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1.
Open Biol ; 11(12): 210276, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847775

RESUMO

Amplification of the proto-oncogene MYCN is a key molecular aberration in high-risk neuroblastoma and predictive of poor outcome in this childhood malignancy. We investigated the role of MYCN in regulating the protein cargo of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by tumour cells that can be internalized by recipient cells with functional consequences. Using a switchable MYCN system coupled to mass spectrometry analysis, we found that MYCN regulates distinct sets of proteins in the EVs secreted by neuroblastoma cells. EVs produced by MYCN-expressing cells or isolated from neuroblastoma patients induced the Warburg effect, proliferation and c-MYC expression in target cells. Mechanistically, we linked the cancer-promoting activity of EVs to the glycolytic kinase pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) that was enriched in EVs secreted by MYC-expressing neuroblastoma cells. Importantly, the glycolytic enzymes PKM2 and hexokinase II were detected in the EVs circulating in the bloodstream of neuroblastoma patients, but not in those of non-cancer children. We conclude that MYC-activated cancers might spread oncogenic signals to remote body locations through EVs.

2.
J Cell Biochem ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741485

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenoma carcinoma (PDAC) is considered one of the deadliest solid cancers as it is usually diagnosed in advanced stages and has a poor response to treatment. The enormous effort made in the last 2 decades in the oncology field has not led to significant progress in improving early diagnosis or therapy for PDAC. The stroma of PDAC plays an active role in tumour initiation and progression and includes immune cells and stromal cells. We previously reported that Bcl2-associated athanogene (BAG3) secreted by PDAC cells activates tumour-associated macrophages to promote tumour growth. The disruption of this tumour-stroma axis by the anti-BAG3 H2L4 therapeutic antibody is sufficient to delay tumour growth and limit metastatic spreading in different PDAC preclinical models. In the present study, we examined the role of BAG3 to activate human fibroblasts (HF) in releasing cytokines capable of supporting tumour progression. Treatment of fibroblasts with recombinant BAG3 induced important changes in the organisation of the cytoskeleton of these cells and stimulated the production of interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, and hepatocyte growth factor. Specifically, we observed that BAG3 triggered a depolymerisation of microtubules at the periphery of the cell while they were conserved in the perinuclear area. Conversely, the vimentin-based intermediate filaments increased and spread to the edges of the cells. Finally, the conditioned medium (CM) collected from BAG3-treated HF promoted the survival, proliferation, and migration of the PDAC cells. Blocking of the PDAC-fibroblast axis by the H2L4 therapeutic anti-BAG3 antibody, resulted in inhibition of cytokine release and, consequently, the inhibition of the migratory phenotype conferred by the CM to PDAC cells.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830330

RESUMO

Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome (MSS) is a rare multisystem pediatric disorder, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the endoplasmic reticulum cochaperone SIL1. SIL1 acts as a nucleotide exchange factor for BiP, which plays a central role in secretory protein folding. SIL1 mutant cells have reduced BiP-assisted protein folding, cannot fulfil their protein needs, and experience chronic activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Maladaptive UPR may explain the cerebellar and skeletal muscle degeneration responsible for the ataxia and muscle weakness typical of MSS. However, the cause of other more variable, clinical manifestations, such as mild to severe mental retardation, hypogonadism, short stature, and skeletal deformities, is less clear. To gain insights into the pathogenic mechanisms and/or adaptive responses to SIL1 loss, we carried out cell biological and proteomic investigations in skin fibroblasts derived from a young patient carrying the SIL1 R111X mutation. Despite fibroblasts not being overtly affected in MSS, we found morphological and biochemical changes indicative of UPR activation and altered cell metabolism. All the cell machineries involved in RNA splicing and translation were strongly downregulated, while protein degradation via lysosome-based structures was boosted, consistent with an attempt of the cell to reduce the workload of the endoplasmic reticulum and dispose of misfolded proteins. Cell metabolism was extensively affected as we observed a reduction in lipid synthesis, an increase in beta oxidation, and an enhancement of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with upregulation of eight of its enzymes. Finally, the catabolic pathways of various amino acids, including valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine, aspartate, and phenylalanine, were enhanced, while the biosynthetic pathways of arginine, serine, glycine, and cysteine were reduced. These results indicate that, in addition to UPR activation and increased protein degradation, MSS fibroblasts have profound metabolic alterations, which may help them cope with the absence of SIL1.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696272

RESUMO

The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines in preventing COVID-19 disease has been extensively demonstrated; however, it is of uttermost importance to acquire knowledge on the persistence of immune-protection both in terms of levels of neutralizing antibodies and specialized memory cells. This can provide important scientific basis for decisions on the need of additional vaccine doses and on when these should be administered thus resulting in an improvement in vaccination schedules. Here, we briefly report the changes in antibody levels and cellular immunity following BNT162b2 administration. We show an important fall in anti S1-Spike antibodies in BNT162b2 vaccinated subjects overtime, paralleled by a contextual consolidation of specific spike (S) T-cells, mainly of the CD8+ compartment. Contrariwise, CD4+ S-specific response shows a considerable interindividual variability. These data suggest that the well-known antibody drop in vaccinated subjects is replaced by memory cell consolidation that can protect from severe adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(9)2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573410

RESUMO

A considerable effort has been devoted in all countries to react to the COVID-19 pandemic by tracing infected individuals, containing the spread of the disease, identifying therapies, and producing and distributing vaccines. Currently, a significant concern is the appearance of variants of the virus that may frustrate these efforts by showing increased transmissibility, increased disease severity, reduced response to therapy or vaccines, and ability to escape diagnosis. All countries have therefore devoted a massive attempt to the identification and tracking of these variants, which requires a vast technological effort to sequence a large number of viral genomes. In this paper, we report our experience as one of the Italian laboratories involved in SARS-CoV-2 variant tracing. We summarize the different approaches used, and outline a potential model combining several techniques to increase tracing ability while at the same time minimizing costs.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mutação , Pandemias , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência
6.
Metabolites ; 11(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436414

RESUMO

The introduction of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to clinical laboratories and the advent of expanded newborn screening (NBS) were crucial changes to public health programs worldwide. Speed, robustness, accuracy, selectivity, and specificity of analysis are all requirements of expanded NBS and are needed to minimize false positive results risks, to possibly eliminate false negatives, and to improve the positive predictive value of NBS. In this study, we firstly evaluated the analytical performances of the RenataDX Screening System, a fully integrated flow-injection MS/MS (FIA-MS/MS) IVD system for high-throughput dried blood spot (DBS) analysis in a routine NBS laboratory. Since a choice of several commercial NBS kits is available, we sought to compare NeoBaseTM 2 (PerkinElmer®) and MassChrom® (Chromsystems) non-derivatized kits on the RenataDX platform by evaluating their analytical performances. Moreover, we verified the degree of correlation between data obtained by the two different NBS MS/MS kits by FIA-MS/MS of over 500 samples. Our data suggest that both methods correlate well with clinically insignificant differences that do not impact the NBS result. Finally, while NeoBase™ 2 offers an easier and faster sample preparation, MassChrom® provides a cleaner sample extract which empirically should improve instrument reliability.

7.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440239

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has hit people's health, economy, and society worldwide. Great confidence in returning to normality has been placed in the vaccination campaign. The knowledge of individual immune profiles and the time required to achieve immunological protection is crucial to choose the best vaccination strategy. We compared anti-S1 antibody levels produced over time by BNT162b2 and AZD1222 vaccines and evaluated the induction of antigen-specific T-cells. A total of 2569 anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG determination on dried blood spot samples were carried out, firstly in a cohort of 1181 individuals at random time-points, and subsequently, in an independent cohort of 88 vaccinated subjects, up to the seventeenth week from the first dose administration. Spike-specific T-cells were analysed in seronegative subjects between the two doses. AZD1222 induced lower anti-S1 IgG levels as compared to BNT162b2. Moreover, 40% of AZD1222 vaccinated subjects and 3% of BNT162b2 individuals resulted in seronegative during all the time-points, between the two doses. All these subjects developed antigen-specific T cells, already after the first dose. These results suggest that this test represents an excellent tool for a wide sero-surveillance. Both vaccines induce a favourable immune profile guaranteeing efficacy against severe adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, already after the first dose administration.

9.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918158

RESUMO

HER-3 is becoming an attractive target for antibody-drug conjugate (ADC)-based therapy. Indeed, this receptor and its ligands are found to be overexpressed in several malignancies, and re-activation of its downstream signaling axis is known to play a critical role in modulating the sensitivity of targeted therapeutics in different tumors. In this study, we generated a novel ADC named EV20/NMS-P945 by coupling the anti-HER-3 antibody EV20 with a duocarmycin-like derivative, the thienoindole (TEI) NMS-P528, a DNA minor groove alkylating agent through a peptidic cleavable linker. This ADC showed target-dependent cytotoxic activity in vitro on several tumor cell lines and therapeutic activity in mouse xenograft tumor models, including those originating from pancreatic, prostatic, head and neck, gastric and ovarian cancer cells and melanoma. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies in monkeys demonstrated that this ADC possesses a favorable terminal half-life and stability and it is well tolerated. These data support further EV20/NMS-P945 clinical development as a therapeutic agent against HER-3-expressing malignancies.

10.
Oncogenesis ; 10(3): 28, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714979

RESUMO

Tumor cell dissemination in cancer patients is associated with a significant reduction in their survival and quality of life. The ubiquitination pathway plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis both in normal and stressed conditions and its dysregulation has been associated with malignant transformation and invasive potential of tumor cells, thus highlighting its value as a potential therapeutic target. In order to identify novel molecular targets of tumor cell migration and invasion we performed a genetic screen with an shRNA library against ubiquitination pathway-related genes. To this end, we set up a protocol to specifically enrich positive migration regulator candidates. We identified the deubiquitinase USP19 and demonstrated that its silencing reduces the migratory and invasive potential of highly invasive breast cancer cell lines. We extended our investigation in vivo and confirmed that mice injected with USP19 depleted cells display increased tumor-free survival, as well as a delay in the onset of the tumor formation and a significant reduction in the appearance of metastatic foci, indicating that tumor cell invasion and dissemination is impaired. In contrast, overexpression of USP19 increased cell invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo, further validating our findings. More importantly, we demonstrated that USP19 catalytic activity is important for the control of tumor cell migration and invasion, and that its molecular mechanism of action involves LRP6, a Wnt co-receptor. Finally, we showed that USP19 overexpression is a surrogate prognostic marker of distant relapse in patients with early breast cancer. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that USP19 might represent a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572391

RESUMO

Biotinidase (BTD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited neurocutaneous disorder. BTD recycles the vitamin biotin, a coenzyme essential for the function of four biotin-dependent carboxylases, including propionyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Due to deficient activities of the carboxylases, BTD deficiency is also recognized as late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency and is associated with secondary alterations in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids. BTD deficiency can be classified as "profound", with less than 10% of mean normal activity, and as "partial" with 10-30% of mean normal activity. Newborn screening (NBS) of BTD deficiency is performed in most countries and is able to detect both variants. Moreover, mild metabolic alterations related to carboxylase deficiency in profound BTD deficiency could result and possibly be revealed in the metabolic profile by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) NBS. Here, we report the case of a newborn female infant with an initial suspected BTD deficiency at the NBS test, finally confirmed as a partial variant by molecular testing. Although BTD deficiency was partial, interestingly her metabolic profile at birth and during the follow-up tests revealed, for the first time, alterations in specific acylcarnitines as a possible result of the deficient activity of biotin-dependent carboxylases.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Biotinidase , Biotinidase/genética , Deficiência de Biotinidase/diagnóstico , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 63, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferritin receptor (CD71) is an example of a very attractive cancer target, since it is highly expressed in virtually all tumor types, including metastatic loci. However, this target can be considered to be inaccessible to conventional target therapies, due to its presence in many healthy tissues. Here, we describe the preclinical evaluation of a tumor proteases-activatable human ferritin (HFt)-based drug carrier (The-0504) that is able to selectively deliver the wide-spectrum topoisomerase I inhibitor Genz-644282 to CD71-expressing tumors, preventing the limiting toxic effects associated with CD71-targeting therapies. METHODS: CD71 expression was evaluated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry techniques. The-0504 antiproliferative activity towards several cancer cell lines was assessed in vitro. The-0504 antitumor efficacy and survival benefit were evaluated in different human tumors, which had been grown either as xenografts or patient-derived xenografts in mice. The-0504 toxicology profile was investigated in multiple-cycle repeat-dose study in rodents. RESULTS: In vitro studies indicate that The-0504 is highly specific for CD71 expressing cells, and that there is a relationship between CD71 levels and The-0504 anticancer activity. In vivo treatments with The-0504 showed a remarkable efficacy, eradicating several human tumors of very diverse and aggressive histotypes, such as pancreas, liver and colorectal carcinomas, and triple-negative breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Durable disease-free survival, persistent antitumor responses after discontinuation of treatment and favorable toxicology profile make The-0504 an ideal candidate for clinical development as a novel, CD71-targeted, low-toxicity alternative to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Neoplasias/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Ratos
13.
Oncol Rep ; 45(2): 776-785, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416143

RESUMO

Liver cancer (LC) is an aggressive disease with a markedly poor prognosis. Therapeutic options are limited, and, until recently the only FDA­approved agent for first­line treatment of patients with LC was the multi­kinase inhibitor sorafenib, which exhibits limited activity and an increased overall survival (OS) of only 3 months over placebo. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic molecules for the treatment of LC is an urgent medical need. Antibody­drug conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of novel anticancer agents, which have been developed recently for the treatment of malignant conditions, including LC, and are being studied in preclinical and clinical settings. Our group has recently generated an ADC [EV20/monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF)] by coupling the HER3 targeting antibody (EV20) to MMAF via a non­cleavable maleimidocaproyl linker. This ADC was revealed to possess potent therapeutic activity in melanoma and breast carcinoma. In the present study, using western blot and flow cytometric analysis, it was reported that HER­3 receptor was highly expressed in LC and activated by its ligand NRG­1ß in a panel of LC cell lines, thus indicating that this receptor may serve as a suitable target for ADC therapy. A novel ADC [EV20­sss­valine­citrulline (vc)/MMAF] was generated, in which the cytotoxic payload MMAF was site­specifically coupled to an engineered variant of EV20 via a vc cleavable linker. Cytotoxicity assays were performed to investigate in vitro antitumor activity of EV20­sss­vc/MMAF and it was compared to EV20/MMAF, which revealed only modest activity in LC.EV20­sss­vc/MMAF exhibited a significant cell killing activity in several LC cell lines. Additionally, in vivo xenograft experiments revealed that EV20­sss­vc/MMAF inhibited growth of LC tumors. The present data indicated that EV20­sss­vc/MMAF is a worthy candidate for the treatment of HER­3 positive LC.


Assuntos
Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-3/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0235943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151953

RESUMO

Transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 are aerosol, droplet and touching infected material. The diffusion of the virus contagion among people is easier in indoor location, but direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 in air or on surfaces is quite sparse, especially regarding public transport, while it would be important to know how and if it is safe to use them. To answer these questions we analysed the air and the surfaces most usually touched by passengers inside a city bus during normal operation, in order to understand the possible spreading of the virus and the effectiveness of the protective measures. The measurements were carried out across the last week of the lockdown and the first week when, gradually, all the travel restrictions were removed. The air and surface samples were analysed with the RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. After two weeks of measurements and more than 1100 passenger travelling on the bus the virus was never detected both on surfaces and on air, suggesting that the precautions adopted on public transportation are effective in reducing the COVID-19 spreading.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Veículos Automotores , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , COVID-19 , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076448

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, which accounts for approximately 15% of all cancer-related deaths in the pediatric population. New therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADC)s-based therapy has been proposed as potential strategy to treat this pediatric malignancy. LGALS3BP is a highly glycosylated protein involved in tumor growth and progression. Studies have shown that LGALS3BP is enriched in extracellular vesicles (EV)s derived by most neuroblastoma cells, where it plays a critical role in preparing a favorable tumor microenvironment (TME) through direct cross talk between cancer and stroma cells. Here, we describe the development of a non-internalizing LGALS3BP ADC, named 1959-sss/DM3, which selectively targets LGALS3BP expressing neuroblastoma. 1959-sss/DM3 mediated potent therapeutic activity in different types of neuroblastoma models. Notably, we found that treatments were well tolerated at efficacious doses that were fully curative. These results offer preclinical proof-of-concept for an ADC targeting exosomal LGALS3BP approach for neuroblastomas.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443888

RESUMO

Methylmalonic Acidurias (MMAs) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), specifically of propionate catabolism characterized by gastrointestinal and neurometabolic manifestations resulting from a deficiency in the function of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, and cobalamin metabolism. In Expanded Newborn Screening (NBS), increased levels of propionylcarnitine (C3) and/or of its ratios by MS/MS analysis of dried blood spots (DBS) samples are suggestive for either Propionic Acidemia or MMAs. C3 elevation is not considered a specific marker for these disorders, resulting in high false-positive rates. The use of analyte ratios improves specificity, but it still cannot resolve the diagnostic issue. Second-tier testing are strongly recommended as confirmation of primary NBS results and for a differential diagnosis. LC-MS/MS analysis allows the quantification of more specific markers of the disorder. Here, we report the case of a newborn with a suspected MMA at Expanded NBS and at second-tier test. Given the urgent situation, in-depth diagnostic investigations were performed. Further investigations surprisingly revealed a Vitamin B12 deficiency due to a maternal malnutrition during pregnancy. This case emphasized that metabolic alterations at NBS may not only be influenced by genome and related to IEMs, but also to external factors and to maternal conditions.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos , Desnutrição , Exposição Materna , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Metilmalônico , Triagem Neonatal , Gravidez
17.
Oncogenesis ; 9(1): 3, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900399

RESUMO

The MYC family of transcription factors is a major driver of human cancer and potential therapeutic target. However, no clinically viable drugs have been yet developed that are able to directly tackle MYC oncoproteins. In our laboratory, we are exploring alternative approaches aiming to disturb signalling downstream of MYC. MYCN is frequently activated in neuroblastoma, a paediatric solid malignancy that, in its metastatic form, has a very poor prognosis. An important pathway regulated by MYC is the CKS1/SKP2/p27kip1 axis. In this study, we have repurposed the anti-psychotic drug Prozac to disrupt CKS1/SKP2/p27Kip1 signalling and assess its potential as an anti-neuroblastoma agent in vitro and in vivo. Using DNA editing technology, we show that stabilisation of p27Kip1 operated by Prozac in MYC-activated cells is essential for the anti-neuroblastoma activity of the drug. Furthermore, dosing mice with a concentration of Prozac equivalent to that used in long-term clinical trials in children with psychiatric disorders caused a significant reduction of metastatic disease in two models of high-risk neuroblastoma. The favourable toxicity profile of Prozac suggests that long-term treatments might be implemented in children with MYC/CKS1high neuroblastomas.

18.
Metabolites ; 10(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991569

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare autosomal recessive condition affecting about 1 in 10,000 people in the Europe, with a higher rate in some countries, like Ireland and Italy. In Italy, newborn screening (NBS) by MS/MS allows the diagnostic suspicion of PKU and its variants (Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis deficiency, and Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) recycling deficiency) through the quantification of Phenylalanine (Phe) and the Phenylalanine/Tyrosine (Phe/Tyr) ratio in dried blood Spot (DBS) samples. Here, we report a case of an HPA whose suspicion was possible with expanded NBS, even if the normal-weight newborn was in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). It is known that TPN may present metabolic alterations, mainly for amino acids at NBS in MS/MS, frequently causing false positives. Actually, TPN is considered a special protocol in NBS, requiring several sample collections. In particular, a DBS sample is required before TPN, at basal time point (48 h after birth) and 72 h after the end of the procedure. In the case we report, even if the first DBS sample (before TPN) resulted negative, the repeated NBS tests revealed increased levels of Phe and dramatically high Phe/Tyr ratio. Thus, the newborn was recalled, and the NBS test was repeated several times before that HPA suspicion was confirmed by other specific biochemical tests. This case highlights the importance of Phe/Tyr ratio, only detectable by MS/MS analysis, in supporting the diagnostic suspicion during amino acids administration in the neonatal period.

19.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 312, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive and lethal disease, lacking effective therapeutic approaches. Available therapies only marginally prolong patient survival and are frequently coupled with severe adverse events. It is therefore pivotal to investigate novel and safe pharmacological approaches. We have recently identified the ABC transporter, ABCC3, whose expression is dependent on mutation of TP53, as a novel target in PDAC. ABCC3-mediated regulation of PDAC cell proliferation and tumour growth in vivo was demonstrated and was shown to be conferred by upregulation of STAT3 signalling and regulation of apoptosis. METHODS: To verify the potential of ABCC3 as a pharmacological target, a small molecule inhibitor of ABCC3, referred to here as MCI-715, was designed. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effects of ABCC3 inhibition on anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent PDAC cell growth. The impact of ABCC3 inhibition on specific signalling pathways was verified by Western blotting. The potential of targeting ABCC3 with MCI-715 to counteract PDAC progression was additionally tested in several animal models of PDAC, including xenograft mouse models and transgenic mouse model of PDAC. RESULTS: Using both mouse models and human cell lines of PDAC, we show that the pharmacological inhibition of ABCC3 significantly decreased PDAC cell proliferation and clonal expansion in vitro and in vivo, remarkably slowing tumour growth in mice xenografts and patient-derived xenografts and increasing the survival rate in a transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, we show that stromal cells in pancreatic tumours, which actively participate in PDAC progression, are enriched for ABCC3, and that its inhibition may contribute to stroma reprogramming. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ABCC3 inhibition with MCI-715 demonstrated strong antitumor activity and is well tolerated, which leads us to conclude that ABCC3 inhibition is a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for a considerable cohort of patients with pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426571

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) represents the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and is a multifactorial, chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell and visual field loss. There are many factors that are associated with the risk of developing POAG, with increased intraocular pressure being one of the most prevalent. Due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, the diagnosis of POAG often occurs too late, which necessitates development of new effective screening strategies for early diagnosis of the disease. However, this task still remains unfulfilled. In order to provide further insights into the pathophysiology of POAG, we applied a targeted metabolomics strategy based on a high-throughput screening method for the determination of tear amino acids, free carnitine, acylcarnitines, succinylacetone, nucleosides, and lysophospholipids in naïve to therapy glaucomatous patients and normal controls. Also, we conducted proteomic analyses of the whole lacrimal fluid and purified extracellular vesicles obtained from POAG patients and healthy subjects. This multi-omics approach allowed us to conclude that POAG patients had lower levels of certain tear amino acids and lysophospholipids compared with controls. These targeted analyses also highlighted the low amount of acetylcarnitine (C2) in POAG patient which correlated well with proteomics data. Moreover, POAG tear proteins seemed to derive from extracellular vesicles, which carried a specific pro-inflammatory protein cargo.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteoma/metabolismo , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carnitina/metabolismo , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Heptanoatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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