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1.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(3): 121-125, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to collect data about of the outcome of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients who progressed after immune checkpoint inhibitors in order to enhance data about efficacy and safety of treatment beyond immune-oncology (IO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 162 eligible patients, progressing to IO, were enrolled from 16 Italian referral centers adhering to the Meet-Uro association. Baseline characteristics, outcome data and toxicities were retrospectively collected. Descriptive analysis was made using median values and ranges. Kaplan-Meier method and Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test were performed to compare differences between groups. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients (68.5%) were treated after IO progression. In all, 51 patients (31.5%) did not receive further treatment for clinical deterioration. Median IO progression free survival (PFS) was 4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.1-4.8). IO-PFS tends to be longer in patients reporting adverse events (AE) of any grade (5.03 [95% CI: 3.8-6.1] vs. 2.99 [95% CI: 2.4-3.5] months P=0.004). Subsequent therapies included cabozantinib (n=79, 48%), everolimus (n=11, 6.7%), and others (n=21, 12.9%).Median PFS post-IO was 6.5 months (95% CI: 5.1-7.8). Cabozantinib showed longer PFS compared with everolimus (7.6 mo [95% CI: 5.2-10.1] vs. 3.2 mo [95% CI: 1.8-4.5]) (hazard ratio: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1026-0.7968) and other drugs (4.3 mo [95% CI: 1.3-7.4]) (hazard ratio: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.35-1.23). All grade AE were reported in 83 patients (74%) and G3 to G4 AE in 39 patients (35%). Target therapies post-IO showed median overall survival of 14.7 months (95% CI: 0.3-21.4). CONCLUSIONS: In our real world experience after progression to IO, vascular endotelial groth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, given to patients, proved to be active and safe choices. Cabozantinib was associated with a better outcome in terms of median PFS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Itália , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Future Oncol ; 15(22): 2657-2666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339065

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors still play a very important role in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma despite a continuously changing scenario, in which immunotherapy and several combination-based approaches are also available. In this light, patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life are important factors in the selection of the best first-line treatment. This Review focuses on the existing evidence on patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life with several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (pazopanib, sunitinib, cabozantinib and tivozanib) used as first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Indazóis , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Prostate ; 79(11): 1211-1220, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study aims to investigate the association between copy number of the androgen receptor (AR) and testosterone levels in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with second-generation antiandrogen therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from mCRPC treated with abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. Serum testosterone levels were collected at baseline, at 3 months since the start of therapy and at disease progression. A cohort of cases treated with docetaxel was also used to evaluate the impact of testosterone levels. RESULTS: Patients treated with abiraterone with AR copy number aberrations and basal testosterone levels below 0.09 nmol/L had worse progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with no AR copy number abnormalities (8.5 vs 2.9 months, P = 0.005). No relevant differences were observed in the enzalutamide group with a PFS of 3.9 months (no AR gain) vs 2.7 months ( AR gain, P = 0.004) for patients with below 0.09 nmol/L testosterone levels. Similar results are obtained for univariate analysis for overall survival (OS). The negative prognostic role of AR copy number gain in OS for both treatment groups (25.5 vs 10.6 months, P = 0.0002 for abiraterone and 14.1 vs 8.3 months, P = 0.031 for enzalutamide) was confirmed, and it was recognized the negative prognostic impact of testosteronemia below 0.09 only for patients treated with enzalutamide (8.8 vs 42.8 months, P = 0.016). On multivariate analysis for patients treated with abiraterone, low testosterone levels below 0.09 and plasma AR gain were significantly associated with worse PFS and OS. These data are confirmed in the enzalutamide group for PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone levels and the AR copy number alterations were considered as independent prognostic factors. The results of this study show that serum testosteronemia associated with changes in copy number of AR gene could represent a noninvasive biomarker useful to identify a subgroup of patients with worse prognosis that can benefit less from second-generation antiandrogen therapies in the mCRPC setting.


Assuntos
Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858829

RESUMO

Testicular cancer is the most frequent tumor in young males aged 15-39 years. As cure rates are currently around 90%, the prevalence of survivors is increasing. However, a disease-free condition does not necessarily correspond to a life free of physical and psychosocial health problems. The aim of this review was to explore psychosocial morbidity among testicular cancer survivors. A literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, and Embase). The results of the search on cancer survivors were then combined with those of the search on psychosocial concerns and work performance. Eighty-four publications met the inclusion criteria. Physical, psychological, work-related problems and changing perspectives about work and life in general influenced life and career decisions among testicular cancer survivors. Individual health, sexual relationships and work problems, affect several important aspects of survival and significantly influence the QoL of long-term survivors.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1267, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX-4) chemotherapy in terms of the response rate, progression-free/overall survival (PFS/OS) and safety profile in patients with heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Clinical data were reviewed in 29 patients who received FOLFOX-4 as more than third-line chemotherapy, consisting of 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin, 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin, and bolus 400 mg/m2 on day 1 of 5-fluorouracil, followed by a 22-h infusion of 600 mg/m2 of 5-fluorouracil for 2 consecutive days every 3 weeks. We also compared the efficacy and toxicity of FOLFOX-4 with that of topotecan, a standard treatment, given at a dosage of 1.5 mg/m2 every three weeks in 26 patients. RESULTS: The median age of enrolled patients was 60 years (range 33 to 85). A median of 4 cycles (range 1-17) of FOLFOX-4 were administered. Complete response and partial response were observed in one (3.5%) and 5 (17.2.2%) patients, respectively, while stable disease was reported in 8 (27.6%) patients. Among all patients, grade 3-4 anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 0 (0%), 5 (17.2%), and 3 (10.3%) cases, respectively. Grade 3-4 fatigue was recorded in one (3.4%) patient and diarrhea in 2 (6.9%). Median PFS and OS were 2.8 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.9] and 6.2 months (95% CI 2.4-14.6), respectively. No significant differences in terms of efficacy and toxicity were observed between patients receiving FOLFOX-4 and those treated with topotecan. CONCLUSIONS: The FOLFOX-4 regimen would seem to obtain similar survival rates to those of standard therapy with topotecan in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Further randomized trials are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15442, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337589

RESUMO

Recently, mixed forms between adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) have emerged that are characterized by persistent androgen receptor (AR)-signalling and elevated chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The main aim of this study was to analyze castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide, assessing progression-free/overall survival (PFS/OS) in association with circulating AR and CgA. AR aberrations were analyzed by droplet digital PCR in pre-treatment plasma samples collected from two biomarker protocols [197 patients from a retrospective study (REC 2192/2013) and 59 from a prospective trial (REC 6798/2015)]. We subdivided patients into three groups according to CgA by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In the primary cohort, plasma AR gain and mutations (p.L702H/p.T878A) were detected in 78 (39.6%) and 16 (8.1%) patients, respectively. We observed a significantly worse PFS/OS in patients with higher-CgA than in patients with normal-CgA, especially those with no AR-aberrations. Multivariable analysis showed AR gain, higher-CgA and LDH levels as independent predictors of PFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.50-3.12, p < 0.0001, HR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.06-2.84, p = 0.026, and HR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.45-3.13, p = 0.0001, respectively) and OS (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.15-2.57, p = 0.008, HR = 3.63, 95% CI 2.13-6.20, p < 0.0001, and HR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.54-3.48, p < 0.0001, respectively). These data were confirmed in the secondary cohort. Pre-treatment CgA detection could be useful to identify these mixed tumors and would seem to have a prognostic role, especially in AR-normal patients. This association needs further evaluation in larger prospective cohorts.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Hormônios Glicoproteicos/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Receptores Androgênicos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Anticancer Drugs ; 29(7): 705-709, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846246

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the different outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with second-line axitinib or everolimus after sunitinib. Patients treated in 16 oncological centres in Italy were included, and those receiving axitinib or everolimus from January 2013 onwards were analysed for outcomes. Descriptive statistical tests were used to highlight differences between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Data on 634 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line sunitinib have been obtained. A total of 182 patients received a second-line therapy with everolimus (79 patients, 43%) or axitinib (103 patients, 57%), respectively. The median PFS was 4.6 [95% confidence (CI): 2.6-6.5] months for patients treated with everolimus and 5.5 (95% CI: 4.3-6.7) months for patients treated with axitinib (P=0.7). The median OS was 13.9 (95% CI: 10.4-17.4) months for patients treated with everolimus and 12.0 (95% CI: 7.9-16.2) months for patients treated with axitinib (P=0.3). No differences were found based on length of first-line treatment. Major limitations are the retrospective nature of the study and the lack of a prospective evaluation of the progression. This study reports no significantly differences between everolimus and axitinib in terms of both PFS and OS. Furthermore, the length of first-line treatment cannot be used as such a predictive factor and cannot suggest the use of a molecule compared with another.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Axitinibe/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sunitinibe/administração & dosagem
8.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 14(4): 461-467, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, results of combination therapy studies have shown no meaningful clinical benefit over monotherapy and an unacceptably high degree of toxicity in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with the exception of a combination of immune-checkpoint inhibitors and the association of lenvatinib with everolimus. Lenvatinib is a potent multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR pathways. Everolimus inhibits primarily mTORC1 complex, a downstream effecter of the intracellular PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The association of these two drugs was demonstrated to enhance the inhibitory activity against VEGF and FGF-induced angiogenesis by a vertical inhibition of angiogenic signaling pathways, suggesting a synergistic activity. Areas covered: In this review we summarize the lenvatinib pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, characteristics and the main clinical trial that showed lenvatinib activity in advanced RCC. Expert opinion: Lenvatinib plus everolimus showed promising results in a phase II trial, leading to FDA approval of this combination. Their synergic action on inhibiting the VEGF/VEGFR, FGF (a compensatory mechanism to VEGFR inhibition) and mTOR pathway could be a potential mechanism to overcome treatment resistance. Given that the activity of lenvatinib as an immune-regulator in tumor microenvironment has been demonstrated in cell lines, novel combinations, in particular with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, are under development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacocinética , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/farmacologia
9.
Oncotarget ; 8(59): 100708-100716, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246014

RESUMO

Locoregional treatment with radical intent should be considered during therapy with targeted agents in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in order to achieve a complete response, especially in the setting of an oligo-progression in one or more metastatic sites. We retrospectively enrolled 55 patients who experienced a disease oligo-progression after at least 6 months from the beginning of first-line therapy in one or more metastatic sites radically treated with locoregional treatments. Post-first-oligo-progression overall survival (PFOPOS) and post-first-oligo-progression free survival (PFOPFS) were evaluated. The global median PFOPOS and PFOPFS were 37 months and 14 months respectively. Patients who continued the same therapy after a locoregional treatment on a site of progression had a significantly longer mPFOPOS compared to patients who changed therapy (39 vs 11 months, p=0.014). An advantage in mPFOPOS was also observed in patients with a Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) good risk score compared to patients of the intermediate risk group (39 vs 29 months, p=0.036); patients with bone metastases had a longer mPFOPOS compared to those with visceral metastases (not reached vs 31 months, p=0.045). The only independent predictor of poor prognosis, in terms of PFOPOS at multivariate analysis (p=0.007), proved out to be change of treatment after first progression. In this paper we aim to illustrate that continuing the same systemic therapy, after a radical locoregional treatment on a site of progression, seems to be associated with a prolongation of mPFOPOS.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(12)2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206214

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men worldwide, and is the fifth cause of cancer-related death. In recent years, a new generation of therapies have been approved for the management of metastatic disease. Moreover, the development of new immunotherapeutic drugs has become a novel frontier for the treatment of several tumor types; to date, numerous studies have investigated their potential activity, including in prostate cancer. In this article, we discuss the role of emerging immunotherapeutic drugs in prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle
11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 112: 59-66, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325265

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is one of the most common type of cancer in Western countries. Although the majority of patients with PCa have a minimally aggressive disease, some of them will experience relapse and formation of metastasis. Bone metastasis are a major cause of quality of life impairment and death among patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Different "bone targeted therapies" and several follow-up strategies were developed in order to optimize bone metastasis prevention and treatment. Nevertheless there is still a great clinical need of identifying patients more likely to benefit from those interventions as not all patients will develop metastatic disease and not all patients with metastatic disease will develop bone metastasis. Here we review markers predictive of bone metastasis occurrence that have been tested in clinical settings, particularly focusing on the ability of such markers to predict bone metastasis over visceral metastasis occurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Oncotarget ; 7(22): 33381-90, 2016 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We retrospectively analyzed the risk of recurrence and conditional Disease-Free Survival (cDFS) in 63 patients with complete remission during treatment with tirosin kinase inhibitor (TKI), alone or with local treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. RESULTS: 37% patients achieve CR with TKI alone, while 63% with additional loco-regional treatments. 49% patients recurred after CR, with a median Disease free survival of 28.2 months. Patients treated with multimodal approaches present lower rate of recurrence (40% vs 61%) and longer Disease free survival compared to patient treated with TKI alone (16.5 vs 41.9 months, p=0.039).Furthermore the rate of recurrence was higher in patients with brain (88%), pancreatic (71%) and bone metastasis (50%). Patients who continued TKI therapy after complete response had a longer disease free survival than patients who stopped therapy, although the difference was not significant (42.1 vs 25.1 months, p=0.254). 2y-cDFS was better in patients treated with multimodal treatment and who continued TKIs than the other patient arms. CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic value of CR depends on the site where was obtained and how was obtained (with or without locoregional treatment). Cessation of TKI should be carefully considered in complete responder patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/enzimologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Oncotarget ; 7(43): 69412-69419, 2016 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26416414

RESUMO

We retrospectively reviewed data from 123 patients (KIT exon 11 mutated) who received sunitinib or dose-escalated imatinib as second line.All patients progressed on imatinib (400 mg/die) and received a second line treatment with imatinib (800 mg/die) or sunitinib (50 mg/die 4 weeks on/2 off or 37.5 mg/day). Deletion versus other KIT 11 mutation was recorded, correlated with clinical benefits.64% received imatinib, 36% sunitinib. KIT exon 11 mutation was available in 94 patients. With a median follow-up of 61 months, median time to progression (TTP) in patients receiving sunitinib and imatinib was 10 (95% CI 9.7-10.9) and 5 months (95% CI 3.6-6.7) respectively (P = 0.012). No difference was found in overall survival (OS) (P = 0.883). In imatinib arm, KIT exon 11 deletions was associated with a shorter TTP (7 vs 17 months; P = 0.02), with a trend in OS (54 vs 71 months P = 0.063). No difference was found in patients treated with sunitinib (P = 0.370).A second line with sunitinib was associated with an improved TTP in KIT exon 11 mutated patients progressing on imatinib 400 mg/die. Deletions in exon 11 seemed to be correlated with worse outcome in patients receiving imatinib-based second line.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sunitinibe , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12077, 2015 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26235506

RESUMO

Elevation in liver transaminases is common in patients treated with the marine antitumor agent trabectedin. However, the impact of trabectedin-related transaminase elevations on treatment outcomes is unclear. This retrospective study investigated the correlation between liver tests abnormalities and treatment outcomes in patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS) treated with trabectedin 1.5 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks at three reference centers in Italy. The effect of grade 3/4 elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during the first two cycles and at any time during trabectedin treatment on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Liver tests abnormalities during the first two cycles of chemotherapy or at any time during trabectedin treatment did not significantly affect PFS or OS. Nor were survival outcomes significantly different in the subgroups of patients with or without ALT/AST increases or with ALT/AST elevations ≥ 15 × the upper limit of normal (ULN) versus those with ALT/AST elevation < 15 × ULN. Although liver tests abnormalities are common in patients treated with trabectedin, elevations in ALT and AST are usually transient, occur during the first two cycles of treatment, and do not appear to affect survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Dioxóis/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/enzimologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Trabectedina
15.
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs ; 20(4): 637-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26113304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone metastases are virtually incurable resulting in significant disease morbidity, reduced quality of life and mortality. Bone provides a unique microenvironment whose local interactions with tumor cells offer novel targets for therapeutic interventions. Increased understanding of the pathogenesis of bone disease has led to the discovery and clinical utility of bone-targeted agents other than bisphosphonates and denosumab, currently, the standard of care in this setting. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we present the recent advances in molecular targeted therapies focusing on therapies that inhibit bone resorption and/or stimulate bone formation and novel anti-tumoral agents that exerts significant effects on skeletal metastases, nowadays available in clinical practice or in phase of development. EXPERT OPINION: New emergent bone target therapies radium-223, mTOR inhibitors, anti-androgens have demonstrated the ability to increase overall survival in bone metastatic patients, other compounds, such as ET-1 and SRC inhibitors, up to now failed to clearly confirm in clinical trials their promising preclinical data.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Denosumab/farmacologia , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Taxa de Sobrevida , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Oncotarget ; 6(12): 10586-91, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888631

RESUMO

Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma. It has been demonstrated that mir-155 was the most overexpressed miRNA in well-differentiated LPS(WDLPS)/dedifferentiated LPS (DDLPS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the involvement of Dicer, Drosha and mir-155 in development of LPS and their possible role in stratification of different histological subtypes. Dicer, Drosha and mir-155 mRNA levels were analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients diagnosed with 62 LPS and compared with samples of adipose tissues of healthy donors. The experimental data were obtained using qRT-PCR comparing Dicer, Drosha and mir-155 expression levels in tumor samples versus normal fat. The tumor samples from LPS patients showed a significantly lower Dicer expression versus normal adipose tissue, while Drosha levels did not differ. Concerning mir155 expression levels, our results demonstrated a significant mir-155 up-regulation in all LPS subtypes versus normal adipose tissue except for WDLS. These findings demonstrate for the first time that Dicer is deregulated in LPS and show that mir-155 is differentially expressed in LPS subgroups and it could be a promising tool to improve LPS disease stratification and differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/biossíntese , Lipossarcoma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Ribonuclease III/biossíntese , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipossarcoma/genética , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ribonuclease III/genética , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo
17.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 87, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 , a key negative regulator of T-cell activation approved by the Food and Drug Administration as of March 2011 for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. As a result of the up-regulation of the immune system, several immune-mediated adverse effects have been reported including colitis, dermatitis, hepatitis and rarely hypophysitis. The most frequent immune-mediated adverse effects described in literature include gastrointestinal toxicity such as diarrhea, colitis and case of colitis and ileitis. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper we report an interesting case of immune-mediate ileitis without colitis in a 54 years old woman with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab. We also discuss about case management and the possible pathological mechanisms considering also previous reports. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this article is to support further investigations concerning epigenetic and genetic analysis in order to personalize biological therapy and to reduce immune related adverse events observed after ipilimumab administration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Ileíte/induzido quimicamente , Ileíte/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
18.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 34: 10, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25651794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to investigate for the presence of existing prognostic factors in patients with bone metastases (BMs) from RCC since bone represents an unfavorable site of metastasis for renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with BMs from RCC were retrospectively collected. Age, sex, ECOG-Performance Status (PS), MSKCC group, tumor histology, presence of concomitant metastases to other sites, time from nephrectomy to bone metastases (TTBM, classified into three groups: <1 year, between 1 and 5 years and >5 years) and time from BMs to skeletal-related event (SRE) were included in the Cox analysis to investigate their prognostic relevance. RESULTS: 470 patients were enrolled in this analysis. In 19 patients (4%),bone was the only metastatic site; 277 patients had concomitant metastases in other sites. Median time to BMs was 16 months (range 0 - 44y) with Median OS of 17 months. Number of metastatic sites (including bone, p = 0.01), concomitant metastases, high Fuhrman grade (p < 0.001) and non-clear cell histology (p = 0.013) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Patients with TTBM >5 years had longer OS (22 months) compared to patients with TTBM <1 year (13 months) or between 1 and 5 years (19 months) from nephrectomy (p < 0.001), no difference was found between these two last groups (p = 0.18). At multivariate analysis, ECOG-PS, MSKCC group and concomitant lung or lymph node metastases were independent predictors of OS in patients with BMs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggest that age, ECOG-PS, histology, MSKCC score, TTBM and the presence of concomitant metastases should be considered in order to optimize the management of RCC patients with BMs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
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