*Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 15.*

##### RESUMO

Strong coupling between optical modes can be implemented into nanophotonic design to modify the energy-momentum dispersion relation. This approach offers potential avenues for tuning the thermal emission frequency, line width, polarization, and spatial coherence. Here, we employ three-mode strong coupling between propagating and localized surface phonon polaritons, with zone-folded longitudinal optic phonons within periodic arrays of 4H-SiC nanopillars. Energy exchange, mode evolution, and coupling strength between the three polariton branches are explored experimentally and theoretically. The influence of strong coupling upon the angle-dependent thermal emission was directly measured, providing excellent agreement with theory. We demonstrate a 5-fold improvement in the spatial coherence and 3-fold enhancement of the quality factor of the polaritonic modes, with these hybrid modes also exhibiting a mixed character that could enable opportunities to realize electrically driven emission. Our results show that polariton-phonon strong coupling enables thermal emitters, which meet the requirements for a host of IR applications in a simple, lightweight, narrow-band, and yet bright emitter.

*ACS Nano ; 14(7): 8508-8517, 2020 Jul 28.*

##### RESUMO

Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) are hybrid light-matter states in which light strongly couples to lattice vibrations inside the Reststrahlen band of polar dielectrics at mid-infrared frequencies. Antennas supporting localized surface phonon polaritons (LSPhPs) easily outperform their plasmonic counterparts operating in the visible or near-infrared in terms of field enhancement and confinement thanks to the inherently slower phonon-phonon scattering processes governing SPhP decay. In particular, LSPhP antennas have attracted considerable interest for thermal management at the nanoscale, where the emission strongly diverts from the usual far-field blackbody radiation due to the presence of evanescent waves at the surface. However, far-field measurements cannot shed light on the behavior of antennas in the near-field region. To overcome this limitation, we employ scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM) to unveil the spectral near-field response of 3C-SiC antenna arrays. We present a detailed description of the behavior of the antenna resonances by comparing far-field and near-field spectra and demonstrate the existence of a mode with no net dipole moment, absent in the far-field spectra, but of importance for applications that exploit the heightened electromagnetic near fields. Furthermore, we investigate the perturbation in the antenna response induced by the presence of the AFM tip, which can be further extended toward situations where for example strong IR emitters couple to LSPhP modes.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(19): 190403, 2019 May 17.*

##### RESUMO

The ground state of a cavity-electron system in the ultrastrong coupling regime is characterized by the presence of virtual photons. If an electric current flows through this system, the modulation of the light-matter coupling induced by this nonequilibrium effect can induce an extracavity photon emission signal, even when electrons entering the cavity do not have enough energy to populate the excited states. We show that this ground state electroluminescence, previously identified in a single-qubit system [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 113601 (2016)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.116.113601] can arise in a many-electron system. The collective enhancement of the light-matter coupling makes this effect, described beyond the rotating wave approximation, robust in the thermodynamic limit, allowing its observation in a broad range of physical systems, from a semiconductor heterostructure with flatband dispersion to various implementations of the Dicke model.

*Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1682, 2019 04 11.*

##### RESUMO

Phonon polaritons, hybrid light-matter quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of the electromagnetic field with the lattice vibrations of polar crystals are a promising platform for mid-infrared photonics but for the moment there has been no proposal allowing for their electrical pumping. Electrical currents in fact mainly generate longitudinal optical phonons, while only transverse ones participate in the creation of phonon polaritons. We demonstrate how to exploit long-cell polytypes of silicon carbide to achieve strong coupling between transverse phonon polaritons and zone-folded longitudinal optical phonons. We develop a microscopic theory predicting the existence of the resulting hybrid longitudinal-transverse excitations. We then provide an experimental observation by tuning the resonance of a nanopillar array through the folded longitudinal optical mode, obtaining a clear spectral anti-crossing. The hybridisation of phonon polaritons with longitudinal phonons could represent an important step toward the development of phonon polariton-based electrically pumped mid-infrared emitters.

*Nano Lett ; 18(7): 4285-4292, 2018 07 11.*

##### RESUMO

We report the first observation of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) phonon polaritons in an ultrathin AlN film fully hybridized with surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) supported by the adjacent SiC substrate. Employing a strong coupling model for the analysis of the dispersion and electric field distribution in these hybridized modes, we show that they share the most prominent features of the two precursor modes. The novel ENZ-SPhP coupled polaritons with a highly propagative character and deeply subwavelength light confinement can be utilized as building blocks for future infrared and terahertz nanophotonic integration and communication devices.

*Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1924, 2018 05 15.*

##### RESUMO

Recent technological developments have made it increasingly easy to access the non-perturbative regimes of cavity quantum electrodynamics known as ultrastrong or deep strong coupling, where the light-matter coupling becomes comparable to the bare modal frequencies. In this work, we address the adequacy of the broadly used single-mode cavity approximation to describe such regimes. We demonstrate that, in the non-perturbative light-matter coupling regimes, the single-mode models become unphysical, allowing for superluminal signalling. Moreover, considering the specific example of the quantum Rabi model, we show that the multi-mode description of the electromagnetic field, necessary to account for light propagation at finite speed, yields physical observables that differ radically from their single-mode counterparts already for moderate values of the coupling. Our multi-mode analysis also reveals phenomena of fundamental interest on the dynamics of the intracavity electric field, where a free photonic wavefront and a bound state of virtual photons are shown to coexist.

*Opt Express ; 26(3): 3320-3327, 2018 Feb 05.*

##### RESUMO

We have fabricated an open-cavity microcavity structure containing a thin film of the biologically-derived molecule ß-carotene. We show that the ß-carotene absorption can be described in terms of a series of Lorentzian functions that approximate the 0-0, 0-1, 0-2, 0-3 and 0-4 electronic and vibronic transitions. On placing this molecular material into a microcavity, we obtain anti-crossing between the cavity mode and the 0-1 vibronic transition, however other electronic and vibronic transitions remain in the intermediate or weak-coupling regime due to their lower oscillator strength and broader linewidth. We discuss the consequences of strong-coupling for the possible modification of photosynthetic processes, or a re-ordering of allowed and optically-forbidden states.

##### Assuntos

Transferência de Energia , Corantes Fluorescentes , Fotossíntese , Semicondutores , beta Caroteno , Fótons , Temperatura*Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1465, 2017 11 13.*

##### RESUMO

Much of the novel physics predicted to be observable in the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime rests on the hybridisation between states with different numbers of excitations, leading to a population of virtual photons in the system's ground state. In this article, exploiting an exact diagonalisation approach, we derive both analytical and numerical results for the population of virtual photons in presence of arbitrary losses. Specialising our results to the case of Lorentzian resonances we then show that the virtual photon population is only quantitatively affected by losses, even when those become the dominant energy scale. Our results demonstrate most of the ultrastrong-coupling phenomenology can be observed in loss-dominated systems which are not even in the standard strong coupling regime. We thus open the possibility to investigate ultrastrong-coupling physics to platforms that were previously considered unsuitable due to their large losses.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(4): 043604, 2017 Jul 28.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate a cavity quantum electrodynamic effect, where the alignment of two-dimensional freely rotating optical dipoles is driven by their collective coupling to the cavity field. By exploiting the formal equivalence of a set of rotating dipoles with a polymer we calculate the partition function of the coupled light-matter system and demonstrate that it exhibits a second order phase transition between a bunched state of isotropic orientations and a stretched one with all the dipoles aligned. Such a transition manifests itself as an intensity-dependent shift of the polariton mode resonance. Our work, lying at the crossroad between cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum optomechanics, is a step forward in the ongoing quest to understand how strong coupling can be exploited to influence matter internal degrees of freedom.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(24): 246402, 2016 Jun 17.*

##### RESUMO

Following the recent observation of localized phonon polaritons in user-defined silicon carbide nanoresonators, here we demonstrate strong and coherent coupling between those localized modes and propagating phonon polaritons bound to the surface of the nanoresonator's substrate. In order to obtain phase matching, the nanoresonators have been fabricated to serve the double function of hosting the localized modes, while also acting as a grating for the propagating ones. The coherent coupling between long lived, optically accessible localized modes, and low-loss propagative ones, opens the way to the design and realization of phonon-polariton based coherent circuits.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(11): 113601, 2016 Mar 18.*

##### RESUMO

Electroluminescence, the emission of light in the presence of an electric current, provides information on the allowed electronic transitions of a given system. It is commonly used to investigate the physics of strongly coupled light-matter systems, whose eigenfrequencies are split by the strong coupling with the photonic field of a cavity. Here we show that, together with the usual electroluminescence, systems in the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime emit a uniquely quantum radiation when a flow of current is driven through them. While standard electroluminescence relies on the population of excited states followed by spontaneous emission, the process we describe herein extracts bound photons from the dressed ground state and it has peculiar features that unequivocally distinguish it from usual electroluminescence.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(1): 016401, 2014 Jan 10.*

##### RESUMO

Improvements in both the photonic confinement and the emitter design have led to a steady increase in the strength of the light-matter coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. This has allowed us to access interaction-dominated regimes in which the state of the system can only be described in terms of mixed light-matter excitations. Here we show that, when the coupling between light and matter becomes strong enough, this picture breaks down, and light and matter degrees of freedom totally decouple. A striking consequence of such a counterintuitive phenomenon is that the Purcell effect is reversed and the spontaneous emission rate, usually thought to increase with the light-matter coupling strength, plummets instead for large enough couplings.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(13): 133603, 2013 Mar 29.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the quantum phases of systems in which a multimode bosonic field is coupled to the transitions between two flat electronic bands. In the literature, such systems are usually modeled using a single or multimode Dicke model, leading to the prediction of superradiant quantum phase transitions for large enough couplings. We show that the physics of these systems is remarkably richer than previously expected, with the system continuously interpolating between a Dicke model exhibiting a superradiant quantum phase transition and a quantum Rabi model with no phase transition.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 84(5 Pt 1): 051122, 2011 Nov.*

##### RESUMO

Carnot's theorem poses a fundamental limit on the maximum efficiency achievable from an engine that works between two reservoirs at thermal equilibrium. We extend this result to the case of arbitrary nonthermal stationary reservoirs, even with quantum coherence. In order to do this we prove that a single nonthermal reservoir is formally equivalent to multiple equilibrium ones. Finally, we discuss the possibility of realizing an engine that works at unit efficiency by exploiting quantum coherence present in the reservoir.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(7): 070401, 2011 Feb 18.*

##### RESUMO

The Szilard engine (SZE) is the quintessence of Maxwell's demon, which can extract the work from a heat bath by utilizing information. We present the first complete quantum analysis of the SZE, and derive an analytic expression of the quantum-mechanical work performed by a quantum SZE containing an arbitrary number of molecules, where it is crucial to regard the process of insertion or removal of a wall as a legitimate thermodynamic process. We find that more (less) work can be extracted from the bosonic (fermionic) SZE due to the indistinguishability of identical particles.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 102(13): 136403, 2009 Apr 03.*

##### RESUMO

We present a microscopic theory describing the stimulated scattering of intersubband polariton excitations in a microcavity-embedded two-dimensional electron gas. In particular, we consider the polariton scattering induced by the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons. Our theory demonstrates the possibility of final-state stimulation for the scattering of such composite excitations, accounting for the deviations from ideal bosonicity occurring at high excitation densities. By using GaAs parameters, we predict a quantum degenerate regime and lasing without electronic population inversion in an optical pumping configuration.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 98(10): 103602, 2007 Mar 09.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a general theory of the quantum vacuum radiation generated by an arbitrary time modulation of the vacuum Rabi frequency of an intersubband transition in a doped quantum well system embedded in a planar microcavity. Both nonradiative and radiative losses are included within an input-output quantum Langevin framework. The intensity and the spectral signatures of the extra-cavity emission are characterized versus the modulation properties. For realistic parameters, the photon pair emission is predicted to largely exceed the blackbody radiation in the mid and far infrared. For strong and resonant modulation a parametric oscillation regime is achievable.