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1.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394400

RESUMO

Infantile spasms (IS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with heterogeneous etiologies including many genetic causes. Genetic studies have identified pathogenic variants in over 30 genes as causes of IS. Many of these genetic causes are extremely rare, with only one reported incidence in an individual with IS. To better understand the genetic landscape of IS, we used targeted sequencing to screen 42 candidate IS genes and 53 established developmental and epileptic encephalopathy genes in 92 individual with IS. We identified a genetic diagnosis for 7.6% of our cohort, including pathogenic variants in KCNB1 (n = 2), GNAO1 (n = 1), STXBP1 (n = 1), SLC35A2 (n = 1), TBL1XR1 (n = 1), and KIF1A (n = 1). Our data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of IS and will inform the diagnosis and management of individuals with this devastating disorder.

2.
Brain ; 142(9): 2605-2616, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332438

RESUMO

Distal hereditary motor neuropathies are a rare subgroup of inherited peripheral neuropathies hallmarked by a length-dependent axonal degeneration of lower motor neurons without significant involvement of sensory neurons. We identified patients with heterozygous nonsense mutations in the αII-spectrin gene, SPTAN1, in three separate dominant hereditary motor neuropathy families via next-generation sequencing. Variable penetrance was noted for these mutations in two of three families, and phenotype severity differs greatly between patients. The mutant mRNA containing nonsense mutations is broken down by nonsense-mediated decay and leads to reduced protein levels in patient cells. Previously, dominant-negative αII-spectrin gene mutations were described as causal in a spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes.

3.
Neurology ; 92(23): e2679-e2690, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We took advantage of a large multinational recruitment to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large, trans-European multicenter cohort of patients with spastic paraplegia gene 7 (SPG7). METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data from 241 patients with SPG7, integrating neurologic follow-up data. One case was examined neuropathologically. RESULTS: Patients with SPG7 had a mean age of 35.5 ± 14.3 years (n = 233) at onset and presented with spasticity (n = 89), ataxia (n = 74), or both (n = 45). At the first visit, patients with a longer disease duration (>20 years, n = 62) showed more cerebellar dysarthria (p < 0.05), deep sensory loss (p < 0.01), muscle wasting (p < 0.01), ophthalmoplegia (p < 0.05), and sphincter dysfunction (p < 0.05) than those with a shorter duration (<10 years, n = 93). Progression, measured by Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia evaluations, showed a mean annual increase of 1.0 ± 1.4 points in a subgroup of 30 patients. Patients homozygous for loss of function (LOF) variants (n = 65) presented significantly more often with pyramidal signs (p < 0.05), diminished visual acuity due to optic atrophy (p < 0.0001), and deep sensory loss (p < 0.0001) than those with at least 1 missense variant (n = 176). Patients with at least 1 Ala510Val variant (58%) were older (age 37.6 ± 13.7 vs 32.8 ± 14.6 years, p < 0.05) and showed ataxia at onset (p < 0.05). Neuropathologic examination revealed reduction of the pyramidal tract in the medulla oblongata and moderate loss of Purkinje cells and substantia nigra neurons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest SPG7 cohort study to date and shows a spasticity-predominant phenotype of LOF variants and more frequent cerebellar ataxia and later onset in patients carrying at least 1 Ala510Val variant.

4.
Brain ; 142(6): 1561-1572, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135052

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum enzyme fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) plays a major role in the formation of 2-hydroxy glycosphingolipids, main components of myelin. FA2H deficiency in mice leads to severe central demyelination and axon loss. In humans it has been associated with phenotypes from the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration, FAHN), hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP type SPG35) and leukodystrophy (leukodystrophy with spasticity and dystonia) spectrum. We performed an in-depth clinical and retrospective neurophysiological and imaging study in a cohort of 19 cases with biallelic FA2H mutations. FAHN/SPG35 manifests with early childhood onset predominantly lower limb spastic tetraparesis and truncal instability, dysarthria, dysphagia, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive deficits, often accompanied by exotropia and movement disorders. The disease is rapidly progressive with loss of ambulation after a median of 7 years after disease onset and demonstrates little interindividual variability. The hair of FAHN/SPG35 patients shows a bristle-like appearance; scanning electron microscopy of patient hair shafts reveals deformities (longitudinal grooves) as well as plaque-like adhesions to the hair, likely caused by an abnormal sebum composition also described in a mouse model of FA2H deficiency. Characteristic imaging features of FAHN/SPG35 can be summarized by the 'WHAT' acronym: white matter changes, hypointensity of the globus pallidus, ponto-cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum. At least three of four imaging features are present in 85% of FA2H mutation carriers. Here, we report the first systematic, large cohort study in FAHN/SPG35 and determine the phenotypic spectrum, define the disease course and identify clinical and imaging biomarkers.

5.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 499-511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by pathogenic variants in AFG3L2. The AFG3L2 protein is a subunit of mitochondrial m-AAA complexes involved in protein quality control. Objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of SCA28, which has eluded characterisation to date. METHODS: We derived SCA28 patient fibroblasts carrying different pathogenic variants in the AFG3L2 proteolytic domain (missense: the newly identified p.F664S and p.M666T, p.G671R, p.Y689H and a truncating frameshift p.L556fs) and analysed multiple aspects of mitochondrial physiology. As reference of residual m-AAA activity, we included SPAX5 patient fibroblasts with homozygous p.Y616C pathogenic variant, AFG3L2+/- HEK293 T cells by CRISPR/Cas9-genome editing and Afg3l2 -/- murine fibroblasts. RESULTS: We found that SCA28 cells carrying missense changes have normal levels of assembled m-AAA complexes, while the cells with a truncating pathogenic variant had only half of this amount. We disclosed inefficient mitochondrial fusion in SCA28 cells caused by increased OPA1 processing operated by hyperactivated OMA1. Notably, we found altered mitochondrial proteostasis to be the trigger of OMA1 activation in SCA28 cells, with pharmacological attenuation of mitochondrial protein synthesis resulting in stabilised levels of OMA1 and OPA1 long forms, which rescued mitochondrial fusion efficiency. Secondary to altered mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial calcium uptake resulted decreased in SCA28 cells. CONCLUSION: Our data identify the earliest events in SCA28 pathogenesis and open new perspectives for therapy. By identifying similar mitochondrial phenotypes between SCA28 cells and AFG3L2+/- cells, our results support haploinsufficiency as the mechanism for the studied pathogenic variants.

6.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 708, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755616

RESUMO

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARSs) link specific amino acids with their cognate transfer RNAs in a critical early step of protein translation. Mutations in ARSs have emerged as a cause of recessive, often complex neurological disease traits. Here we report an allelic series consisting of seven novel and two previously reported biallelic variants in valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) in ten patients with a developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly, often associated with early-onset epilepsy. In silico, in vitro, and yeast complementation assays demonstrate that the underlying pathomechanism of these mutations is most likely a loss of protein function. Zebrafish modeling accurately recapitulated some of the key neurological disease traits. These results provide both genetic and biological insights into neurodevelopmental disease and pave the way for further in-depth research on ARS related recessive disorders and precision therapies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Encefalopatias/enzimologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1022-1029, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526861

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies characterized by refractory seizures and developmental impairment. Sequencing approaches have identified causal genetic variants in only about 50% of individuals with DEEs.1-3 This suggests that unknown genetic etiologies exist, potentially in the ∼98% of human genomes not covered by exome sequencing (ES). Here we describe seven likely pathogenic variants in regions outside of the annotated coding exons of the most frequently implicated epilepsy gene, SCN1A, encoding the alpha-1 sodium channel subunit. We provide evidence that five of these variants promote inclusion of a "poison" exon that leads to reduced amounts of full-length SCN1A protein. This mechanism is likely to be broadly relevant to human disease; transcriptome studies have revealed hundreds of poison exons,4,5 including some present within genes encoding other sodium channels and in genes involved in neurodevelopment more broadly.6 Future research on the mechanisms that govern neuronal-specific splicing behavior might allow researchers to co-opt this system for RNA therapeutics.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 22(12): 1017-1028, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gene regulation is the term used to describe the mechanisms by which a cell increases or decreases the amount of a gene product (RNA or protein). In complex organs such as the brain, gene regulation is of the utmost importance; aberrations in the regulation of specific genes can lead to neurological disorders. Understanding these mechanisms can create new strategies for targeting these disorders and progress is being made. Two drugs that function at the RNA level (nusinersen and eteplirsen) have now been approved by the FDA for the treatment of Spinomuscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, respectively; several other compounds for neurological disease are currently being investigated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. Areas covered: We highlight how gene regulation at the level of RNA molecules can be used as a therapeutic strategy to treat neurological disorders. We provide examples of how such an approach is being studied or used and discuss the current hurdles. Expert opinion: Targeting gene expression at the RNA level is a promising strategy to treat genetic neurological disorders. Safe administration, long-term efficacy, and potential side effects, however, still need careful evaluation before RNA therapeutics can be applied on a larger scale.

10.
Brain ; 141(9): 2592-2604, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084953

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias are a group of rare disorders that share progressive degeneration of the cerebellum and associated tracts as the main hallmark. Here, we report two unrelated patients with a new subtype of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia caused by biallelic, gene-disruptive mutations in GDAP2, a gene previously not implicated in disease. Both patients had onset of ataxia in the fourth decade. Other features included progressive spasticity and dementia. Neuropathological examination showed degenerative changes in the cerebellum, olive inferior, thalamus, substantia nigra, and pyramidal tracts, as well as tau pathology in the hippocampus and amygdala. To provide further evidence for a causative role of GDAP2 mutations in autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia pathophysiology, its orthologous gene was investigated in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous knockdown of Drosophila Gdap2 resulted in shortened lifespan and motor behaviour anomalies such as righting defects, reduced and uncoordinated walking behaviour, and compromised flight. Gdap2 expression levels responded to stress treatments in control flies, and Gdap2 knockdown flies showed increased sensitivity to deleterious effects of stressors such as reactive oxygen species and nutrient deprivation. Thus, Gdap2 knockdown in Drosophila and GDAP2 loss-of-function mutations in humans lead to locomotor phenotypes, which may be mediated by altered responses to cellular stress.

11.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 1048-1053, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942082

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a frequent feature of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but little is known about genetic differences between NDDs with and without epilepsy. We analyzed de novo variants (DNVs) in 6,753 parent-offspring trios ascertained to have different NDDs. In the subset of 1,942 individuals with NDDs with epilepsy, we identified 33 genes with a significant excess of DNVs, of which SNAP25 and GABRB2 had previously only limited evidence of disease association. Joint analysis of all individuals with NDDs also implicated CACNA1E as a novel disease-associated gene. Comparing NDDs with and without epilepsy, we found missense DNVs, DNVs in specific genes, age of recruitment, and severity of intellectual disability to be associated with epilepsy. We further demonstrate the extent to which our results affect current genetic testing as well as treatment, emphasizing the benefit of accurate genetic diagnosis in NDDs with epilepsy.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1623-1634, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925855

RESUMO

We explored the clinico-genetic basis of spinocerebellar ataxia 29 (SCA29) by determining the frequency, phenotype, and functional impact of ITPR1 missense variants associated with early-onset ataxia (EOA). Three hundred thirty one patients from a European EOA target cohort (n = 120), US-American EOA validation cohort (n = 72), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE) control cohort (n = 139) were screened for de novo ITPR1 variants. The target cohort was also screened for inherited ITPR1 variants. The variants' functional impact was determined by IP3-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells. 3/120 patients (2.5%) from the target cohort and 4/72 patients (5.5%) from the validation cohort, but none from the EOEE control cohort, carried de novo ITPR1 variants. However, most ITPR1 variants (7/10 = 70%) in the target cohort were inherited from a healthy parent, with 3/6 patients carrying disease-causing variants in other genes. This suggests limited or no phenotypic impact of many ITPR1 missense variants, even if ultra-rare and well-conserved. While common bioinformatics tools did not discriminate de novo from other ITPR1 variants, functional characterization demonstrated reduced IP3-induced Ca2+ release for all de novo variants, including the recurrent c.805C>T (p.(R269W)) variant. In sum, these findings show that de novo ITPR1 missense variants are a recurrent cause of EOA (SCA29) across independent cohorts, acting via loss of IP3 channel function. Inherited ITPR1 variants are also enriched in EOA, but often without strong impact, albeit rare and well-conserved. Functional studies allow identifying ITPR1 variants with large impact, likely disease-causing. Such functional confirmation is warranted for inherited ITPR1 variants before making a SCA29 diagnosis.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 69: 293.e9-293.e11, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886022

RESUMO

We evaluated the genetic contribution of the T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 gene (TIA1) in a European cohort of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Exonic resequencing of TIA1 in 1120 patients (693 FTD, 341 ALS, 86 FTD-ALS) and 1039 controls identified in total 5 rare heterozygous missense variants, affecting the TIA1 low-complexity domain (LCD). Only 1 missense variant, p.Met290Thr, identified in a familial FTD patient with disease onset at 64 years, was absent from controls yet received a combined annotation-dependent depletion score of 11.42. By contrast, 3 of the 4 variants also detected in unaffected controls, p.Val294Glu, p.Gln318Arg, and p.Ala381Thr, had combined annotation-dependent depletion scores greater than 20. Our findings in a large European patient-control series indicate that variants in TIA1 are not a common cause of ALS and FTD. The observation of recurring TIA1 missense variants in unaffected individuals lead us to conclude that the exact genetic contribution of TIA1 to ALS and FTD pathogenesis remains to be further elucidated.

15.
Neurol Genet ; 4(2): e222, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582019

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the genetic cause of disease in 2 previously unreported families with forms of distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs). Methods: The first family comprises individuals affected by dHMN type V, which lacks the cardinal clinical feature of vocal cord paralysis characteristic of dHMN-VII observed in the second family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the proband of each family. Variants were annotated and filtered, initially focusing on genes associated with neuropathy. Candidate variants were further investigated and confirmed by dideoxy sequence analysis and cosegregation studies. Thorough patient phenotyping was completed, comprising clinical history, examination, and neurologic investigation. Results: dHMNs are a heterogeneous group of peripheral motor neuron disorders characterized by length-dependent neuropathy and progressive distal limb muscle weakness and wasting. We previously reported a dominant-negative frameshift mutation located in the concluding exon of the SLC5A7 gene encoding the choline transporter (CHT), leading to protein truncation, as the likely cause of dominantly-inherited dHMN-VII in an extended UK family. In this study, our genetic studies identified distinct heterozygous frameshift mutations located in the last coding exon of SLC5A7, predicted to result in the truncation of the CHT C-terminus, as the likely cause of the condition in each family. Conclusions: This study corroborates C-terminal CHT truncation as a cause of autosomal dominant dHMN, confirming upper limb predominating over lower limb involvement, and broadening the clinical spectrum arising from CHT malfunction.

16.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(8): 870-878, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2) neuropathy is characterised by a vast clinical and genetic heterogeneity complicating its diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Identification of molecular signatures that are common to multiple CMT2 subtypes can aid in developing therapeutic strategies and measuring disease outcomes. METHODS: A proteomics-based approach was performed on lymphoblasts from CMT2 patients genetically diagnosed with different gene mutations to identify differentially regulated proteins. The candidate proteins were validated through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting on lymphoblast samples of patients and controls, motor neurons differentiated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and sciatic nerves of CMT2 mouse models. RESULTS: Proteomic profiling of patient lymphoblasts resulted in the identification of profilin 2 (PFN2) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) as commonly downregulated proteins in different genotypes compared with healthy controls. This decrease was also observed at the transcriptional level on screening 43 CMT2 patients and 22 controls, respectively. A progressive decrease in PFN2 expression with age was observed in patients, while in healthy controls its expression increased with age. Reduced PFN2 expression was also observed in motor neurons differentiated from CMT2 patient-derived iPSCs and sciatic nerves of CMT2 mice when compared with controls. However, no change in GAMT levels was observed in motor neurons and CMT2 mouse-derived sciatic nerves. CONCLUSIONS: We unveil PFN2 and GAMT as molecular determinants of CMT2 with possible indications of the role of PFN2 in the pathogenesis and disease progression. This is the first study describing biomarkers that can boost the development of therapeutic strategies targeting a wider spectrum of CMT2 patients.

17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 62: 244.e9-244.e13, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137817

RESUMO

Mutations in the TANK-binding kinase 1 gene (TBK1) are a rare, but recurrent cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the complete phenotypic spectrum of syndromes associated with TBK1 mutations remains to be elucidated. Using next-generation panel-sequencing of neurodegenerative disease genes, we identified a TBK1 index patient presenting with a progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome. Consecutively, we screened the whole-exome sequencing data of 439 index subjects presenting with various neurodegenerative syndromes outside the ALS-FTD spectrum for TBK1 mutations. Based on this genetic screen, we identified another TBK1 index patient presenting with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Both index patients carried the established p.Glu643del TBK1 mutation (c.1928_1930delAAG). In the index patients' families, we identified mesencephalic and cerebellar atrophy as recurrent imaging findings of TBK1-associated neurodegeneration, with cerebellar atrophy occurring even in presymptomatic mutation carriers. Our findings demonstrate that the phenotypic spectrum of TBK1 mutations extends beyond ALS and FTD to include also progressive supranuclear palsy-like and cerebellar syndromes, with mesencephalon and cerebellum representing recurrent sites of TBK1-associated neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesencéfalo/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(5): 506-512, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the gene coding for protein O-mannosyl-transferase 2 (POMT2) are known to cause severe congenital muscular dystrophy, and recently, mutations in POMT2 have also been linked to a milder limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) phenotype, named LGMD type 2N (LGMD2N). Only four cases have been reported so far.ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02759302 METHODS: We report 12 new cases of LGMD2N, aged 18-63 years. Muscle involvement was assessed by MRI, muscle strength testing and muscle biopsy analysis. Other clinical features were also recorded. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms were difficulties in walking, pain during exercise, delayed motor milestones and learning disabilities at school. All had some degree of cognitive impairment. Brain MRIs were abnormal in 3 of 10 patients, showing ventricular enlargement in one, periventricular hyperintensities in another and frontal atrophy of the left hemisphere in a third patient. Most affected muscle groups were hip and knee flexors and extensors on strength testing. On MRI, most affected muscles were hamstrings followed by paraspinal and gluteal muscles. The 12 patients in our cohort carried 11 alleles with known mutations, whereas 11 novel mutations accounted for the remaining 13 alleles. CONCLUSION: We describe the first cohort of patients with LGMD2N and show that unlike other LGMD types, all patients had cognitive impairment. Primary muscle involvement was found in hamstring, paraspinal and gluteal muscles on MRI, which correlated well with reduced muscle strength in hip and knee flexors and extensors. The study expands the mutational spectrum for LGMD2N, with the description of 11 novel POMT2 mutations in the association with LGMD2N. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02759302.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 415-432, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235198

RESUMO

Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) ligates histidine to cognate tRNA molecules, which is required for protein translation. Mutations in HARS cause the dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2W (CMT2W); however, the precise molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we investigated three HARS missense mutations associated with CMT2W (p.Tyr330Cys, p.Ser356Asn, and p.Val155Gly). The three mutations localize to the HARS catalytic domain and failed to complement deletion of the yeast ortholog (HTS1). Enzyme kinetics, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) were employed to assess the effect of these substitutions on primary aminoacylation function and overall dimeric structure. Notably, the p.Tyr330Cys, p.Ser356Asn, and p.Val155Gly HARS substitutions all led to reduced aminoacylation, providing a direct connection between CMT2W-linked HARS mutations and loss of canonical ARS function. While DSF assays revealed that only one of the variants (p.Val155Gly) was less thermally stable relative to wild-type, all three HARS mutants formed stable dimers, as measured by AUC. Our work represents the first biochemical analysis of CMT-associated HARS mutations and underscores how loss of the primary aminoacylation function can contribute to disease pathology.

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