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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: : Cabozantinib improves survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after prior anti-angiogenics. The best treatment at disease progression (PD) is unknown. Being also a AXL/MET inhibitor, involved in acquired resistance, we hypothesized a prolonged tumor growth control in patients continuing cabozantinib despite PD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: : This retrospective multicenter study enrolled patients receiving cabozantinib after the first line between 2014 and 2020. We compared patients maintaining cabozantinib after first PD due to clinical benefit and good tolerability with those who changed therapy. The post-progression survival (PPS) of both was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: : We analyzed 89 patients: 45 received cabozantinib beyond PD and 44 switched therapy. 40.4%, 31.5% and 28.1% of patients received 1, 2 or >2 prior treatment lines, respectively. 84.3% were intermediate-poor International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database risk. Patients continuing cabozantinib showed a higher response rate to cabozantinib before PD (46.7% vs 25%, p = 0.03) and were more heavily pretreated. Continuing cabozantinib beyond PD showed a significantly longer PPS compared with switching therapy (median PPS 16.9 vs 13.2 months, HR 0.66, 95%CI 0.48 - 0.92, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: : We observed longer PPS in patients continuing cabozantinib beyond PD, suggesting that this could be an effective option.

2.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-6, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736367

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: METEOR was a phase 3 trial (NCT01865747) of cabozantinib versus everolimus in adults with advanced or metastatic clear cell RCC previously treated with VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This post hoc analysis of METEOR compared outcomes for patients recruited from European and non-European countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adults with advanced/metastatic clear cell RCC who had received ≥ 1 prior VEGFR-TKI treatment were randomized 1:1 to receive cabozantinib or everolimus. Patients were categorized by recruitment region: Europe or outside of Europe (rest of world [RoW]). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and adverse events (AEs) were compared between regional subgroups. RESULTS: In total, there were 320 eligible patients from Europe (cabozantinib, 167; everolimus, 153) and 338 from RoW (North America, 240 patients; Asia-Pacific, 86; Latin America, 12; randomized as cabozantinib, 163; everolimus, 175). PFS and OS were longer with cabozantinib than with everolimus and similar for the Europe and RoW subgroups. For PFS, the hazard ratio (HR) for cabozantinib versus everolimus was 0.54 for the Europe subgroup (p < .001) and 0.50 for the RoW subgroup (p < .001). For OS, the HR was 0.75 for the Europe subgroup (p = .034) and 0.69 for the RoW subgroup (p = .006). ORR in the Europe subgroup was 15% for cabozantinib and 3.9% for everolimus (p < .001). For the RoW subgroup, ORR was 20% for cabozantinib and 2.9% for everolimus (p < .001). Incidence of grade 3/4 AEs were similar for the Europe (cabozantinib, 74%; everolimus, 58%) and RoW subgroups (cabozantinib, 69%; everolimus, 64%). CONCLUSION: In the METEOR trial, efficacy outcomes for patients recruited from European and non-European countries favored cabozantinib over everolimus. The efficacy and safety results for the regional subgroups were consistent with those of the overall METEOR population.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771680

RESUMO

In recent years, the treatment landscape of urothelial carcinoma has significantly changed due to the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which are the standard of care for second-line treatment and first-line platinum-ineligible patients with advanced disease. Despite the overall survival improvement, only a minority of patients benefit from this immunotherapy. Therefore, there is an unmet need to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers or models to select patients who will benefit from ICIs, especially in view of novel therapeutic agents. This review describes the prognostic and predictive role, and clinical readiness, of clinical and tumour factors, including new molecular classes, tumour mutational burden, mutational signatures, circulating tumour DNA, programmed death-ligand 1, inflammatory indices and clinical characteristics for patients with urothelial cancer treated with ICIs. A classification of these factors according to the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation currently indicates both a prognostic and predictive value for ctDNA and a prognostic relevance only for concomitant medications and patients' characteristics.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 778459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777395

RESUMO

High-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) has curative potential in metastatic melanoma (MM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Radiotherapy (RT) kills cancer cells and induces immunomodulatory effects. Prospective trials exploring clinical and immunological properties of combined RT/HD IL-2 are still needed. We designed a phase II, single-arm clinical trial for patients with MM and RCC. The treatment schedule consisted of 3 daily doses of 6-12 Gy of RT to 1-5 non-index metastatic fields, before IL-2 at the first and third treatment cycle. HD IL-2 was administered by continuous infusion for 72 hours and repeated every 3 weeks for up to 4 cycles, thereafter every 4 weeks for a maximum of 2 cycles. The primary endpoint was the immunological efficacy of the combined RT/HD IL-2 treatment (assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT). Nineteen out of 22 patients were evaluable for immunological and clinical response. Partial response occurred in 3 (15.7%) patients and stable disease was observed in 7 (36.8%). The disease control rate was 52.6% after a median follow up of 39.2 months. According to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 (CTCAE 4.0), the majority of toxicities were grade 1-2. Immunological responses were frequent and detected in 16 (84.2%) patients. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-10 in melanoma, circulating effector memory CD4+ and intratumoral CD8+ T cells in both tumor types were detected after therapy. Overall the treatment was well tolerated and immunologically active. Immunomonitoring and correlative data on tumor and peripheral blood cell subsets suggest that this combination treatment could be a promising strategy for patients progressing after standard treatments.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To describe the efficacy of infigratinib, a potent, selective fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1-3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, across lines of therapy (LOT) in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had mUC and prior platinum-based chemotherapy, unless contraindicated, and activating FGFR3 mutation/fusion. Patients received infigratinib 125 mg orally daily (3 weeks on/1 week off) in a single-arm, open-label study. Primary endpoint: investigator-assessed confirmed objective response rate (ORR). Disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), best overall response (BOR) that included unconfirmed responses, and overall survival (OS) were also assessed. Subgroup analysis of efficacy and safety outcomes by LOT was performed. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled; 13 (19.4%) received infigratinib as early-line therapy for mUC due to ineligibility to receive platinum-based chemotherapy. Overall, ORR was 25.4% (95% CI 15.5-37.5) and DCR was 64.2% (95% CI 51.5-75.5). ORR was 30.8% (95% CI 9.1-61.4) with early-line infigratinib and 24.1% (95% CI 13.5-37.6) for ≥2 LOT. DCR was 46.2% (95% CI 19.2-74.9) for early-line and 68.5% (95% CI 54.4-80.5) for ≥2 LOT. PFS and OS appeared similar in both groups. Thirteen of 59 patients with a bladder primary tumor received early-line treatment with an ORR of 30.5% (95% CI 9.1-61.4), and 46 received ≥2 LOT with an ORR of 20.3% (95% CI 9.4-33.9); BOR was 38.5% (95% CI: 13.9-68.4%) and 42.6% (95% CI: 29.2-56.8%) in the early-line and salvage settings, respectively. Eight patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma received salvage therapy (ORR, 50.0%; DCR, 100.0%). No significant differences in toxicities between LOT were observed. CONCLUSION: Infigratinib has notable activity in patients with mUC regardless of LOT. The findings support the evaluation of infigratinib across different settings in mUC.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 237-246, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly prolonged metastasis-free survival and overall survival (OS) versus ADT alone in patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) with rapidly rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The objective of this post hoc analysis of the PROSPER trial is to evaluate OS benefit and safety of enzalutamide in patients across age and regional subgroups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible men with nmCRPC, PSA doubling time ≤10 months and PSA ≥2 ng/mL with continued ADT use were randomised 2:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo. OS and safety were examined by age (<70 vs ≥70 years) and region (North America, Europe, Asia or the rest of the world). The impact of prior and subsequent therapy was also examined. RESULTS: In total, 1401 men were enrolled (median age, 74 years). Enzalutamide plus ADT reduced the risk of death, independent of age or region. Multivariate analyses identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (P < 0.0001), log (PSA; P = 0.0002) and subsequent therapy (P < 0.0001) as statistically significant factors impacting OS. Safety was consistent across age and regional subgroups. Any grade treatment-emergent adverse events were similar across age groups, were more common in the placebo group and had regional variation. CONCLUSIONS: In men with nmCRPC and rapidly rising PSA, the benefit and safety of enzalutamide were consistent across age and regional subgroups. Variables impacting OS included ECOG status, log (PSA) and subsequent therapy. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02003924.

7.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784782

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: To provide a real-world experience with anti-PD-1/PD-L1-based therapy in UTUC patients, we involved an Italian network in a multicenter retrospective analysis. Results: A total of 78 UTUC patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 25.1 months. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.2 months (95% CI 1.8-2.6), and the median OS (mOS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.6-8.4). The Sonpavde score (including performance status > 0, hemoglobin < 10 g/dl, liver metastases, time from prior chemotherapy ≥ 3 months) split the patients into three groups (0 vs 1 vs 2-4 factors), efficiently predicting the OS and PFS outcome at the multivariate analyses (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of unselected UTUC patients is still unsatisfactory. The Sonpavde score was validated for the first time in an UTUC population, as a useful tool for the treatment decision-making process.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648657

RESUMO

In randomized clinical trials, the androgen-receptor inhibitor enzalutamide has demonstrated efficacy and safety in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study captured efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of enzalutamide in mCRPC patients in a real-world European setting. PREMISE (NCT0249574) was a European, long-term, prospective, observational study in mCRPC patients prescribed enzalutamide as part of standard clinical practice. Patients were categorized based on prior docetaxel and/or abiraterone use. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTF), defined as time from enzalutamide initiation to permanent treatment discontinuation for any reason. Secondary endpoints included prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, time to PSA progression, time to disease progression and safety. PROs included EuroQol 5-Dimension, 5-Level questionnaire, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form. Overall, 1732 men were enrolled. Median TTF with enzalutamide was 12.9 months in the chemotherapy- and abiraterone-naïve cohort (Cohort 1) and 8.4 months in the postchemotherapy and abiraterone-naïve cohort (Cohort 2). Clinical outcomes based on secondary endpoints also varied between cohorts. Cohorts 1 and 2 showed small improvements in health-related quality of life and pain status. The proportions of patients reporting treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were 51.0% and 62.2% in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively; enzalutamide-related TEAEs were similar in both cohorts. The most frequent TEAE across cohorts was fatigue. These data from unselected mCRPC patients in European, real-world, clinical-practice settings confirmed the benefits of enzalutamide previously shown in clinical trial outcomes, with safety results consistent with enzalutamide's known safety profile.

9.
Mol Oncol ; 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657387

RESUMO

Plasma tumour DNA (ptDNA) is a potential early noninvasive biomarker of treatment outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Herein, we investigated whether pretreatment ptDNA levels reflect metabolic tumour burden in mCRPC and better predict treatment outcome in combination with functional imaging. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to estimate the ptDNA fraction from 102 mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion activity (TLA) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV) were evaluated on 18 F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We assessed a Weibull multiple regression model to determine the combined impact of clinical, molecular and imaging characteristics on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and to obtain prognostic scores. A significant association was seen between ptDNA and SUVmax, MTV and TLA. For survival analysis, patients were randomly allocated into a training (n = 68) and a validation (n = 34) set. In the training set, multivariable analyses showed that ptDNA, MTV and serum lactate dehydrogenase together with visceral metastasis were independent predictors of both OS and PFS. Prognostic scores were generated, with the identification of three groups of patients with significantly different median OS (29.2, 15.9 and 8.7 months) and PFS (13.3, 7.7 and 3.2 months) probabilities. The differences in median survival between risk groups were confirmed in the validation cohort for both OS and PFS. In our study, we showed that integrating plasma DNA analysis with functional imaging may improve prognostic risk stratification and treatment selection in mCRPC.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605002

RESUMO

Cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) is an independent predictor of outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aimed to investigate the association between ptDNA and VTE in mCRPC. This prospective biomarker study included 180 mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone and enzalutamide from April 2013 to December 2018. We excluded patients with a previous VTE history and/or ongoing anticoagulation therapy. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to determine ptDNA fraction from pretreatment plasma samples. VTE risk based on survival analysis was performed using cumulative incidence function and estimating sub-distributional hazard ratio (SHR). At a median follow-up of 58 months (range 0.5-111.0), we observed 21 patients who experienced VTE with a cumulative incidence at 12 months of 17.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-23.9). Elevated ptDNA, visceral metastasis, prior chemotherapy and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly associated with higher VTE incidence compared to patients with no thrombosis (12-month estimate, 18.6% vs 3.5%, P = .0003; 44.4% vs 14.8%, P = .015; 24.7% vs 4.5%, P = .006; and 30.0% vs 13.5%, P = .05, respectively). In the multivariate analysis including ptDNA level, visceral metastases, number of lesions and serum LDH, high ptDNA fraction was the only independent factor associated with the risk of thrombosis (HR 5.78, 95% CI 1.63-20.44, P = .006). These results first suggest that baseline ptDNA fraction in mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide may be associated with increased VTE risk. These patients may be followed-up more closely for the VTE risk, and the need for a primary thromboprophylaxis should be taken into account in mCRPC with elevated ptDNA.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680371

RESUMO

Mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs) share histologic, molecular and biomarkers features with testicular GCTs; however, nonseminomatous MGCTs are usually more aggressive and have poorer prognosis than nonseminomatous TGCTs. Most nonseminomatous MGCT cases show early resistance to platinum-based therapies and seldom have been associated with the onset of one or more concomitant somatic malignancies, in particular myeloid neoplasms with recent findings supporting a common, shared genetic precursor with the primary MGCT. Genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic features of testicular GCTs have been extensively studied, allowing for the understanding of GCT development and transformation of seminomatous and nonseminomatous histologies. However, MGCTs are still lacking proper multi-omics analysis and only few data are reported in the literature. Understanding of the mechanism involved in the development, in the progression and in their higher resistance to common therapies is still poorly understood. With this review, we aim to collect all molecular findings reported in this rare disease, resuming the similarities and disparities with the gonadal counterparts.

12.
Eur Urol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab showed an overall survival (OS) benefit in pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in mRCC remains to be defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SBRT in combination with nivolumab in second- and third-line mRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The NIVES study was a phase II, single-arm, multicenter trial in patients with mRCC with measurable metastatic sites who progressed after antiangiogenic therapy, of whom at least one was suitable for SBRT. INTERVENTION: The patients received SBRT to a lesion at a dose of 10 Gy in three fractions for 7 d from the first infusion of nivolumab. Nivolumab was given at an initial dose of 240 mg every 14 d for 6 mo and then 480 mg q4-weekly in responding patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We hypothesized that nivolumab plus SBRT improves the objective response rate (ORR) compared with nivolumab alone from 25% (derived from historical controls) to 40%. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), OS, disease control rate (DCR) of irradiated and nonirradiated metastases, and safety. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from July 2017 to March 2019. The ORR was 17% and the DCR was 55%. The median PFS was 5.6 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1) and median OS 20 mo (95% CI, 17-not reached). After 1.5 yr of follow-up, 23 patients died. The median time to treatment response was 2.8 mo and median duration of response was 14 mo. No new safety concerns arose. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find sufficient evidence to suggest that nivolumab in combination with SBRT provides an added benefit in pretreated mRCC patients; it should however be evaluated in patients with oligometastatic or oligoprogressive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Nivolumab in combination with stereotactic body radiotherapy does not provide evidence of increased outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. However this approach was safe and showed a good response of the irradiated lesions.

13.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(10): 1348-1355, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462317

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of routine antithrombotic prophylaxis is not recommended for advanced cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The effect of bevacizumab-containing therapy on the risk of thromboembolic events remains controversial in ovarian cancer patients. We report on the incidence of thromboembolic events and the prevalence of antithrombotic therapy in patients enrolled in the single arm, phase IV, MITO-16A/MaNGO-OV2A trial. METHODS: In this trial, potential prognostic factors for patients with previously untreated ovarian cancer receiving a combination of platinum-based chemotherapy and bevacizumab were explored and the final analysis has already been reported. In this secondary analysis, the occurrence of thromboembolic events and the use of antithrombotic therapy were described according to the clinical characteristics of the patients. The prognostic role of thromboembolic events for progression-free and overall survival were also evaluated. RESULTS: From October 2012 to November 2014, 398 eligible patients were enrolled. 76 patients (19.1%) were receiving some type of anticoagulant or anti-aggregant treatment at baseline. Overall, 24 thromboembolic events were reported (cumulative incidence of 6.0%). The occurrence of thromboembolic events was not associated with baseline patient characteristics and was not modified by the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.0). Occurrence of thromboembolic events was not associated with progression-free survival (HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.15) or overall survival (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.61). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, a 6.0% rate of thromboembolic events was reported during treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Thromboembolic events were not associated with the clinical characteristics of the patients or with the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis, nor did they significantly affect the long-term prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01706120.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046588, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data from controlled clinical trials are available for men who experience biochemical recurrence after definitive therapy for prostate cancer. In the absence of overt metastases, patients with non-metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (nmCSPC) often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). There is no standard-of-care consensus on optimal ADT timing, although most men are treated prior to metastases, especially those with high-risk features (Gleason score 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) <9-12 months). Given data that ADT plus novel hormonal agents improve survival in men with metastatic CSPC, there is a desire to evaluate these agents earlier in the disease course. The main objective of EMBARK is the comparative assessment of enzalutamide plus leuprolide (luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa)) or enzalutamide monotherapy versus monotherapy LHRHa to improve metastasis-free survival (MFS) in patients with high-risk nmCSPC PSA recurrence after definitive therapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: EMBARK is a randomised, phase 3 study of high-risk patients with nmCSPC, a PSADT of ≤9 months and a screening PSA of ≥2 ng/mL above the nadir after radiotherapy (RT) or ≥1 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without postoperative RT. Men (n=1050) are randomised 1:1:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg/day plus LHRHa or placebo plus LHRHa (double-blind arms) or enzalutamide monotherapy (open-label arm). Treatment is suspended at week 37 if PSA concentrations are <0.2 ng/mL and reinstated if levels rise to ≥2.0 ng/mL with RP or ≥5.0 ng/mL without RP. Patients with PSA ≥0.2 ng/mL at week 37 continue until treatment discontinuation criteria are met. The primary endpoint is MFS comparing enzalutamide plus LHRHa versus placebo plus LHRHa. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is conducted under the guiding principles of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. The results will be disseminated at research conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02319837.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Humanos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

17.
Br J Cancer ; 125(9): 1226-1232, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a Phase 2 clinical trial, we aimed to determine the lutetium-177 [177Lu]-PSMA-617 activity and the clinical utility of levels of plasma androgen receptor (AR) gene in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: We determined AR copy number in pretreatment plasma samples. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in order to evaluate the independent relevance of AR status and to evaluate patients with early progressive disease (PD) defined as treatment interruption occurring within 4 months after the start of 177Lu-PSMA-617. RESULTS: Twelve of the 15 (80%) with AR gene gain and 5 of the 25 (20%) patients with no gain of AR had early PD (p = 0.0002). The OR for patients without PSA response having AR gain was 3.69 (95% CI 0.83-16.36, p = 0.085). The OR for patients with early PD having AR gain was 16.00, (95% CI 3.23-79.27, p = 0.0007). Overall, median PFS and OS were 7.5 and 12.4 months, respectively. AR-gained had a significant shorter OS compared to AR-normal patients (7.4 vs 19.1 months, p = 0.020). No treatment interruptions due to adverse effects were reported. DISCUSSION: Plasma AR status helped to indicate mCRPC with early resistance to 177Lu-PSMA-617. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03454750.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

19.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 328, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe immune-related Adverse Events (irAEs) develop in 10-27% of patients treated with Immune-Oncology (IO) [Powles (Lancet 391:748-757, 2018); Galsky (Lancet 395:1547-1557, 2020); Haanen (Ann Oncol 28:119-142, 2017)]. The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and clinical outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients who stopped Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) due to early Grade (G) 3-G4 irAEs. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 204 mRCC patients treated with ICIs in 6 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro group, between February 2017 and January 2020. To properly weight the results, patients who did not report early G3-G4 toxicities have been included as control group. Primary endpoint was to evaluate 6 months Progression Free Survival (PFS) after early treatment interruption for Grade (G) 3-4 toxicities compared to the control group. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate Time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) in both groups. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 19.00, SPSS, Chicago). RESULTS: 18/204 (8.8%) patients had early treatment interruption for serious (G3-G4) irAEs. Early was defined as interruption of IO after only one or two administrations. Immune related nephritis and pancreatitis were the most common irAE that lead to treatment interruption. 6/18 patients received IO-IO combination whereas 12/18 patients antiPD1. In the study group, 12/18 (66.6%) were free from progression at 6 months since IO interruption, TTF was 1.6 months (95% CI 1.6-2.1), mPFS was 7.4 months (95% CI 3.16-11.6) and mOS was 15.5 months (5.1-25.8). In the control group 111/184 (60.3%) patients were free from progression at 6 months, TTF was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6), mPFS was 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5-5.6) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). In the overall population, mPFS was 5.0 months (95% CI 4.0-5.9) and mOS was 19.6 months (95% CI 15.1-24.0). CONCLUSIONS: ICIs seem to maintain efficacy even after early interruption due to severe irAE.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 716467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367999

RESUMO

Introduction: Melphalan, as a bifunctional alkylating agent has been shown to be selectively efficient in BRCA-deficient case reports of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The clinical benefit of melphalan on unselected platinum-resistant EOC population and stratified by BRCA status has not been clearly elucidated. We aimed to determine the response to melphalan in patients with recurrent EOC after platinum-based therapy. Material and Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients with recurrent EOC treated with melphalan between February 2007 to July 2020. Eligibility criteria included having a histological confirmation of EOC, previous treatment with carboplatin plus paclitaxel regimens, and disease recurrence during treatment with or within 6 months of the end of the platinum-based chemotherapy. Results: A total of 75 platinum-resistant EOC patients were enrolled. Median age was 69 years (range 41-82). Median of previous therapies before melphalan was 4 (range 1-7). We observed a median follow-up of 32 months (range 1-62), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 3.6 months (range 2.9-4.7) and 9.5 months (range 8.0-14.1), respectively. In the whole population, 1 complete response, 6 partial responses and 37 stable diseases were registered with an overall clinical benefit rate of 58.7%. In BRCA1/2 mutant patients, we showed a significant longer PFS compared to BRCA1/2 wild type patients (6.2 versus 2.6 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.61; p=0.002). Moreover, a trend was seen for BRCA1/2 mutants to have a better OS (25.9 versus 8.0 months; HR 0.38; 95% CI 0.12-1.19; p=0.097). Conclusions: Our study represents the largest cohort of heavily-pretreated EOC patients receiving melphalan treatment. Here, we report a considerable clinical activity of melphalan chemotherapy, more evident in a subset of BRCA1/2 mutated patients. Prospective studies to validate these findings are warranted.

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