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1.
Acta Clin Belg ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478477

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is mandatory since the prognosis is very different, but not always possible as both diseases present with increased myocardial thickness and mass. Despite better knowledge of the pathophysiology of both HCM and CA, and new developments in diagnosis, many patients with cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis are still only diagnosed in an advanced stage. Improvements in non-invasive diagnostic methods such as ultrasound techniques and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging will eventually obviate the need for invasive studies in order to prove amyloid cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, today, an endomyocardial biopsy still remains the golden standard. We present an 86-year-old man, diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in whom echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggested amyloidosis to be the underlying cause. Interestingly, a new variant of the junctophilin 2 (JPH2) gene, related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, was found in our patient.

2.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(6): 186-196, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978160

RESUMO

Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) are the most numerous cells in the myocardium and orchestrate cardiogenesis during development, regulate adult cardiac function, and modulate pathophysiology of heart failure. It has been shown that the transcriptome of CMVECs differs from other endothelial cell types, but transcriptomic changes in cardiac endothelial cells during cardiac maturation and cardiac remodeling have not been studied. CMVECs were isolated from rat hearts based on CD31 expression and were immediately processed for RNA sequencing. We compared gene expression levels from primary CMVECs of neonatal hearts, normal adult hearts, and infarcted hearts. Between neonatal and adult CMVECs, 6,838 genes were differentially expressed, indicating that CMVECs undergo a substantial transformation during postnatal cardiac growth. A large fraction of genes upregulated in neonatal CMVECs are part of mitosis pathways, whereas a large fraction of genes upregulated in adult CMVECs are part of cellular response, secretory, signaling, and cell adhesion pathways. Between CMVECs of normal adult hearts and infarcted hearts, 159 genes were differentially expressed. We found a limited degree of overlap (55 genes) between the differentially expressed genes in neonatal and infarcted-hearts. Of 46 significantly upregulated genes in the infarcted heart, 46% were also upregulated in neonatal hearts relative to sham. Of 113 significantly downregulated genes in the infarcted-hearts, 30% were also downregulated in neonatal hearts relative to sham. These data demonstrate that CMVECs undergo dramatic changes from neonatal to adult and more subtle changes between normal state and cardiac remodeling.

3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 316(6): H1417-H1425, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951364

RESUMO

The myocardium is a highly structured tissue consisting of different cell types including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, and stem cells. Microvascular endothelial cells are the most abundant cell type in the myocardium and play crucial roles during cardiac development, in normal adult myocardium, and during myocardial diseases such as heart failure. In the last decade, epigenetic changes have been described regulating cellular function in almost every cell type in the organism. Here, we review recent evidence on different epigenetic changes that regulate intercellular communication in normal myocardium and during myocardial diseases, including cardiac remodeling. Epigenetic changes influence many intercellular communication signaling systems, including the nitric oxide, angiotensin, and endothelin signaling systems. In this review, we go beyond discussing classic endothelial function (for instance nitric oxide secretion) and will discuss epigenetic regulation of intercellular communication.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

5.
Physiol Rep ; 7(4): e13934, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810292

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, isometric contraction studies of isolated thoracic aorta segments have significantly contributed to our overall understanding of the active, contractile properties of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their cross-talk with endothelial cells. However, the physiological role of VSMC contraction or relaxation in the healthy aorta and its contribution to the pulse-smoothening capacity of the aorta is currently unclear. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of VSMC contraction and relaxation on the isobaric biomechanical properties of healthy mouse aorta. An in-house developed set-up was used to measure isobaric stiffness parameters of periodically stretched (10 Hz) aortic segments at an extended pressure range, while pharmacologically modulating VSMC tone and endothelial cell function. We found that the effects of α1-adrenergic stimulation with phenylephrine on the pressure-stiffness relationship varied in sensitivity, magnitude and direction, with the basal, unstimulated NO production by the endothelium playing a pivotal role. We also investigated how arterial disease affected this system by using the angiotensin-II-treated mouse. Our results show that isobaric stiffness was increased and that the aortic segments demonstrated a reduced capacity for modulating the pressure-stiffness relationship. This suggests that not only increased isobaric stiffness at normal pressure, but also a reduced capacity of the VSMCs to limit the pressure-associated increase in aortic stiffness, may contribute to the pathogenesis of this mouse model. Overall, this study provides more insight in how aortic VSMC tone affects the pressure-dependency of aortic biomechanics at different physiological and pathological conditions.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295807

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (HF) and in particular, cardiogenic shock are associated with high morbidity and mortality. A therapeutic dilemma is that the use of positive inotropic agents, such as catecholamines or phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, is associated with increased mortality. Newer drugs, such as levosimendan or omecamtiv mecarbil, target sarcomeres to improve systolic function putatively without elevating intracellular Ca2+. Although meta-analyses of smaller trials suggested that levosimendan is associated with a better outcome than dobutamine, larger comparative trials failed to confirm this observation. For omecamtiv mecarbil, Phase II clinical trials suggest a favourable haemodynamic profile in patients with acute and chronic HF, and a Phase III morbidity/mortality trial in patients with chronic HF has recently begun. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of systolic dysfunction in patients with HF and the mechanisms through which different inotropic agents improve cardiac function. Since adenosine triphosphate and reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria are intimately linked to the processes of excitation-contraction coupling, we also discuss the impact of inotropic agents on mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox regulation. Therefore, this position paper should help identify novel targets for treatments that could not only safely improve systolic and diastolic function acutely, but potentially also myocardial structure and function over a longer-term.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339273

RESUMO

We have previously shown that treatment with recombinant human neuregulin-1 (rhNRG-1) improves pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced animal model, by decreasing pulmonary arterial remodelling and endothelial dysfunction, as well as by restoring right ventricular (RV) function. Additionally, rhNRG-1 treatment showed direct myocardial anti-remodelling effects in a model of pressure loading of the RV without PAH. This work aimed to study the intrinsic cardiac effects of rhNRG-1 on experimental PAH and RV pressure overload, and more specifically on diastolic stiffness, at both the ventricular and cardiomyocyte level. We studied the effects of chronic rhNRG-1 treatment on ventricular passive stiffness in RV and LV samples from MCT-induced PAH animals and in the RV from animals with compensated and decompensated RV hypertrophy, through a mild and severe pulmonary artery banding (PAB). We also measured passive tension in isolated cardiomyocytes and quantified the expression of myocardial remodelling-associated genes and calcium handling proteins. Chronic rhNRG-1 treatment decreased passive tension development in RV and LV isolated from animals with MCT-induced PAH. This decrease was associated with increased phospholamban phosphorylation, and with attenuation of the expression of cardiac maladaptive remodelling markers. Finally, we showed that rhNRG-1 therapy decreased RV remodelling and cardiomyocyte passive tension development in PAB-induced RV hypertrophy animals, without compromising cardiac function, pointing to cardiac-specific effects in both hypertrophy stages. In conclusion, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1 treatment decreased RV intrinsic diastolic stiffness, through the improvement of calcium handling and cardiac remodelling signalling.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244497

RESUMO

Anthracycline chemotherapy has a prominent role in treating many forms of cancer. Unfortunately, cardiotoxic side effects represent a serious limitation to their use, with doxorubicin being the leading drug of the group. Indeed, anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy is an important public health concern because it may not be detected for many years and remains a lifelong threat. Even after decades of investigation, neither the exact mode of action of anthracyclines nor the pathways leading to their side effect are fully understood. It is increasingly important to establish collaboration between oncologists and cardiologists to improve the management of cancer patient receiving anthracyclines. This article reviews the clinical course, pathogenesis, cardiac monitoring and new concepts in diagnosing and preventing anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.

11.
Front Physiol ; 9: 582, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867592

RESUMO

Induction of hypertension by angiotensin II (AngII) is a widely used experimental stimulus to study vascular aging in mice. It is associated with large artery stiffness, a hallmark of arterial aging and a root cause of increased cardiovascular risk. We reported earlier that long term (4 week) AngII treatment in mice altered the active, contractile properties of the arteries in a vascular bed-specific manner and that, in healthy mice aorta, active contractile properties of the aortic wall determine isobaric aortic stiffness. Given the huge physiological relevance of large artery stiffening, we aimed to characterize the early (1 week) changes in the active properties of the aorta of AngII-treated mice. We were not able to detect a significant effect of AngII treatment on anesthetized blood pressure or abdominal aorta pulse wave velocity. Ex vivo biomechanical and functional studies of the aorta revealed increased arterial stiffness and altered vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelial cell reactivity. Interestingly, the AngII-associated changes in the aorta could be largely attributed to alterations in basal VSMC tone and basal nitric oxide efficacy, indicating that, besides structural remodeling of the arterial wall, dysfunctional active components of the aorta play a crucial role in the pathophysiological mechanisms by which AngII treatment induces arterial stiffness.

12.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X18774632, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742959

RESUMO

Aims The TElemonitoring in the MAnagement of Heart Failure (TEMA-HF) 1 long-term follow-up study assessed whether an initial six-month telemonitoring (TM) programme compared with usual care (UC) would result in reduced all-cause mortality, heart failure admissions and healthcare costs in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients at long-term follow-up. Methods Of the 160 patients included in the multi-centre, randomised controlled telemonitoring trial (TEMA-HF 1, time point t0); 142 CHF patients (65% male; age: 76 ± 10 years; EF: 36 ± 15%) were alive and entered the follow-up study (time point: t1) with a final evaluation at 79 months (time point: t2). Both TM and UC group patients received standard heart failure care during the follow-up study (time points: t1 - t2). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included days lost due to heart failure readmissions and readmission/patient follow-up related healthcare costs. Results Compared with usual care, the initial six-month TM programme had no significant effect on all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 1.20; p = 0.32). The number of days lost due to heart failure readmissions was significantly lower in the TM group ( p = 0.04). Healthcare costs did not differ significantly between the TM (€ 9140 ± 10580) and UC group (€ 12495 ± 22433) ( p = 0.87). Discussion An initial six-month telemonitoring programme was not associated with reduced all-cause mortality in CHF patients at long-term follow-up but resulted in a reduction in the number of days lost due to heart failure readmissions. This study is registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry (NCT03171038) (URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03171038 ).

13.
Circ Res ; 123(3): 342-355, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760016

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Increased titin-dependent cardiomyocyte tension is a hallmark of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus. However, the insulin-related signaling pathways that modify titin-based cardiomyocyte tension, thereby contributing to modulation of diastolic function, are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine how impaired insulin signaling affects titin expression and phosphorylation and thus increases passive cardiomyocyte tension, and whether metformin or neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) can correct disturbed titin modifications and increased titin-based stiffness. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used cardiac biopsies from human diabetic (n=23) and nondiabetic patients (n=19), cultured rat cardiomyocytes, left ventricular tissue from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (n=12-22), and ZSF1 (obese diabetic Zucker fatty/spontaneously hypertensive heart failure F1 hybrid) rats (n=5-6) and analyzed insulin-dependent signaling pathways that modulate titin phosphorylation. Titin-based passive tension was measured using permeabilized cardiomyocytes. In human diabetic hearts, we detected titin hypophosphorylation at S4099 and hyperphosphorylation at S11878, suggesting altered activity of protein kinases; cardiomyocyte passive tension was significantly increased. When applied to cultured cardiomyocytes, insulin and metformin increased titin phosphorylation at S4010, S4099, and S11878 via enhanced ERK1/2 (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2) and PKCα (protein kinase Cα) activity; NRG-1 application enhanced ERK1/2 activity but reduced PKCα activity. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, chronic treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus with NRG-1 corrected titin phosphorylation via increased PKG (protein kinase G) and ERK1/2 activity and reduced PKCα activity, which reversed the diabetes mellitus-associated changes in titin-based passive tension. Acute application of NRG-1 to obese ZSF1 rats with type-2 diabetes mellitus reduced end-diastolic pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanistically, we found that impaired cGMP-PKG signaling and elevated PKCα activity are key modulators of titin-based cardiomyocyte stiffening in diabetic hearts. We conclude that by restoring normal kinase activities of PKG, ERK1/2, and PKCα, and by reducing cardiomyocyte passive tension, chronic NRG-1 application is a promising approach to modulate titin properties in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

14.
Front Physiol ; 9: 382, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695980

RESUMO

The heart is a highly structured organ consisting of different cell types, including myocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and inflammatory cells. This pluricellularity provides the opportunity of intercellular communication within the organ, with subsequent optimization of its function. Intercellular cross-talk is indispensable during cardiac development, but also plays a substantial modulatory role in the normal and failing heart of adults. More specifically, factors secreted by cardiac microvascular endothelial cells modulate cardiac performance and either positively or negatively affect cardiac remodeling. The role of endothelium-derived small molecules and peptides-for instance NO or endothelin-1-has been extensively studied and is relatively well defined. However, endothelial cells also secrete numerous larger proteins. Information on the role of these proteins in the heart is scattered throughout the literature. In this review, we will link specific proteins that modulate cardiac contractility or cardiac remodeling to their expression by cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. The following proteins will be discussed: IL-6, periostin, tenascin-C, thrombospondin, follistatin-like 1, frizzled-related protein 3, IGF-1, CTGF, dickkopf-3, BMP-2 and-4, apelin, IL-1ß, placental growth factor, LIF, WISP-1, midkine, and adrenomedullin. In the future, it is likely that some of these proteins can serve as markers of cardiac remodeling and that the concept of endothelial function and dysfunction might have to be redefined as we learn more about other factors secreted by ECs besides NO.

15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(7): 1041-1051, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528383

RESUMO

Aims: Cardiovascular ageing is a key determinant of life expectancy. Cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest, is an important contributor to ageing due to the accumulation of damaged cells. Targeting cellular senescence could prevent age-related cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), an epidermal growth factor with cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects, on cellular senescence. Methods and results: Senescence was induced in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by 2 h exposure to 30 µM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cellular senescence was confirmed after 72 h using senescence-associated-ß-galactosidase staining (SA-ß-gal), cell surface area, and western blot analyses of SA pathways (acetyl-p53, p21). Recombinant human NRG-1 (rhNRG-1, 20 ng/mL) significantly reduced H2O2-induced senescence, as shown by a lower number of SA-ß-gal positive cells, smaller surface area and lower expression of acetyl-p53. In C57BL/6 male mice rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ), rhNRG-1 attenuated cellular senescence in aortic ECs and SMCs. Next, we created mice with SMC-specific knockdown of the NRG-1 receptor ErbB4. Aortic SMCs isolated from SMC-specific ErbB4 deficient mice (ErbB4f/+ SM22α-Cre+) showed earlier cellular senescence in vitro compared with wild-type (ErbB4+/+ SM22α-Cre+) SMCs. Furthermore, when rendered diabetic with STZ, ErbB4f/+ SM22α-Cre+ male mice showed significantly more vascular senescence than their diabetic wild-type littermates and had increased mortality. Conclusions: This study is the first to explore the role of NRG-1 in vascular senescence. Our data demonstrate that NRG-1 markedly inhibits stress-induced premature senescence in vascular cells in vitro and in the aorta of diabetic mice in vivo. Consistently, deficiency in the NRG-1 receptor ErbB4 provokes cellular senescence in vitro as well as in vivo.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(11): 1361-1378, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949064

RESUMO

Despite improvements in medical therapy and device-based treatment, heart failure (HF) continues to impose enormous burdens on patients and health care systems worldwide. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity contribute to cardiac disease progression, and the recent development of invasive techniques and electrical stimulation devices has opened new avenues for specific targeting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS. The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology recently organized an expert workshop which brought together clinicians, trialists and basic scientists to discuss the ANS as a therapeutic target in HF. The questions addressed were: (i) What are the abnormalities of ANS in HF patients? (ii) What methods are available to measure autonomic dysfunction? (iii) What therapeutic interventions are available to target the ANS in patients with HF, and what are their specific strengths and weaknesses? (iv) What have we learned from previous ANS trials? (v) How should we proceed in the future?


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Cardiologia , Consenso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 313(5): H934-H945, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822966

RESUMO

The neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)/receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB (ErbB) system is an endothelium-controlled paracrine system modulating cardiac performance and adaptation. Recent studies have indicated that NRG-1 has antifibrotic effects in the left ventricle, which were explained by direct actions on cardiac fibroblasts. However, the NRG-1/ErbB system also regulates the function of macrophages. In this study, we hypothesized that the antifibrotic effect of NRG-1 in the heart is at least partially mediated through inhibitory effects on macrophages. We also hypothesized that the antifibrotic effect of NRG-1 may be active in other organs, such as the skin and lung. First, in a mouse model of angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, NRG-1 treatment (20 µg·kg-1·day-1 ip) significantly attenuated myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis and improved passive ventricular stiffness (4 wk). Interestingly, 1 wk after exposure to ANG II, NRG-1 already attenuated myocardial macrophage infiltration and cytokine expression. Furthermore, mice with myeloid-specific deletion of the ErbB4 gene (ErbB4F/FLysM-Cre+/-) showed an intensified myocardial fibrotic response to ANG II. Consistently, NRG-1 activated the ErbB4 receptor in isolated macrophages, inhibited phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt and STAT3 signaling pathways, and reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines. Further experiments showed that the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of NRG-1 were reproducible in mouse models of bleomycin-induced dermal and pulmonary fibrosis. Overall, this study demonstrates that the antifibrotic effect of NRG-1 in the heart is linked to anti-inflammatory activity NRG-1/ErbB4 signaling in macrophages. Second, this study shows that NRG-1 has antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in organs other than the heart, such as the skin and lung.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study contributes to the understanding of the antifibrotic effect of neuregulin-1 during myocardial remodeling. Here, we show that the antifibrotic effect of neuregulin-1 is at least partially mediated through anti-inflammatory activity, linked to receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 activation in macrophages. Furthermore, we show that this effect is also present outside the heart.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Neuregulina-1/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Receptor ErbB-4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/patologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Ecocardiografia , Fibrose , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocardite/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 19(5): 603-614, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105791

RESUMO

A novel generation of drugs is introduced in the treatment of heart failure (HF). These drugs, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, guanylate cyclase stimulators and activators, share the feature that their action is either endothelial-mediated or substitutes for endothelial pathways, in particular the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway, thereby influencing homeostatic balances in virtually each organ system in a pleiotropic fashion. Unfortunately, recent clinical trials with some of these drugs have shown disappointing results, at least in the setting of HF with a preserved ejection fraction. This suggests that their clinical use may require approaches that diverge from traditional pharmacological approaches, the latter often titrated on the effects of drugs on haemodynamic parameters or single biomarkers. In this paper we preconize that HF drugs with an endothelial profile should be applied conform to principles of endothelial physiology and systems pharmacology. This type of drug therapy should be viewed as a systems physio-pharmacological intervention and its clinical use accustomed to systems pharmacological principles, comparable to the systemic endothelial-mediated benefits induced by exercise training in HF. We will review the actions of these drugs and define criteria to which trials with these drugs should comply in order to increase chances of success.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatação , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Volume Sistólico
19.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 111(6): 60, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27596216

RESUMO

The dual role of ErbB2 (or HER-2) in tumor growth and in physiological adaptive reactions of the heart positions ErbB2 at the intersection between cancer and chronic heart failure. Accordingly, ErbB2-targeted inhibitory therapy of cancer may lead to ventricular dysfunction, and activation of ErbB2 for heart failure therapy may induce malignancy. The molecular processes leading to the activation of ErbB2 in tumors and cardiac cells are, however, fundamentally different from each other. Thus, it must be feasible to design drugs that specifically target either physiological or malignant ErbB2 signaling, to activate ErbB2 signaling in heart failure with no increased risk for cancer, and to inhibit ErbB2 signaling in cancer with no increased risk for heart failure. In this review, we present a state-of-the-art on how ErbB2 is regulated in physiological conditions and in tumor cells and how this knowledge translates into smart drug design. This leads to a new generation of drugs interfering with ErbB2 in a unique way tailored for a specific clinical goal. These exciting developments at the crossing between cancer and heart failure are an elegant example of interdisciplinary collaborations between clinicians, physiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia
20.
J Physiol ; 594(21): 6105-6115, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256450

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Cyclic stretch is known to alter intracellular pathways involved in vessel tone regulation. We developed a novel set-up that allows straightforward characterization of the biomechanical properties of the mouse aorta while stretched at a physiological heart rate (600 beats min-1 ). Active vessel tone was shown to have surprisingly large effects on isobaric stiffness. The effect of structural vessel wall alterations was confirmed using a genetic mouse model. This set-up will contribute to a better understanding of how active vessel wall components and mechanical stimuli such as stretch frequency and amplitude regulate aortic mechanics. ABSTRACT: Cyclic stretch is a major contributor to vascular function. However, isolated mouse aortas are frequently studied at low stretch frequency or even in isometric conditions. Pacing experiments in rodents and humans show that arterial compliance is stretch frequency dependent. The Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance is an in-house developed organ bath set-up that clamps aortic segments to imposed preloads at physiological rates up to 600 beats min-1 . The technique enables us to derive pressure-diameter loops and assess biomechanical properties of the segment. To validate the applicability of this set-up we aimed to confirm the effects of distension pressure and vascular smooth muscle tone on arterial stiffness. At physiological stretch frequency (10 Hz), the Peterson modulus (EP ; 293 (10) mmHg) for wild-type mouse aorta increased 22% upon a rise in pressure from 80-120 mmHg to 100-140 mmHg, while, at normal pressure, EP increased 80% upon maximal contraction of the vascular smooth muscle cells. We further validated the method using a mouse model with a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-out model. Both models are known to have increased arterial stiffness, and this was confirmed using the set-up. To our knowledge, this is the first set-up that facilitates the study of biomechanical properties of mouse aortic segments at physiological stretch frequency and pressure. We believe that this set-up can contribute to a better understanding of how cyclic stretch frequency, amplitude and active vessel wall components influence arterial stiffening.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiologia , Contração Muscular , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Amplificadores Eletrônicos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miografia/instrumentação , Miografia/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/instrumentação
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