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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 880-886, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FDA is considering a mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. Clinical trials have been limited by non-study cigarette use (noncompliance), which could mask compensation. The goal of this study was to assess whether compensation occurs when smokers provided with very low nicotine cigarettes cannot access normal nicotine cigarettes. METHODS: In a within-subjects, crossover design, current smokers (n = 16) were confined to a hotel for two 4-night hotel stays during which they were only able to access the research cigarettes provided. The hotel stays offered normal nicotine cigarettes or very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes, in an unblinded design, available for "purchase" via a study bank. RESULTS: In the context of complete compliance with the study cigarettes (n = 16), there was not a significant increase during the VLNC condition for cigarettes smoked per day, expired carbon monoxide, or N-acetyl-S-(cyanoethyl)-l-cysteine (cyanoethyl-MA, metabolite of acrylonitrile). There was a significant nicotine × time interaction on urine N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (hydroxypropyl-MA, metabolite of acrolein), driven by an increase in the VLNC condition during the first 24 hours. By the end of the VLNC condition, there was no evidence of compensation across any measure of smoking or smoke exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Among current smokers who exclusively used VLNC cigarettes for 4 days, there was no significant compensatory smoking behavior. IMPACT: These data, combined with the larger body of work, suggest that a mandated reduction in nicotine content is unlikely to result in an increase in smoking behavior to obtain more nicotine.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 650-658, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information on human exposure to carcinogens and other toxicants related to opiate use, alone or in combination with tobacco. METHODS: Among male participants of the Golestan Cohort Study in Northeast Iran, we studied 28 never users of either opiates or tobacco, 33 exclusive cigarette smokers, 23 exclusive users of smoked opiates, and 30 opiate users who also smoked cigarettes (dual users; 21 smoked opiates and 9 ingested them). We quantified urinary concentrations of 39 exposure biomarkers, including tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and volatile organic compounds (VOC), and used decomposition to parse out the share of the biomarker concentrations explained by opiate use and nicotine dose. RESULTS: Dual users had the highest concentrations of all biomarkers, but exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive opiate users had substantially higher concentrations of PAH and VOC biomarkers than never users of either product. Decomposition analysis showed that opiate use contributed a larger part of the PAH concentrations than nicotine dose, and the sum of 2- and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (∑2,3-phe) resulted almost completely from opiate use. Concentrations of most VOC biomarkers were explained by both nicotine dose and opiate use. Two acrylamide metabolites, a 1,3-butadiene metabolite and a dimethylformamide metabolite, were more strongly explained by opiate use. Acrylamide metabolites and ∑2,3-phe were significantly higher in opiate smokers than opiate eaters; other biomarkers did not vary by the route of opiate intake. CONCLUSIONS: Both cigarette smokers and opiate users (by smoking or ingestion) were exposed to many toxicants and carcinogens. IMPACT: This high exposure, particularly among dual opiate and cigarette users, can have a substantial global public health impact.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2370-2378, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961658

RESUMO

Isoprene is the 2-methyl analog of 1,3-butadiene and is a possible human carcinogen (IARC Group 2B). We assessed isoprene exposure in the general US population by measuring its urinary metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-l-cysteine (IPM3) in participants (≥3 year old) from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Spot urine samples were analyzed for IPM3 using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Exclusive tobacco smokers were distinguished from non-users using a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine data. IPM3 was detected in 80.2% of samples. The median IPM3 level was higher for exclusive cigarette smokers (39.8 µg/g creatinine) than for non-users (3.05 µg/g creatinine). Sample weighted regression analysis, controlling for creatinine, sex, age, race, body mass index, and diet, showed that IPM3 was positively and significantly associated with serum cotinine. Smoking 1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD, 0.5 pack) was significantly associated with an IPM3 increase of 596% (p < .0001), and smoking >20 CPD (>1 pack) was significantly associated with an IPM3 increase of 1640% (p < .0001), controlling for confounding variables. Drinking beer/ale at median and 90th percentile levels (compared to zero consumption) was associated (p < 0.05) with 0 and 2.9% increase in IPM3 in non-users, respectively. We conclude that tobacco smoke is a major source of isoprene exposure in the US population. This study provides important public health biomonitoring data on isoprene exposure in the general US population.


Assuntos
Hemiterpenos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Butadienos , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 1066-1074, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865698

RESUMO

Disinfection is critical for maintaining a safe water supply, but the use of chlorine or chloramine leads to exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs), which have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and bladder cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency revised the DBP regulations starting in 1998 to further limit levels of THMs in household water. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected between 2001 and 2012 (with 2 years per cycle) using models with and without water-related predictors to examine the utility of including these measures. Median blood chloroform levels (25th-75th percentiles) were 16.2 (9.13-31.2) ng/L in 2001-2002 and 5.97 (2.92-12.3) ng/L in 2011-2012. Median blood bromodichloromethane (BDCM) levels (25th-75th percentiles) were 2.22 (1.06-4.61) ng/L in 2001-2002 and 1.18 (

Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Desinfecção , Exposição Ambiental , Trialometanos , Abastecimento de Água
6.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros , Óleo de Coco/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(12): 127003, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) was used as a gasoline additive in the United States during 1995-2006. Because of concerns about potential exposure and health effects, some U.S. states began banning MTBE use in 2002, leading to a nationwide phaseout in 2006. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the change in blood MTBE that occurred during the years in which MTBE was being phased out of gasoline. METHODS: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2012 to assess the change in blood MTBE over this period. We fit sample-weighted multivariate linear regression models to 12,597 human blood MTBE concentrations from the NHANES 2001-2002 to 2011-2012 survey cycles. RESULTS: The unweighted proportion of the individuals with MTBE blood levels above the limit of detection (LOD) of 1.4 ng/L was 93.9% for 2001-2002. This portion dropped to 25.4% for the period 2011-2012. Weighted blood MTBE median levels (ng/L) (25th and 75th percentiles) decreased from 25.8 (6.08, 68.1) ng/L for the period from 2001-2002 to 4.57 (1.44, 19.1) ng/L for the period from 2005-2006. For the entire postban period (2007-2012), MTBE median levels were below the detection limit of 1.4 ng/L. DISCUSSION: These decreases in blood MTBE coincided with multiple statewide bans that began in 2002 and a nationwide ban in 2006. The multivariate log-linear regression model for the NHANES 2003-2004 data showed significantly higher blood MTBE concentrations in the group who pumped gasoline less than 7 h before questionnaire administration compared to those who pumped gasoline more than 12 h before questionnaire administration (p=0.032). This study is the first large-scale, national-level confirmation of substantial decrease in blood MTBE levels in the general population following the phaseout of the use of MTBE as a fuel additive. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5572.

8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1040-1041, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725707

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and multiple public health and clinical partners are investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, 86% of 867 EVALI patients reported using tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset (1). Analyses of THC-containing product samples by FDA and state public health laboratories have identified potentially harmful constituents in these products, such as vitamin E acetate, medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT oil), and other lipids (2,3) (personal communication, D.T. Heitkemper, FDA Forensic Chemistry Center, November 2019). Vitamin E acetate, in particular, might be used as an additive in the production of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; it also can be used as a thickening agent in THC products (4). Inhalation of vitamin E acetate might impair lung function (5-7).


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Surtos de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1126-1127: 121746, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454719

RESUMO

We report on the development of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneously measuring eight biomarkers of volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure, with potential application to e-cigarette aerosol biomonitoring. Phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) are metabolites of benzene; 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a metabolite of cyanide; N-2-furoylglycine (N2FG) is a metabolite of furfural and furfuryl alcohol; 5-hydroxymethylfuroic acid (HMFA), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoylglycine (HMFG), and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) are metabolites of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; and 5-hydroxy-N-methylpyrrolidone (5HMP) is a metabolite of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. A pentafluorophenyl-modified silica column was used for chromatographic separation. The overall run time for the method is about 6 min per sample injection. The method has low to sub-nanograms per milliliter sensitivity, linearity over 3 orders of magnitude, and precision and accuracy within 15%. The method was used to measure human urine samples. Results showed that people with known benzene exposure (daily cigarette smokers) had higher levels of tt-MA and PMA compared with non-smokers. The method is advantageous for high-throughput analysis of selected VOC metabolites in large-scale, population-based studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quantifying these urinary biomarkers is important to public health efforts to understand human exposure to VOCs from various sources, including tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems.


Assuntos
Benzeno/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cianetos/urina , Furaldeído/urina , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Benzeno/metabolismo , Cianetos/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/metabolismo , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumar/metabolismo , Fumar/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina
10.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(8): 1550, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152380

RESUMO

The original article has been corrected to include the missing chemical structure in Fig. 1.

11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 816-823, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) conventions regularly bring together thousands of users around the world. In these environments, secondhand exposures to high concentrations of e-cigarette emissions are prevalent. Some biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure may be used to characterize secondhand e-cigarette exposures in such an environment. METHODS: Participants who did not use any tobacco product attended four separate e-cigarette events for approximately six hours. Urine and saliva samples were collected from participants prior to the event, immediately after the event, 4-h after the event, and the next morning (first void). Urine samples from 34 participants were analyzed for cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N-acetylcysteine (3-HPMA), S-carboxyethyl-N-acetylcysteine (CEMA), select tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), and 8-isoprostane. Saliva samples were analyzed for cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine. RESULTS: Data from 28 of 34 participants were used in the data analysis. Creatinine-adjusted urinary cotinine concentrations increased up to 13-fold and peaked 4-h after completed exposure (range of adjusted geometric means [AGMs] = 0.352-2.31 µg/g creatinine). Salivary cotinine concentrations were also the highest 4-h after completed exposure (range of AGMs = 0.0373-0.167 ng/mL). Salivary cotinine and creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, CEMA, and 3-HPMA varied significantly across sampling times. Urinary and salivary cotinine, urinary trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and urinary 3-HPMA concentrations also varied significantly across events. CONCLUSION: Secondhand e-cigarette exposures lasting six hours resulted in significant changes in exposure biomarker concentrations of both nicotine and acrolein but did not change exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Additional research is needed to understand the relationship between biomarker concentrations and environmental concentrations of toxicants in e-cigarette emissions.

12.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(7): 1213-1219, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012057

RESUMO

Multiple ion transition summation of isotopologues (MITSI) is an adaptable and easy-to-implement methodology for improving analytical sensitivity, especially for halogenated compounds and otherwise abundant isotopologues. This novel application of signal summing was applied to measure and quantitate the two most abundant ion transitions of two isotopologues of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (1DCV), a urinary metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE). Because 1DCV is dichlorinated, only approximately half of the total potential signal is quantifiable when the monoisotopic ion transition (i.e., m/z 256 → 127 for 35Cl2) is monitored. By summing the intensity of a separate and high-abundance 1DCV isotopologue ion transition (i.e., m/z 258 → 129 to include 35Cl and 37Cl), overall signal intensity increased by over 70%. This summation technique improved the analytical sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) by factors of 2.3 and 2.9, respectively, compared to monitoring the two transitions separately, without summation. Separation and detection were performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative-ion mode with scheduled selected reaction monitoring. This approach was verified for accuracy and precision using two quality control materials. In addition, we derived a modified signal summation equation to calculate predicted signal enhancements specific to the MITSI approach. Graphical Abstract .

13.
Environ Res ; 171: 101-110, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660916

RESUMO

Ethylbenzene and styrene are air toxicants with widespread nonoccupational exposure sources, including tobacco smoke and diet. Ethylbenzene and styrene (EB/S) exposure was quantified from their common metabolites measured in spot urine samples obtained from participants (≥6 years old) in the 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; N = 4690). EB/S metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) were measured using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). MA and PGA were detected in 98.9% and 90.6% of tested urine specimens, respectively. Exclusive smokers had 2-fold and 1.6-fold higher median urinary MA and PGA, respectively, compared with non-users. Sampleweighted regression analysis among exclusive smokers showed that smoking 0.5 pack cigarettes per day significantly increased MA (+97.9 µg/L) and PGA (+69.3 µg/L), controlling for potential confounders. In comparison, exposure from the median daily dietary intake of grain products increased MA by 1.95 µg/L and was not associated with statistically significant changes in urinary PGA levels. Conversely, consuming vegetables and fruit was associated with decreased MA and PGA. These results confirm tobacco smoke as a major source of ethylbenzene and styrene exposure for the general U.S. population.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Estireno/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Glioxilatos/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Mandélicos/urina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estados Unidos
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 337-347, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How carcinogen exposure varies across users of different, particularly noncigarette, tobacco products remains poorly understood. METHODS: We randomly selected 165 participants of the Golestan Cohort Study from northeastern Iran: 60 never users of any tobacco, 35 exclusive cigarette, 40 exclusive (78% daily) waterpipe, and 30 exclusive smokeless tobacco (nass) users. We measured concentrations of 39 biomarkers of exposure in 4 chemical classes in baseline urine samples: tobacco alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). We also quantified the same biomarkers in a second urine sample, obtained 5 years later, among continuing cigarette smokers and never tobacco users. RESULTS: Nass users had the highest concentrations of tobacco alkaloids. All tobacco users had elevated TSNA concentrations, which correlated with nicotine dose. In both cigarette and waterpipe smokers, PAH and VOC biomarkers were higher than never tobacco users and nass users, and highly correlated with nicotine dose. PAH biomarkers of phenanthrene and pyrene and two VOC metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid) were higher in waterpipe smokers than in all other groups. PAH biomarkers among Golestan never tobacco users were comparable to those in U.S. cigarette smokers. All biomarkers had moderate to good correlations over 5 years, particularly in continuing cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS: We observed two patterns of exposure biomarkers that differentiated the use of the combustible products (cigarettes and waterpipe) from the smokeless product. Environmental exposure from nontobacco sources appeared to contribute to the presence of high levels of PAH metabolites in the Golestan Cohort. IMPACT: Most of these biomarkers would be useful for exposure assessment in a longitudinal study.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(4): 2134-2140, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672285

RESUMO

Nitromethane is a known toxicant and suspected human carcinogen. Exposure to nitromethane in a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States ≥12 years old was assessed using 2007-2012 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Nitromethane was detected in all 8000 human blood samples collected, of which 6730 were used for analyses reported here. Sample-weighted median blood nitromethane was higher among exclusive combusted tobacco users (exclusive smokers; 774 ng/L) than nonusers of tobacco products (625 ng/L). In stratified sample-weighted regression analysis, smoking 0.5 pack of cigarettes per day was associated with a statistically significant increase in blood nitromethane by 150 ng/L, and secondhand smoke exposure (serum cotinine >0.05 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL) was statistically significant with a 31.1 ng/L increase in blood nitromethane. Certain dietary sources were associated with small but statistically significant increases in blood nitromethane. At median consumption levels, blood nitromethane was associated with an increase of 7.55 ng/L (meat/poultry), 9.32 ng/L (grain products), and 14.5 ng/L (vegetables). This is the first assessment of the magnitude and relative source apportionment of nitromethane exposure in the U.S. population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cotinina , Dieta , Humanos , Metano/análogos & derivados , Nitroparafinas , Tabaco , Estados Unidos
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(18): 10571-10579, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133279

RESUMO

Sources of human aldehyde exposure include food additives, combustion of organic matter (tobacco smoke), water disinfection byproducts via ozonation, and endogenous processes. Aldehydes are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic, and chronic human aldehyde exposure has raised concerns about potential deleterious health effects. To aid investigations of human aldehyde exposure, we developed a novel method to measure 19 aldehydes released from Schiff base protein adducts in serum using controlled acid hydrolysis, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography (GC), and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Aldehydes are released from Schiff base protein adducts through acid hydrolysis, and are quantified in trace amounts (µg/L) using stable isotope dilution. Detection limits range from 0.1 to 50 µg/L, with calibration curves spanning 3 orders of magnitude. The analysis of fortified quality control material over a three-month period showed excellent precision and long-term stability (3-22% CV) for samples stored at -70 °C. The intraday precision is also excellent (CV, 1-10%). The method accuracy ranges from 89 to 108% for all measured aldehydes, except acrolein and crotonaldehyde, two aldehydes present in tobacco smoke; their analysis by this method is not considered robust due in part to their reactivity in vivo. However, results strongly suggest that propanal, butanal, isobutanal, and isopentanal levels in smokers are higher than levels in nonsmokers, and thus may be useful as biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. This method will facilitate large epidemiological studies involving aldehyde biomonitoring to examine nonoccupational environmental exposures.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fumaça
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(11): 333-336, 2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565842

RESUMO

Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017, causing major damage to infrastructure and severely limiting access to potable water, electric power, transportation, and communications. Public services that were affected included operations of the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH), which provides critical laboratory testing and surveillance for diseases and other health hazards. PRDOH requested assistance from CDC for the restoration of laboratory infrastructure, surveillance capacity, and diagnostic testing for selected priority diseases, including influenza, rabies, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and tuberculosis. PRDOH, CDC, and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) collaborated to conduct rapid needs assessments and, with assistance from the CDC Foundation, implement a temporary transport system for shipping samples from Puerto Rico to the continental United States for surveillance and diagnostic and confirmatory testing. This report describes the initial laboratory emergency response and engagement efforts among federal, state, and nongovernmental partners to reestablish public health laboratory services severely affected by Hurricane Maria. The implementation of a sample transport system allowed Puerto Rico to reinitiate priority infectious disease surveillance and laboratory testing for patient and public health interventions, while awaiting the rebuilding and reinstatement of PRDOH laboratory services.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Prática de Saúde Pública , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524697

RESUMO

This work describes a quantitative high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of small aliphatic nitrogenous biomarkers, i.e., 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IPDA), ß-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in human urine. Urinary aliphatic diamines, HDA and IPDA, are potential biomarkers of environmental exposure to their corresponding diisocyanates. Urinary BMAA forms as a result of human exposure to blue-green algae contaminated food. And, TMAO is excreted in urine due to the consumption of carnitine- and choline-rich diets. These urinary biomarkers represent classes of small aliphatic nitrogen-containing compounds (N-compounds) that have a high aqueous solubility, low logP, and/or high basic pKa. Because of the highly polar characteristics, analysis of these compounds in complex sample matrices is often challenging. We report on the development of ion-pairing chemistry based ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous measurement of these biomarkers in human urine. Chromatographic separation was optimized using heptafluorobutyric acid-(HFBA-) based mobile phase and a reversed-phase C18 column. All four analytes were baseline separated within 2.6 min with an overall run time of 5 min per sample injection. Sample preparation involved 4 h of acid hydrolysis followed by automated solid phase extraction (SPE) performed using strong cation exchange sorbent bed with 7 N ammonia solution in methanol as eluent. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 ng/mL to 1.60 ng/mL. The inter-day and intra-day accuracy were within 10%, and reproducibility within 15%. The method is accurate, fast, and well-suited for biomonitoring studies within targeted groups, as well as larger population-based studies such as the U. S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Diaminas/urina , Metilaminas/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrólise , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
19.
Environ Res ; 163: 1-9, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Crotonaldehyde is an α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl compound that is a potent eye, respiratory, and skin irritant. Crotonaldehyde is a major constituent of tobacco smoke and its exposure can be quantified using its urinary metabolite N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (HPMM). A large-scale biomonitoring study is needed to determine HPMM levels, as a measure of crotonaldehyde exposure, in the general U.S. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples were obtained as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 from participants who were at least six-years-old (N = 4692). Samples were analyzed for HPMM using ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Exclusive tobacco smokers were distinguished from non- tobacco users through a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine data. RESULTS: Detection rate of HPMM among eligible samples was 99.9%. Sample-weighted, median urinary HPMM levels for smokers and non-users were 1.61 and 0.313 mg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis among smokers showed that HPMM was positively associated with serum cotinine, after controlling for survey year, urinary creatinine, age, sex, race, poverty level, body mass index, pre-exam fasting time, and food intake. Other significant predictors of urinary HPMM include sex (female > male), age (children > non-user adults), race (non-Hispanic Blacks < non-Hispanic Whites). CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes U.S. population exposure to crotonaldehyde and confirms that tobacco smoke is a major exposure source. Urinary HPMM levels were significantly higher among exclusive combusted tobacco users compared to non-users, and serum cotinine and cigarettes per day were significant predictors of increased urinary HPMM. This study also found that sex, age, ethnicity, pre-exam fasting time, and fruit consumption are related to urinary HPMM levels.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aldeídos , Criança , Cotinina/urina , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Biochem ; 50(15): 878-881, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior to initial distribution of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) proficiency testing (PT) materials, we evaluated G6PD enzyme stability in dried blood spots (DBS) under various temperature and humidity environments to develop storage and usage guidelines for our new materials. DESIGN & METHODS: We prepared fresh G6PD-normal DBS materials and conducted stability evaluations of daily use and short and long-term storage under various temperature and humidity environments. RESULTS: G6PD DBS PT materials retained 92% of initial activity after 30days of use at 4°C. Materials stored at -20°C and 4°C with desiccant for 30days retained 95% and 90% of initial activity, respectively. When stored for one year at -20°C or six months at 4°C specimens retained >90% of initial activity. Specimens stored at 37°C with desiccant lost 10% activity in three days. At the end of 30days, specimens stored under 'Extreme'-humidity >50% without desiccant- conditions at 37°C assayed below the NSQAP cut off for G6PD. Humidity exacerbated loss of enzyme activity with increasing temperature and time duration. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that G6PD PT materials can be stored at 4°C and used for up to one month and can be stored at -20°C for one year and yield >90% enzyme activity. Exposure to warm temperatures, especially with elevated humidity, should be avoided. Desiccant should always be used to mitigate humidity effects.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Congelamento , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Feminino , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/sangue , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
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