpopulation marked by zygotic genome activation gene (ZGA) signature, including Zscan4, retains a wider differentiation potency than epiblast-derived ESCs. We have recently shown that retinoic acid (RA) significantly enhances Zscan4 cell population. However, it remains unexplored how RA initiates the ESCs to 2-cell like reprogramming. Here we found that RA is decisive for ESCs to 2C-like cell transition, and reconstructed the gene network surrounding Zscan4. We revealed that RA regulates 2C-like population co-activating Dux and Duxbl1. We provided novel evidence that RA dependent ESCs to 2C-like cell transition is regulated by Dux, and antagonized by Duxbl1. Our suggested mechanism could shed light on the role of RA on ESC reprogramming.

17.
Cell Death Discov ; 4: 112, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534420

RESUMO

The progressive and physiological decline in ovarian function depends on the rate of follicular loss by atresia, contributing to the reduction in ovarian reserve. Genetics and environmental factors play important roles in ovarian senescence and in the onset of ovarian dysfunctions such as diminished ovarian reserve. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and their regulation by genetic and environmental factors is needed to evaluate ovarian reserve and to predict fertility potential by identification of more accurate and less invasive markers. We report transcriptomic data (i) implicating novel (e.g. EIF2 signalling) and well-known pathways (e.g. TGFß signalling), and (ii) defining a unique set of non-coding RNA (ncRNA), both associated with ovarian function. The latter includes miRNAs (e.g. Mir143 and Mir145), snoRNAs (e.g. Snord16a and Snora34), and one lncRNA (Gas5), which are differentially expressed in middle-aged ovaries (12 months) vs young-aged (3 months) from CD1 mice. Experimental analysis confirms that ovary lifespan varies across genetic backgrounds in mice and, genetics influences the response to environmental perturbations such as diet. Moreover, the identified ncRNAs were verified in a model of reproductive dysfunction promoted by the environmental toxicant ethylenthiourea. We also report the increase of miRNA143 and miRNA145 in follicular fluid of women with diminished ovarian reserve. Their levels inversely correlate with the hormonal profile and with the number of the oocytes recruited upon hormonal stimulation. Overall, we report a transcriptomic signature for ovarian dysfunction in vivo that provides a valuable resource for translational research in human reproductive aging.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16324, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397221

RESUMO

Genetic and environmental factors contribute to thyroid diseases. Although still debated, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is thought to induce thyroid dysfunction in humans and rodents. The data here reported point out the contribution of the exposure window and genetic background in mediating the low-dose TCDD effects on thyroid. Indeed, early (from E0.5 to PND30) and low-dose (0,001 µg/kg/day) TCDD exposure reduced the circulating fT4 and altered the expression of thyroid specific transcripts. The role of genetic components was estimated monitoring the same markers in Pax8+/- and Nkx2-1+/- mice, susceptible to thyroid dysfunction, exposed to 0, 1 µg/kg/day TCDD from E15.5 to PND60. Haploinsufficiency of either Pax8 or Nkx2-1 genes exacerbated the effects of the exposure impairing the thyroid enriched mRNAs in sex dependent manner. Such effect was mediated by mechanisms involving the Nkx2-1/p53/p65/IĸBα pathway in vitro and in vivo. Foetal exposure to TCDD impaired both thyroid function and genes expression while thyroid development and differentiation did not appear significantly affected. In mouse, stronger effects were related to earlier exposure or specific genetic background such as either Pax8 or Nkx2-1 haploinsufficiency, both associated to hypothyroidism in humans. Furthermore, our data underline that long exposure time are needed to model in vitro and in vivo results.


Assuntos
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/citologia , Fator Nuclear 1 de Tireoide/genética , Fator Nuclear 1 de Tireoide/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1273, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271355

RESUMO

Integrins are heterodimers anchoring cells to the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), an active and complex process mediating a series of inside-out and outside-in stimuli regulating cellular turn-over, tissue growth and architecture. Itgb1 is the main subunit of the renal integrins and it is critical for renal development. This study aims to investigate the role of Itgb1 in the adult renal epithelial cells by knocking down Itgb1 in PAX8 expressing cells. Itgb1-Pax8 cKO mice develop a progressively worsening proteinuria and renal abnormalities leading to severe renal failure and hypertension. This phenotype is also associated with severe dysfunction of distal nephron and polyuria. To further investigate whether distal nephron involvement was primarily related to Itgb1 suppression or secondary to renal failure, an Itgb1-AQP2 cKO mouse model was generated. These mice lack Itgb1 expression in AQP2 expressing cells. They do not show any developmental alteration, but 1 month old mice are resistant to dDAVP administration and finally, at 2 months of age, they develop overt polyuria. This phenotype is due to primary collecting duct (CD) cells anoikis. The entire architecture of the outer medulla is altered, with loss of the typical organization pattern of vascular and tubular bundles alternation. Indeed, even though not primarily affected by genetic ablation, the TAL is secondarily affected in this model. It is sufficient to suppress Itgb1 expression in the CD in order to stimulate proliferation and then disappearance of neighboring TAL cells. This study shows that cell to cell interaction through the ECM is critical for architecture and function maintenance of the outer medulla and that Itgb1 is crucial for this process.

20.
Int J Genomics ; 2017: 9769171, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082235

RESUMO

lncRNAs are acquiring increasing relevance as regulators in a wide spectrum of biological processes. The extreme heterogeneity in the mechanisms of action of these molecules, however, makes them very difficult to study, especially regarding their molecular function. A novel lncRNA has been recently identified as the most enriched transcript in mouse developing thyroid. Due to its genomic localization antisense to the protein-encoding Klhl14 gene, we named it Klhl14-AS. In this paper, we highlight that mouse Klhl14-AS produces at least five splicing variants, some of which have not been previously described. Klhl14-AS is expressed with a peculiar pattern, characterized by diverse relative abundance of its isoforms in different mouse tissues. We examine the whole expression level of Klhl14-AS in a panel of adult mouse tissues, showing that it is expressed in the thyroid, lung, kidney, testis, ovary, brain, and spleen, although at different levels. In situ hybridization analysis reveals that, in the context of each organ, Klhl14-AS shows a cell type-specific expression. Interestingly, databases report a similar expression profile for human Klhl14-AS. Our observations suggest that this lncRNA could play cell type-specific roles in several organs and pave the way for functional characterization of this gene in appropriate biological contexts.

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